Geology of Dayton and Vicinity by Aug. F. Foerste 1915
Table of Contents

CONTENTS

                                                           TITLE PAGE

                       FORWARD

                       CHAPTER I

 

THE GRAVEL RIDGES SOUTH OF DAYTON……………………………………………………  17

    

1.       The charm of nature.

2.       Law and order in nature.

3.       Hills and valleys as records of geological history.

4.       Introduction to Hills and Dales topography.  See map inserted at back of book.

5.       The Pike ridge.

6.       The Chapel ridge.

7.       The Moraine Farm ridges.

8.       The Delco Dell ridges.

9.       The Hills and Dales ridges.

10.    The ridges and hollows of Calvary cemetery.

 

 

                       CHAPTER II

 

THE MOUND-BUILDER FORT IN CALVARY CEMETERY……………………………………..  37

 

11.    The mound-builder fort in Calvary cemetery.

 

                                     

                                                                           CHAPTER III

 

GRAVEL RIDGES DEPOSITED BY STREAMS…………………………………………………..  43

 

12.    The origin of pebbles and gravel.

13.    The arrangement of gravel and sand in alternating layers.

14.    Gravel ridges formed under the influence of running water.

15.    Gravel pits and road cuts exposing the structure of the interior of the gravel ridges.

16.    Gravel ridges deposited by irregular and often turbulent currents.

 

 

                         CHAPTER IV

 

DIRECTION OF FLOW OF THE STREAMS PRODUCING THE GRAVEL RIDGES…………  53

 

17.    Direction of flow of the streams producing the gravel ridges.

18.    The rocks of western Ohio and the adjacent parts of Indiana. [p.]

19.    Differences between rocks belonging to different groups or subdivisions.

20.    Different fossils found in different groups of rocks.

21.    How to determine from what subdivisions of rocks certain pebbles were derived.

22.    The source of the limestone pebbles found in the gravel ridges south of Dayton.

23.    The sandstones and shales of northwestern Ohio and adjacent states.

23    (a)  How rocks are formed.

23    (b)  The Crume Sand-lime Brick Company.

24.    Rocks originating far below the surface of the earth.

25.    The quartzite, gneiss and other metamorphic rocks of Ontario.

26.    The streams producing the gravel ridges were of short length.

  

 

                                  CHAPTER V

 

DIRECTION OF MOTION OF THE GLACIAL ICE………………………………………………..   75

 

27.    The glacial ice sheet; its extent and centers of distribution.

28.    The glacial ice lobes.

29.    Direction of motion of glacial ice.

30.    The direction of motion of the glacial ice near Dayton indicated by glacial striae.

31.    The spreading of the ice toward the margin of the Miami lobe.

32.    Glacial striae produced by rocks pushed along by the ice.

33.    The continental character of the glacier reaching southern Ohio.

34.    The thickness of the ice sheet and the slope of its upper surface.

35.    Rate of motion of glacial ice.

36.    Cause of motion of glacial ice.

 

 

                          CHAPTER VI

 

THE DEPOSITS LEFT BY THE GLACIAL ICE SHEET……………………………………………  89

 

37.    The graving tools of glaciers.

38.    Boulder clay or till produced by the grinding action of the moving ice sheet.

39.    Till deposits in the vicinity of Dayton.

39.  (a)  The well at Delco Dell.

40.    The material carried forward within the ice sheet forms the ground moraine.

41.    The shifting of the front of the ice sheet.

42.    The terminal moraine.

43.    The melting of the ice sheet. [p.]

44.    Subglacial streams and the formation of eskers.

45.    The gravel ridges south of Dayton represent stream courses beneath the ice sheet.

46.    Gravel ridges formed during closing stages of the glacial ice age.

47.    The kame area.

48.    The out-wash plains, in front of the glacial ice sheet.

 

 

                           CHAPTER VII

 

PERIODS OF ADVANCE AND RECESSION OF THE GLACIAL ICE FRONT………………..  111

 

49.    More than one advance of the glacial ice sheet.

50.    Periods of glacial advance and recession.

51.    The earlier glacial invasions of Ohio.

52.    The terminal moraine of the earlier part of the Wisconsin invasion, in Ohio.

53.    The Germantown, Eaton and Englewood divisions of the Dayton moraine.

54.    Buried soils.

 

 

                            CHAPTER VIII

 

DIFFERENCES IN AGE OF THE VARIOUS GLACIAL DEPOSITS……………………………  123

 

55.    Difference in degree of weathering shown by deposits of different ages.

56.    Difference in the degree of surface erosion shown by deposits of different ages.

57.    The gravel ridge territory south of Dayton is characterized by very youthful topography.

58.    Differences in age suggested also by the interglacial deposits.

59.    Differences in age suggested also by the character of the animal life enclosed in the interglacial deposits.

60.    The methods of identifying fossil animals.

61.    Where prehistoric animals are found.

62.    The length of time involved in the advance and retreat of the ice front during the Wisconsin invasion.

63.    The duration of the glacial ice age.

64.    Distance of retreat of the ice front during interglacial periods.

 

 

                                                               CHAPTER IX

 

THE EXISTENCE OF MAN DURING THE GLACIAL PERIOD…………………………………   135

      

65.    The existence of man in Europe during the glacial period.

66.    The existence of man in America during the glacial time.

66.    (a)  Climate during glacial and interglacial times. [p.]

 

 

                                                               CHAPTER X

 

THE EARTHWORKS OF THE MOUND-BUILDERS……………………………………………..  141

 

67.    The geometrical earthworks at Alexandersville.

68.    The irregular earthwork at the Calvary cemetery.

69.    The Miamisburg mound.

 

                            CHAPTER XI

 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE GRAVEL AREA SOUTH OF DAYTON……………..   149

 

70.    The view from Delco Dell northward along the Locust farm valley.

71.    The Locust farm and Kohl branch valleys.

72.    The eastern and western boundaries of the Miami valley in preglacial times.

73.    The Delco Dell ridges.

74.    The origin of soil.

75.    The accumulation of soil.

76.    The Interrupted ridge west of the Delco ridge.

77.    Differences in the direction of trend of the gravel ridges in the area south of Dayton.

78.    The termination of the southern end of some gravel ridges against high land.

79.    The presence of parallel ridges within the same areas.

80.    Changes in the direction of the gravel ridges probably caused by changes in direction of flow of the ice during its various stages of retreat.

81.    The western gravel ridges in the area between Delco Dell and Hole’s creek.

82.    The ox-bow bends of the Miami River.

 

 

                            CHAPTER XII

 

THE THICKNESS OF THE DRIFT DEPOSITS IN THE AREA SURROUNDING DAYTON

 

83.    Solid rock beneath a thin covering of soil.

84.    Thick deposits of gravel, sand and clay beneath the flat lands occupying the river valleys and the preglacial drainage of southwestern Ohio.

85.    The Huffman prairie area.

86.    Sands and gravels as a source of a city water supply.

87.    The Alexandersville bottom lands. [p.]

88.    Thick deposits of gravel and sand above the level of the flat lands in the river valleys.

89.    Thick deposits of till.

90.    Many boulders of Canadian origin are without glacial scratches.

91.    Boulder belts.

92.    High points in southwestern Ohio, especially in the vicinity of Dayton.

 

  

                            CHAPTER XIII

 

THE FOSSILS OF SOUTHWESTERN OHIO……………………………………………………..   199

 

93.    The number of species found in the rocks of southwestern Ohio.

94.    The variety of forms of life found fossil in the rocks.

95.    Fossils illustrated on the accompanying plates, with an indication of their vertical range in the series of rocks exposed in southwestern Ohio.

 

MAPS OF ROADS AND PATHS.  See insert at back of book. [p.]