Previous to the incorporation of the town of Dayton, in 1805, the peace of the then hamlet was kept by the constables of the township. After the incorporation of the town, on the 12th of February, 1805, a marshal was duly elected, and with him the violators of the law had to deal until about thirteen years thereafter, when a deputy marshal was appointed. This form of peace conservators continued until December, 1835, when the marshal was authorized to appoint one or more patrolmen to serve as night watchmen—an ordinance for the appointment having been passed two years previous. In April, 1837, two night watchmen were appointed in each ward. In 1841, March 27, an act was passed by the General Assembly, establishing the city of Dayton and merging the township into the corporation. At this time, or rather in the latter part of the same year, an ordinance was passed providing for the election of two city constables, in addition to the city marshal. In 1853 the force was increased to six men in addition to the marshal and constables. In this state the force continued until 1866, when it was increased to nine men, of whom one was to be captain. February, 1867, provision was made for the appointment of special policemen, not exceeding five to each ward. In May, 1868, the Metropolitan force was organized, with the city marshal as chief, second lieutenant, and twenty regulars. This arrangement lasted but about nine months, when it was abandoned and the old form was adopted and continued for four or five years, or until 1873. On March 29, 1873, the General Assembly of Ohio passed a law creating a Board of Police Commissioners and putting into effect the Metropolitan Police System.
The first commissioners to be elected were Edward W. Davies, E. S. Young, William Clark, William H. Gillespie, David A. Houk, and Joseph Clegg. Edward W. Davies was elected first president, and upon his death was succeeded by William Clark. D. B. Wilcox was chosen as secretary, and Wm. H. Martin was appointed captain and acting superintendent. Hon. Wm. H. Sigman was mayor and ex-officio president. Under the law they were authorized to fix the number of patrolmen at forty, being one patrolman, for every seven hundred and fifty inhabitants, as shown by the last Federal census.
Owing to a stress in the financial affairs of the city, however, they cur-, tailed this to thirty-three, which number, through dismissals and regulations, was reduced to twenty-nine, that number being in service at the end of the first year of the new system.
The Board, in their first annual report made to the City Council, January 1, 1874, while regretting the insufficiency of the number of patrolmen, expressed themselves as highly gratified over the working of the new system, and paid a fine tribute to the efficiency of the men constituting the force.
At that time the force was divided into day and night men, one-third comprising the former and two-thirds the latter. The day men went on duty at 7: 00 A.M. and came off at 6: 30 P.M. Night men went on at 7: 00 P.M. and came off at 6:00 A.M. One hour was given to change off for lunch, each man covering two beats during the change, thus keeping the city guarded at all times, according to their views at that time.
The detective force consisted of two members. Under the fourth section of the Metropolitan law, the Board was authorized to appoint, from the regular patrol force, such persons as they might think best to act as detectives. These men were detailed by the captain and acting superintendent from the regular force, under instructions of the Board.
The total number of arrests for the first seven months of the new system was 1,502, of which 205 were for violating State laws and 1,269 for offenses against the city ordinances.
On November 29, 1873, the new station house being ready for occupancy, was moved into. The organization for the year 1874 consisted of Hon. Lawrence Butz, Jr., mayor and ex-officio president; Wm. M. Seely, Joseph Clegg, Harvey Conover, and William H. Gillespie, commissioners, the latter acting president, D. B. Wilcox secretary, and W. H. Martin captain and acting superintendent. The force at this time consisted of thirty-four men, divided as follows:
Captain and Acting Superintendent – 1, Sergeants – 8, Roundsmen – 3, Detectives – 2, Patrolmen – 24, Turnkeys – 2, Total... 34
The hours of duty were the same as during the first year, while the force was divided into day and night men, thirteen performing day duty and twenty-one guarding the peace and property at night, each man, owing to their limited number, covering beats ranging from four to eight miles in extent.
Notwithstanding the paucity of men in the Department, the commissioners and the acting superintendent all speak in terms of high eulogy of the conduct of the force and the faithfulness with which they performed their arduous duties in covering such a large extent of territory.
In 1875 the organization was as follows: Hon. Lawrence Butz, Jr., Mayor and ex-officio president; John Bettelon, Wm. M. Seely, Joseph Clegg, and Harvey Conover, commissioners; Harvey Conover, acting president; D. B. Wilcox, secretary; Amos Clark, captain and acting superintendent. During this year no extraordinary event occurred to disturb the harmony and quietness of the community.
At this period was begun the agitation by the City Council, in connection with the County Commissioners, of the question of establishing a work-house, where prisoners could be sentenced to labor during the time of their confinement.
There was one death during the year, that of Patrolman Joseph P. Staley.
On the 11th of September, 1875, W, H. Martin resigned the office of captain and acting superintendent, and was succeeded by Amos Clark, who was promoted from the ranks. The total number of arrests for this year was 3,410.
In 1876 the organization consisted of Hon. William H. Kouzer, Mayor and ex-officio president; Joseph Clegg, Stephen F. Woodsum, John Bettelon, and Wm. P. Callahan, commissioners; Frank M. Hosier, secretary, and Amos Clark, captain and acting superintendent. Harvey Conover was the retiring member from the Board of the previous year, and death removed William M. Seeley, these vacancies being filled by Stephen F. Woodsum and William P. Callahan, respectively. Mr. D. B. Wilcox resigned as secretary of the Board and was succeeded by Frank M. Hosier.
In their annual report to the City Council the Board specifically took occasion to commend for exceptional fidelity to duty Captain Amos Clark and Sergeants John Davy and John F. Daniels, and Roundsmen Kirby, Brunner, and Baker, at the same time referring to the entire department in the most flattering terms.
Death again visited the ranks during the year 1876, and removed Patrol-men Robert Locke.
In 1877 the organization was composed of Hon. Wm. H. Rouser, Mayor and ex-officio president; Wm. P. Callahan, Stephen F. Woodsum, John Bettelon, and Henry C. Graves, Commissioners; Wm. P. Callahan, acting president; Frank M. Hosier, secretary; Amos Clark, captain and acting superintendent.
Police Benevolent Association
The Dayton Police Benevolent Association was organized and incorporated under the laws of the State of Ohio, in December, 1877, and is composed of members of the Police Department. The objects of the association were to afford temporary assistance to sick or disabled members, and to aid the families of members in case of death. Each member was paid five dollars per week during the time of sickness or disability, and upon the death of a member his family to receive two hundred dollars. An initiation fee of five dollars was imposed upon each member when elected, and six dollars annual dues thereafter.
The organization for 1878 consisted of Hon. Lawrence Butz, Jr., Mayor and ex-officio president; John Bettelon, Harry C. Graves, Stephen F. Woodsum, and Henry C. Marshal], commissioners; John Bettelon, acting president; Frank M. Hosier, secretary, and Amos Clark, captain and acting superintendent. The statistics of crime show that the total number of arrests made during the year 1878 were 3,012, being 171 less than the previous year.
The organization for the year 1870 was as follows: Hon. Lawrence Butz, Jr., Mayor and ex-officio president; Henry C. Graves, Chas. A. Phillips, Henry C. Marshall, and T. J. Weakley, commissioners; Henry C. Graves, acting president; Frank M. Hosier, secretary, and Amos Clark, captain and acting superintendent.
The death of Commissioner Stephen F. Woodsum, July 22, 1879, caused a vacancy which was filled, August 11, 1879, by the appointment of T. J. Weakley to fill the unexpired term.
In their annual report for this year the commissioners refer to the service the Police Department is occasionally required to do for the country surrounding the city, and cite the case of the robbery of Mr. Daniel Frantz and family, living near Trotwood, Montgomery County. The family were surprised in their house by three masked robbers, who, by force and threats, succeeded in obtaining $275 in currency and notes to the value of $30,000. Through the instrumentality of the police force the three robbers were within a short time arrested and. the notes secured and restored to their owner. The robbers were convicted and sentenced to long terms in the penitentiary.
A sub-station was established in June, 1879, west of the Miami River, on Fourth Street, between Broadway and the P. C. & St. L. Railroad. Before this station was established, an officer would frequently be required to walk from one to two miles with a prisoner to reach the central station, and be absent from his beat for from one to two hours at a time.
In the year 1880 Hon. Francis M. Hosier was Mayor and ex-officio president; Henry C. Graves, Chas. A. Phillips, Henry C. Marshall, and Edward V. Moodie were the Commissioners; Pat Kelly was secretary, and Amos Clark, captain and acting superintendent.
On January 17 of this year occurred the murder of Officer Lynam by John Francis.
Shooting of Lee Lynam
On the morning of January 17, 1880, at about fifteen minutes past twelve o'clock, occurred the murder of Policeman Lee Lynam by John Francis. Lynam, whose beat was on Third Street, went into the saloon of Mace Crable to get some information from a man named Jackson, who had just preceded him in entering the saloon. As Lynam passed through the door he was followed by Francis, who passed him and went to the further end of the counter, about ten feet distant. Mace Crable was the only person, beside these two, in the room at the time, and he makes this statement concerning the affair:
Jackson, he says, turned to Francis and asked him if he would have something to drink, and Francis came forward to take it. As he advanced, he decreased the distance between himself and Lynam to about eight feet. Lynam stood leaning on the counter in a stooping position, and Jackson was within two feet of Francis, when the latter drew a revolver from his pocket, and, rapidly sighting it, fired. Crable says he turned around at the shot and saw Francis with the revolver still aimed and smoking. He made a motion as if about to fire another shot, when Jackson seized his arm, but Francis broke from him, and, threatening to shoot Jackson if he interfered, ran back to the rear room of the restaurant.
Lynam, at the sound of the shot, threw up his arms, exclaiming, "I’m shot." Then he grasped his club and started after Francis. As he reached the swinging doors that divided the two rooms, he staggered and the blood came rushing from his mouth and nose and he fell heavily to the floor. At the same moment private watchman Hatfield and officers Hughes and Grauser entered the saloon. Francis handed his revolver to Grauser and gave himself up.
It is doubtful if a more unprovoked murder ever occurred in our city. Lynam had been a member of the force about five years and was accounted one of the best men in the department. His slayer, John Francis, was a young man but twenty-two years of age, but at that had been the cause of considerable trouble to the police for five years prior to the murder. Francis, through a change of venue, had his case tried in Butler County, and escaped with a ten-year sentence in the penitentiary.
The organization for the year 1881 consisted of Hon. Francis M. Hosier, Mayor and ex-officio president; Henry C. Marshall, Edward V. Moodie, Chas. A. Phillips, and James P. Wolf, commissioners; John H. German, secretary, and George Butterworth, captain and acting superintendent.
No crimes of a serious magnitude were reported during this year.
Hon. John L. Miller was Mayor and ex-officio president during the year 1883, and Chas. A. Phillips, James P. Wolf, Edward V. Moodie, and H. H. Laubach were the commissioners. John H. German was the secretary, and George Butterworth, captain and acting superintendent.
The total number of men on the force at this period was thirty-eight, and the aggregate expense of maintaining the department for that year was $28,886.77. No serious crimes were reported; the total number of arrests was 3,023, being 160 less than the previous year.
Hon. John L. Miller was Mayor in 1883, and Edward V. Moodie, James P. Wolf, Henry H. Laubach, and William Huffman, commissioners. J. H. Ensign was secretary, and William Patton, captain and acting superintendent.
First Patrol Wagon
On August 17, 1883, the patrol wagon system was adopted. The building on Brown Street, near Fifth, and the patrol wagon were completed and ''placed in service on December 12 of that year, and the telephone system was being installed. "Hon. John Bettelon was Mayor in 1884, and James P. Wolf, Henry A. Laubach, William Huffman, and Thomas J. Weakley were the commissioners. J. H. Ensign was secretary, and William Patton, captain and acting superintendent.
Hon. John Bettelon was Mayor in 1885, and Henry H. Laubach, William Huffman, Thomas J. Weakley, and John L. Brenner were the commissioners. C. W. Faber was secretary, and William Patton was captain and acting superintendent.
In this year occurred the defalcation of Secretary J. H. Ensign, who absconded with funds of the department that amounted to over $2,500.
Hon. Ira Crawford was Mayor in 1886. William Huffman, Thomas J. Weakley, John L. Brenner, and Alonzo B. Ridgway were the commissioners. C. W. Faber was secretary, and William Patton was captain and acting superintendent.
Non-Partisan Police Board
An act of the General Assembly reorganized the department in the year 1887, and its affairs were under the control of a non-partisan Board, who were appointed by the Governor.
Hon. Ira Crawford was Mayor; Hon. John L. Miller, acting president; John C. Cline, J. E. Gimperling, and R. C. Anderson were the commissioners. 0. E. Davidson was secretary, and W. W. Shoemaker was Superintendent of Police.
During the years 1888 and 1889 the same Board of Commissioners continued in office, but A. F. Steinmetz succeeded W. W. Shoemaker as Superintendent, July 1, 1889.
In the year 1890, Hon. J. E. D. Ward was Mayor, and J. C. Cline, John L. Miller, George Diefenbach, and J. E. Gimperling were the commissioners. 0. E. Davidson, secretary; Chas. T. Freeman, Superintendent of Police. The police force had increased by this time to sixty-eight men and a new patrol wagon added to their equipment.
In March, 1891, the terms of office of Mr. J. C. Cline and Hon. John L. Miller having expired, Governor Campbell appointed Mr. B. F. Reist and Mr. A. B. Ridgway to succeed them. Mr. Ridgway resigning in September and Mr. B. F. Reist in December, their places were filled by Mr. Henry Hanitch and Mr. W. B. Anderson.
On January 1 of this year Mr. J. E. Gimperling resigned, and Mayor C. G. McMillen was appointed in his place.
On June 23 of this year was held the first annual police inspection. Governor Campbell was present with part of his staff and reviewed the men.
In the year 1892 Hon. C. G. McMillen was Mayor, and E. M. Wood, H. H. Laubach, W. E. Crume, and E. Thompson were the commissioners. 0. E. Davidson, secretary; Thomas J. Farrell, Superintendent of Police.
There was no change in the organization until 1894, when J. E. Lowes and J. M. Sprigg succeeded E. M. Wood and H. H. Laubach as commissioners, and J. V. Lytle succeeded 0. E. Davidson as secretary.
The most important arrest during this year was that of the notorious diamond thief, Fritzy Dhein. It will be remembered that he was the principal in a robbery of nearly $20,000 worth of diamonds, which occurred m this city, and after being arrested and released on bail, he forfeited bail and escaped from custody. He was finally located and arrested at Hot Springs, however, and eventually received a sentence of seven years in the Ohio Penitentiary.
During the year 1895 Hon. C. G. McMillen was Mayor, W. E. Crume, J. E. Lowes, J. M. Sprigg, E. Thompson, directors, and Frank W. Withoft, secretary.
In 1896-97 Hon. J. Linxweiler, Jr., was Mayor, and the same directors of police and secretary held over from the previous year.
During the year 1896 the Gamewell System of Police Telegraph was completed and put in operation, and proved from the start a most valuable adjunct to the department.
Another improvement to the service in the same year was the establishment of an additional station house on West Third Street.
Hon. J. R. Lindemuth was Mayor in 1898-99, and W. E. Crume, E. Thompson, E. M. Wood, and C. J. Ferneding, Directors for 1898 and the same for 1899, with the exception of E. M. Wood, who was succeeded by W. C. Kennedy. Frank M. Withoft still remained as secretary, and T. J. Farrell, Superintendent of Police.
In 1900 Hon. J. R. Lindemuth was Mayor; E. Thompson, W. E. Crume, W. C. Kennedy, and C. J. Ferneding were Police Directors; Frank W. Withoft, secretary, and J. N. Allaback, acting Superintendent of Police.
During the year 1901 Mayor J. R. Lindemuth continued in office, while C. J. Ferneding, C. E. Underwood, W. C. Kennedy, and J, C. Antrim were the Police Directors until January 26, 1901, when death removed the latter member and his place was filled by Orion Dodds. Mayor Lindemuth and the Board of Police Directors of the previous year continued in office during the year 1901, and it was during this administration that John C. Whitaker was appointed Superintendent of Police.
Hon. Calvin D. Wright, Mayor of the city of Dayton, was born January 7, 1842, in Miami County, Ohio. He first saw the light of day on a farm three miles west of Troy, the county seat of Miami County. At the precocious age of seventeen, with the consent of his father, who emancipated him from his filial obligation to pursue the life of a farmer, he applied for a certificate, was given a school, and for ten winters he followed the avocation of teaching the young idea how to shoot. During the summers he went back to the farm and assisted his father, at the same time pursuing the study of law. Having determined to enter that profession, he succeeded in equipping himself for it through self-study alone, never having had the advantage of a collegiate course.
Mr. Wright was admitted to practice in the year 1870, and. opened his first office in Troy. The same spring that he was admitted to the bar he was elected Justice of the Peace. He served one full term of three years and two years of a second term, when he was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Miami County, and afterwards reelected to that office.
Two years after the expiration of his last term as prosecutor, he was elected Judge of the Common Pleas Court of Miami County, and served two full terms in that important position.
In the Spring of 1896 Judge Wright came to Dayton and formed a partnership with George W. Ozias.
In the year 1903 he was unexpectedly honored with an election to the presidency of the City Council, and served one full term; was reelected and was serving when, in October, 1906, through the unfortunate demise of Mayor Charles A. Snyder, he succeeded to the office.
Ripe in years and experience, with the judicial and executive temperament highly developed, genial and affable in disposition. Mayor Calvin D. Wright is lacking in no quality to give the city of Dayton full value in the position he holds as its chief executive.
John C. Whitaker
John C. Whitaker, who has been at the head of the Police Department of Dayton for the past six years was born in Butler County, Ohio, April 34, 1856. His ambition to enter business life led him at the early age of fifteen to leave school and take a position as clerk in a dry-goods store, where he remained about five years. On July 1, 1876, he entered upon his career as a commercial traveler, and during his pursuit of that vocation became one of the best-known and most successful salesmen in the business.
Early identifying himself with the order of United Commercial Travelers of America, of which he is Past Grand Counselor, he took an active interest in its affairs and was always a most welcome light at their various conventions and other gatherings, where his judgment was valued in their councils and his faculty as a ready speech-maker a source of perennial delight at the banquet boards.
In 1877 he joined the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and entered into the spirit of the work of that order with the same enthusiasm that characterized all previous and subsequent enterprises with which he has been connected.
Taking an especial interest in the welfare of the Patriarchs Militant, the Uniform Rank of the Odd Fellows, he raised it to its present high standard. Chief Whitaker is Past Grand Master of Ohio and Past Grand Representative to the Sovereign Lodge.
On March 1, 1901, ho was appointed Superintendent of Police for a term of one year by the then Board of Police Directors, who made the following endorsement in their annual report to the City Council:
"The superintendency of Mr. John C. Whitaker has met the full expectation of the Board. His business-like management and exalted character have commended him to the extent that he has been reemployed at the maximum salary. We have found him possessed of tireless energy, good judgment, abundant courage, and, above all, of highest integrity."
In the first year of his incumbency of the office of Superintendent, he became a member of the Ohio Police Association and also of the Inter-national Association of Chiefs of Police, both of which organizations have for their object the betterment of the service with which its members are identified. He is now serving his third term as First Vice-President of the National Association, having just been reelected at the last convention held at Jamestown, Va. He is Post President of the Ohio State Association of Chiefs of Police, and now occupies the position of Secretary-Treasurer of that organization.
During the administration of Chief Whitaker, among the many innovations which have been introduced for the improvement of the service, we might mention the adoption of the three-platoon system; also the Bertillon system of identification, a descriptive sketch of which appears elsewhere. Also, the very valuable system of signal lights, by which the men can be summoned simultaneously from all sections of the city. It consists of a number of electric red lights placed at prominent points, which are manipulated from headquarters. When turned on, they are a signal to the officers and members of the force (whether on or off duty) to hasten to the nearest patrol box or private telephone and inquire the cause of the signal. On one occasion seventeen officers, nine of whom were day men, responded to the signal in ten minutes.
The policy of Chief Whitaker towards the members of the predatory fraternity has been to place them under arrest immediately upon their arriving in the city, and, if no specific case can be found in which they have been implicated, to place a charge of suspicious character or vagrancy against them, have them "mugged" by the Bertillon system, and then sent to the work-house or given a few hours to leave the city. The prime object is to keep them on the move, either toward durance vile or to other fields beyond our own.
The pleasing scarcity of burglaries, safe blowings, and other serious crimes speaks well for the wisdom of this plan of action.
While Chief Whitaker is a disciplinarian and requires his subordinates to strictly adhere to orders issued and rules governing the Department, he loves his men and is ever mindful of them by adopting comfortable uniforms for the hot summer days and permitting the men to wear overcoats at will during the fall and spring months. His motto is to defend his officers when they honestly perform duty and to punish them when they are derelict in the performance of the same, and as a result of this disposition on the part of the Chief it is gratifying to note a commendable disposition on the part of the rank and file to assist in bringing the efficiency and discipline of the Department to the highest standard. All seem to realize that their individual acts, good behavior, prompt enforcement of law and ordinances are among the qualifications upon which depend their success and happiness as police officers.
Capt. J. N. Allaback
…first saw the light of day November 15, 1857, at West Point, Morrow County, Ohio, and after attending the public schools of Gallon and Dayton, he decided to join the regular army, enlisting at Cincinnati, March 86, 1879, in the United States Cavalry, and was assigned to duty at Fort Ouster, Montana. After a hard service of five years under Major General Miles, during which time the Army practically cleaned up the Indian troubles which followed the Custer massacre of 1876, he was honorably discharged with the rank of Sergeant at Fort Assinboine, Montana. Returning to Dayton, the Captain worked at his trade of plasterer for two years, when he was appointed as patrolman on the police force, June 16, 1886, promoted to roundsman, January 9, 1898; Sergeant, May 3, 1892; Captain, March 8, 1893, and acting Superintendent, January 11, 1900, to March 1, 1901, when, upon the appointment of Superintendent Whittaker, he was made a Captain, and has served with credit to both himself and the Department ever since.
The Board of Public Safety
Charles Spence Hall, the senior member of the Board of Public Safety, was born in Dayton, January 4, 1872. He has been a lifelong resident of the city and is essentially a self-made man. Leaving school at the early age of fourteen, Mr. Hall started with his brother, who was then in the electrical business under his own name, and has been with him ever since. The firm is now known as the Wm. Hall Electric Company, and the subject of our sketch is the general manager.
Mr. Hall is recognized as one of the ablest of Dayton's younger business men, and in the service he is rendering to the city in his capacity as a member of the Board of Public Safety he has employed the same tact and energy that have been such potent factors in developing his private business.
Mr. Warren Hall, the junior member of the Board of Public Safety, was born in Butler Township, Montgomery County, March 15, 1858.
Mr. Hall was appointed to his position by Governor John M. Pattison, March 8, 1906, and his term expires January 1, 1910.
Entering the employ of the Stoddard Manufacturing Company twenty-four years ago, he remained continuously with that concern until it was succeeded by the Dayton Motor Car Company, makers of the extremely popular Stoddard Dayton Automobile, holding the responsible position of chief of the repair department.
Mr. Hall's prominence in business and political circles has made him widely known. He is a man of resolute purpose, determined and unfailing energy, and sound judgment, and, these qualities dominating his business career, have made him a potent factor in the commercial life of Dayton. Of a genial personality, he is easily approached by all who have occasion to seek an audience with him.
The Work House
The work house was established by the city in connection with the County Commissioners in 1875, the "old jail" being appropriated for that purpose. It is on the corner of Sixth and Main streets. It is a massive stone building containing two tiers of cells capable of holding sixty or seventy men, and the whole surrounded by the tall stone wall enclosing the grounds.
New Police Station Soon
So far as the City Council is concerned, a new police station is an assured fact, and the abominable conditions which have prevailed and the inconveniences and unsatisfactory discomfiture of the old quarters are in a fair way to be relegated to memory's hall.
At any rate, it is wholly up to the voters who, by the passage of the ordinance of the City Council, will be asked to determine the question for themselves at the coming election.
It is proposed to issue bonds to the amount of $335,000, payable $15,000 a year, for the purpose of erecting a combination police station, a fire department engine house, which shall be used for police headquarters, station house, police court, patrol house, repair house, gymnasium for members of police and fire departments, offices for the Board of Public Safety, and an engine house for the use of the fire department.
The new building is to be located on Sears Street; north of Third Street, and it is proposed to make it in every way worthy of the city, and amply large and so arranged as to accommodate the various departments connected with the police and fire service in a manner worthy of their importance as factors in the municipal economy.
It was while attending one of the annual conventions of the Chiefs of Police that Chief Whitaker's interest was aroused in the Bertillon system of identification, and on August 25, 1902, upon his recommendation, it was installed by the Board of Public Safety. Frank W. Withoft was the first superintendent of the Dayton system, and held the position until August, 1906, when he was succeeded by C. W. Kauffman, the present officer. The method of procedure when a criminal has been ordered to be ''mugged" is as follows:
A front and side view photograph is first taken, and the subject is then subjected to the following eleven measurements, which are taken with the utmost precision: The first is the height; second, the outstretched arms; then, successively, trunk, length of head, width of head, width of cheeks, length of right ear, left foot, left middle finger, left little finger, and left forearm. The next step is to note the bodily shape and all mental and moral qualities that may be exhibited. Lastly, all marks and scars are carefully measured and fully recorded.
Criminals of all classes, many who have been known to use six or more aliases, are readily identified through the unerring records of the Bertillon system.
Since its adoption by the Dayton Police Department, over four hundred records of criminals and suspects have been made, and in several instances important identifications have been secured.
Total Number of Arrests For the Past Thirty-Five Years.
1894—95........................... .... 5,322
1903—March 1 to December 31. ....... 5,097
1907. up to October 1...............4,364
FUGITIVES FROM JUSTICE ARRESTED BY THIS DEPARTMENT
AND TURNED OVER TO DEPARTMENTS OF OTHER CITIES
1907. to September 18, 1907..... 89
Making a total ........................ 491
This is certainly very creditable when taking into consideration the inadequacy of the force, etc.
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