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History of Dayton, Ohio 1889
Chapter Twenty-Two

(page 572)




The Press-Early Newspapers-The Repertory-Ohio Centinel-Ohio Republican-Ohio Watchman-The Gridiron-Other Early Papers-Daily Journal-Log Cabin-Daily Transcript- Daily City Item-Gazette- Democrat-Volkszeitung - Daily Herald-Monitor-Religious Telescope-German Telescope-Other Religious Papers.


            THE first newspaper published in Dayton was by Noah Crane, formerly from Lebanon, Ohio, who began its publication in 1806. After issuing a few numbers, however, he abandoned the enterprise on account of being attacked with chills and fever, and returned to Lebanon with his press and type. No copies of his paper have been preserved, so far as is known.

            The next paper published in this place was the Repertory, number one of which appeared September 18, 1808. It was a two-column folio, 8x12 inches in size, and was published by William McClure and George Smith. Their office was on Main Street. The number of the paper mentioned contained an extract from Canning's great speech on American affairs and an account of the accession of Joseph Bonaparte to the throne of Spain, the latter bearing the date June 17th. With number five, issued October 21, 1808, the paper was suspended until February 1, 1809, when it re-appeared enlarged to a four-column folio, 12x20 inches in size, and with Henry Disbrow and William McClure as editors and proprietors. Notice was given that all letters addressed to the editors must be postpaid, or they would not be attended to. News items from foreign countries were four or five months old, and two enterprising merchants of the place advertised a stock of goods received from Pittsburg and Philadelphia the fall before.

            The paper was discontinued about January 1, 1810, which left the community without a paper until May 3, 1810, when the first number of the Ohio Centinel appeared, published by Isaac G. Burnet, 11 on a sheet of royal size," 11x19 inches in size, and a four-column folio. The subscription price was two dollars per year if paid in advance, or two dollars and fifty cents at the end of the year, and produce of almost all kinds was taken in payment at the market price. The motto of the paper was 'With slight shades of difference -, we have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles." The paper had a wide, if not large, circulation throughout the sparsely settled Northwest, as tar as Detroit and Chicago, (page 573) contained official announcements and legal notices for all that territory. Politically the paper was devoted to " Republican principles," and gave a variety of information on all kinds of subjects in which its readers were interested. During the war of 1812-1813 its patrons were kept thoroughly advised as to events transpiring in the North and East until May 13th, when, most of the men of the community being in the army, or in some other way connected with the war, and the women being fully occupied in the cultivation of the fields and the care of the family, the paper ceased to exist from want of patronage.

            The Ohio Republican followed the Ohio Centinel, the first number appearing October 3, 1814. It was published by Isaac G. Burnet and James Lodge. The paper was similar in style and appearance to its predecessor, the same type and press being used in its publication. The subscription price was two dollars per annum if paid in advance, two dollars and fifty cents if paid within the year, and three dollars if paid at the end of the year. Its motto was: " Willing to praise, but not afraid to blame." It was devoted mostly to literature and foreign news, home news at that early day not being deemed of sufficient importance or interest to find a place in the columns of the papers. A month after the paper's first appearance, Mr. Burnet, having been elected to the legislature, sold his interest in it to his partner, Mr. Lodge, who conducted it until October 9, 1816, when he was obliged to discontinue its publication because his subscribers did not pay for their paper, two-thirds of the subscription list yielding him nothing. The people had not at that time been disciplined into paying for a newspaper in advance, the only method according to which a newspaper can be certain of success. The Ohio Republican was succeeded by the Ohio Watchman, the first number of which appeared November 27, 1816. Robert J. Skinner was the publisher, he having purchased the materials and good will" of the Republican. At first the Watchman was published every Wednesday, at the old stand of Burnet & Lodge. Its motto was, "Truth, equality, and literary knowledge are the three grand pillars of republican liberty." On the fifth of June, 1817, the motto was changed to "A free press is the palladium of liberty." At first the paper was a four-column folio, and its subscription price was two dollars per year in advance, two dollars and fifty cents at the end of six mouths, and three dollars at the end of the year. Upon starting the paper the editor announced that lie intended to conduct it on genuine Republican principles; that he was partial to the administration then in power, but that he did not intend to permit party prejudice to blind his eyes, or to make his ears deaf to the principles of truth. The date of publication was changed to Thursday, on (page 574) January 30, 1817, and on the 9th of April, 1818, it was enlarged to a five-column folio, 12x20 inches in size of page. Its political principles were "genuine Republicanism," a phrase which probably meant something quite different from what the same phrase would mean at the present day. On December 25, 1820, the name of the paper was changed to that of the Dayton Watchman and Farmers and Mechanics' Journal. It was published by George S. Houston and R. J. Skinner. The office of publication was on Main Street, a few doors south of David Reed's tavern. The following articles were taken in payment for subscription to the paper: Flour, whisky, good hay, wood, wheat, rye, corn, oats, sugar, tallow, beeswax, honey, butter, chickens, eggs, wool, flax, country linen, and clean linen and cotton rags. On August 6, 1822, R. J. Skinner retired from the firm, and the publication of the paper was continued by George S. Houston & Company. In the winter following, A. T. Bays became one of the proprietors, and on January 15, 1826, George S. Houston sold his interest to A. T. Hays and E. Lindsley, who continued its publication until. November 21, 1826, when it was discontinued. In April, 1823, the letter in the title was changed from Old English to script, and in the following September, this gave way to Gothic. On the 16th of March, 1824, the motto of the paper was enlarged by the addition of "Democracy, literature, agriculture, manufactories, and internal improvements, the pillars of our independence." At the time when Messrs. Hays & Lindsley commenced its publication they announced their intention to follow the same Democratic course that had been so successfully, followed by Mr. Houston for the preceding four years; that they were opposed to "mending" the Constitution, and that they were in favor of the tariff of 1824.

            The prospectus of the Gridiron was first published September 10, 1822. Its motto was announced to be


            “…burn, roast meat, burn,

            Boil with oily fat, ye spits forget to turn."


            It was to be neatly printed on good, medium paper in octavo form. The subscription price was to be one dollar per year, payable one-half yearly in advance. The Gridiron was to be devoted to the best purposes, and the publisher, in order to assure the people that he was in earnest, pledged his honor, liberty, and his life, if necessary, to its success. John Anderson was the editor of the Gridiron, and published it for the purpose of correcting such abuses as he might see in society.. He carried out his motto as literally as possible for nearly eighteen months, by "roasting" people who did not live up to his views of right and wrong; but as it could hardly be expected that those who were scored in the (page 575) columns of the Gridiron would continue to take the paper, and as there seemed a great many people who were more or less faulty in their lives, the paper failed to be sustained by public sentiment. T. B. Reed. was one of the contributors to the Gridiron.

            The Miami Republican and Dayton Advertiser made its appearance September 2, 1823. Judge George B. Holt was the editor and publisher. The paper was a weekly Democratic one, 11x21 inches in size, and was continued until September 7, 1826.

            On the 10th of April, 1826, the announcement was made by William Campbell that he had purchased the establishments of the Dayton Watchman and the Miami Republican, and that lie proposed to consolidate the two papers and publish them as one, the publication to commence as soon in the following fall as he could make arrangements to leave the farm, upon which he then resided ill Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania. The paper was to be a weekly issue, and to bear the name of The Ohio National Journal and Montgomery and Dayton Advertiser. In accordance with this announcement, the first number of the paper appeared November 25, 1826, and was continued by Mr. Campbell one month, when he sold it to Jeptha Regans. It was a paper 13x20 inches in size, five columns to the page, and its motto was, "Principles and not men where principles demand the sacrifice." In politics, the Journal was Whig. On December 4, 1827, Mr. Regans sold a one-half interest in the paper to Peter P. Lowe, and they two continued to publish it until January 15, 1828. On the same day that Mr. Regans took in Mr. Lowe as a partner, the name of the paper was cut down to simply The Dayton Journal and Advertiser. On December 2, 1828, John W. Van Cleve purchased a one-half interest in the paper, and from that time on until the death of Mr. Regans, the name of the firm was Regans & Van Clove. Mr. Van Clove then continued the publication of the paper alone until October, 1830, when Richard N. Comly bought the interest of the Regans estate in the establishment, and the firm became Vail Cleve & Comly. This firm lasted until July 15, 1834, when _hlr. Vail Cleve sold his interest to William F. Comly, and the Journal was then enlarged to be the largest paper published in Ohio. It was made a seven-column folio, and the place of publication was removed in July, 1835, to the third story of Samuel Steele's new building, on the east side of Main Street.. The firm name was changed to R. N. & W. F. Comfy, and this firm struggled on for years with the single purpose of giving to Montgomery County the best paper that it was possible to make. In their commendable efforts they met with the success which they deserved, and were themselves well satisfied with their encouragement, and were looking forward to (page 576)  reaping the reward of their labors, when, on the evening of May 5, 1863, their entire outfit was destroyed by a mob, on account of the arrest of Hon. C. L. Vallandigham, under the order of General Burnside, who was then in command of this military department.

            On the 16th of December, 1840, the first number of the Daily Journal was published by R. N. & W. F. Comly. The paper was a four-column folio, and was started as an enterprise. It was changed to a tri-weekly six mouths afterward, and continued as such until May 6, 1847, when the Daily Journal again appeared as Number 1, Volume I. The Daily Journal has been continued ever since, in connection with the weekly. In 1857, R. N. Comly withdrew from the paper, and John P. Comly became a member of the firm, which so continued until April, 1862, when, on account of the appointment of W. F. Comly as postmaster of Dayton, in 1861, the paper was sold to Lewis Marot and William H. Rouzer, the latter gentlemen giving their notes in payment for the paper. After the destruction of the office as mentioned above, W. D. Bickham took charge of the paper, and for some weeks issued a small daily, until it was possible to refurnish the office with presses and other necessary material, and this refurnishing took considerable time, as new printing presses were in great demand at that particular juncture. Mr. Bickham commenced his work here on May 11, 1863, and on July 28th following, issued the frst number of the paper, which was of the usual size. This was a seven-column folio. Mr. Bickham has continued to conduct it ever since, and has made for the Dayton Journal a national reputation. Mr. Comly, since retiring from the post-office, has been continuously the associate editor of the paper; Captain Ashley Brown has been the telegraph editor since the spring of 1882; and John P. Pflaum, who learned his trade as a printer with the Comlys, has been foreman of the newsroom since 1863. The Journal has never given out any uncertain tone as to its politics. It has never gone of after false gods or false prophets, but has always been a staunch Republican paper, and has wielded great influence in the counsels of the party, because of its steadfastness. It probably did more to secure the nomination of R. B. Hayes to the presidency, in 1876, than did any other one influence or power connected with the Cincinnati convention, or than any other paper in the State. The Journal is the only paper in Dayton using the associated press dispatches, and thus has great advantage over its local contemporaries, and, though a secular publication, always strikes the key-note of sound religion and correct morals.

            The Log Cabin was a four-column folio newspaper published during the presidential campaign of 1840. The first number appeared March 21, (page 577) 1840. It was embellished with the picture of a log cabin with its chimney of logs and sticks, extending just to the ridge of the roof, and built, as was the custom then, on the outside of the house at one end. In front of the house was a cider barrel on one side. of the door. The paper contained a description of the method of building a log cabin, taken from Doddridge's Notes on Virginia," "An Invitation to the Log Cabin Boys to Old Tippecanoe's Raisin'," etc., etc. The border of each page was a frame of logs, as they would appear to a person looking down from a height directly over the cabin as it was in the process of erection. Number two appeared April 18th, number three May 5th, etc. Thispaper contained much valuable statistical as well as general information, and carried the mottos, “One presidential term " and "Fair prices of labor and protection to domestic manufactures." The subscription price was twenty-five cents for the campaign.

            As it may not be generally known what gave rise to the Log Cabin and hard cider feature of the campaign of 1840, it is not deemed inappropriate to introduce in this connection a brief statement of its origin. It was said contemptuously of General W. H. Harrison by a certain newspaper correspondent, that if the General could have a barrel of hard cider as a companion he could sit contentedly in a log cabin the remainder of his days. This was previous to the presidential nomination, and was intended to cast opprobrium on one of the leading candidates for that nomination, and thus what was intended to cast a slur or a reproach upon him, was taken up by his friends and converted into an antidote to the correspondent's poison by being made a party watchword or shibboleth and used in such an effective manner as to elevate the man to the presidency whom it was sought to degrade.

            The Dayton Daily Transcript was established in January, 1841, by George C. McCuen and John Wilson. It was a semi-weekly paper, 11x17 inches in size. At the expiration of about eighteen months it was suspended for want of support. In October, 1842, the firm of McCuen & Wilson was dissolved, the interest of McCuen being purchased by J. Milton Sanders, who continued to edit the Transcript, revived, until October 4, 1843, when he retired. The paper was then enlarged to 12x19 inches in size, and was published for six weeks by E. Marot & Company, the firm being composed of E. Marot and John Wilson. Subsequently Mr. Marot retired from the firm, and Mr. Wilson continued the publication of the paper until July, 1845.

            Up to the opening of the political campaign of 1844, the Transcript had been neutral in politics, but at that time it espoused the cause of the Whigs, and was published under the name of the Dayton Transcript (page 578) and Whig. John Macraeon was one of the first editors of the paper, and was succeeded by A. M. Scott, who edited it until December 9, 1844, when he was himself succeeded by his predecessor, and the paper was then enlarged. In 1847, Ralph S. Hart and H. D. Stout purchased an interest in it, Mr. Wilson having previously retired. The firm name was H. D. Stout & Company, Mr. Hart being the editor of the paper and Mr. Macraeon attending to, the business department. Mr. Bart was editor eighteen months. M. E. Curwen was a frequent contributor, and for some time had charge of the editorial columns. Mr. Macraeon retired from the paper in February, 1849, and was followed by A. M. Scott.

            The paper was finally disposed of to William C. Howells & Company, in May, 1849, who published daily, tri-weekly, and weekly editions, but discontinued its publication altogether in 1850.

            The Daily City Item was established in 1852 by a quartette of journeymen printers. It was the first penny paper in Dayton. The four printers were Frank Anderton, Martin Shrenck, Charles Lewis and Frederick Emrick. The latter was at first the editor, but remaining only a short time, he was succeeded by John Z. Reeder, who purchased Emrick's interest. Mr. Reeder remained in this position eighteen months. Mr. Shrenck and Mr. Anderton sold their interests to Joseph Schnebly and, J. S. Miller, and in this shape the paper was conducted over a year. About the time Mr. Reeder withdrew it became the property of Noah A. Albaugh, who succeeded to the editorship and also to the business management. At one time the circulation of the Item was as high as eighteen hundred copies, indicating great popularity for the times in which it was printed. Mr. Albaugh conducted the paper only a short time when it was discontinued.

            The Dayton Gazette was established in 1840, and was edited at first by D. W. Iddings. This was an excellent paper, and in politics was Whig. It was owned and conducted by various parties until it was purchased by W. H. P. Denny, who conducted it until the beginning of 1860, when it was discontinued. For a considerable portion of the time it was a daily paper, but toward the last it was a weekly. The Dayton Democrat, daily and weekly, is the lineal descendant of a long line of newspapers which had been established in Dayton by a large number of different editors, and which, as has been seen in the preceding pages, had all passed through great vicissitudes. Previous attempts had been made to establish a paper which should be Democratic in politics, as the word Democratic would be understood at the present time, but none of these attempts had met with the encouragement that had been fondly hoped for, if not expected. But in 1830 (page 579) E. Lindsley, who has been mentioned as one of the successors of George S. Houston, in the publication of the Ohio Watchman, established the Dayton Republican, adopting the name of a paper which had been published previous to the Watchman, with the view of succeeding to the good will and patronage of that paper. In this connection, it may not be improper to remark that both the Democrat and the Journal, as they are published to-day, lay claim to lineal succession from the Dayton Repertory, the first number of which appeared September 18, 1808, and which was regularly followed by the Ohio Centinel, the Ohio Republican, and the Ohio Watchman, as has been already narrated. And in a certain sense this claim is true in each case, but in a different sense in reference to each paper, the Democrat succeeding to the Democratic politics of the Ohio Republican, while the Journal has succeeded to the politics which the name of the Ohio Republican would seem to indicate, the divergence in politics in the papers taking place about the time when the Whigs became a distinctive party in American politics.

            The first number of the Dayton Republican appeared January 5, 1830, the publisher being E. Lindsley and the chief editor, William L. Hlelfenstein. In 1834, it was discontinued, and during the same year Mr. Lindsley started the Democratic Herald, and in January, 1842, that- paper was succeeded by the Western Empire. Some years afterward the Dayton Daily Empire was started, authorities say in 1844, but Number 187 of Volume II appears dated February 7, 1851, hence its appearance must have been irregular for some years. The terms upon which it was published were four dollars per annum, payable quarterly in advance. Previous to the establishment of the daily edition, the paper had been edited by men who afterward acquired a national reputation. Among these were John Bigler, who became governor of California, and Delazon Smith, who was one of the first United States senators from Oregon. The Daily Empire, when it first appeared, was an evening paper. It was a five-column folio, and was published by Daniel G. Fitch and George W. Clason. On July 3, 1851, the size was increased to a six-column folio, and it was then published by Fitch, Clason & Tillinghast. This frm was succeeded April 27, 1854, by Fitch, Clason & Company, the "company" being D. Clark. On July, 1854, D. G. Fitch and D. Clark became the proprietors and J. Z. Reeder assistant editor. On November 27th, following, the size of the paper was reduced to a five-column folio on account of the necessity for retrenchment. September 3, 1855, D. G. Fitch sold his interest in the paper to David Clark, thus relinquishing a position which he had filled for twenty-three years, in connection with this and other papers. J. Z. Reeder then became editor for a short time and soon (page 580) afterward associate editor, a position which he retained until August 17, 1857, when his connection with the paper ceased. David Clark retired from the paper April 21, 1860, having been with it since January, 1854. His successors were I. R. Kelly & Company, and J. F. Bollmeyer was placed charge of the editorial department. William T. Logan became editor with Mr. Bollmeyer in 1862, and upon the killing of Mr. Bollmeyer November 1, 1862, by Henry M. Brown, Mr. Logan became editor of the paper and conducted it until the arrest of Hon. C. L. Vallandighani in 1863, when, on account of an article published therein, counseling resistance to such measures, he was also arrested and the paper suppressed. A company was then formed under the name of the Empire Company, which started a new paper, having the same name, number one of which appeared August 19, 1863. William T. Logan edited the new paper until December 21, 1863, at which time the Hubbard Brothers succeeded to the proprietorship. H. H. Robinson became editor of the paper, with D. G. Fitch assistant editor, November 25, 1865. This lasted until January 26, 1867, at which time David Sheward purchased a one-half interest, and as a consequence Mr. Fitch retired. H. H. Robinson purchased an interest in the paper July 8, 1867, and on the next day J. McLain Smith became its editor. On this day the Empire was discontinued, and the Dayton Daily Ledger tools its place. Afterward the proprietorship of the Ledger passed into the hands of J. McLain Smith & Company, and then into the hands of J. A. Cockerill & Company, this firm being composed of Hon. C. L. Vallandigham and John A. Cockerill, the latter being now on the New York World. Mr. Cockerill sold his one-half interest to Dennis Dwyer and James Kelly, and after Mr. Cockerill's withdrawal, Judge Elliot edited the paper for a short period. Dwyer, Kelly & Vallandigham leased the paper for six months to J. C. Ely, Edward F. Schenck, and A. J. Hiller, who changed the name of the daily to the Herald. Pending this lease the establishment was purchased by John G. Doren, who changed the name to that of the Herald and Empire, and published it under that name until it absorbed the Dayton Democrat, which had been started by J. McLain Smith and George Neder, in 1874. Since that time both the daily and weekly editions have been published by Mr. Doren.

            The Democrat, no matter under what name it has been published, has always been a Democratic paper. It has never swerved from the principles of that party as it has understood those principles. It has been also independent of the so-called party leaders, never wavering from what it considered true Democracy for the sake of pleasing some individual. This is true of all the editors of the paper, hence to mention any one as (page 581) having followed this line would be invidious and unjust to those not mentioned. As the Journal has always been a staunch, unwavering Republican paper, so the Democrat has always been the leading and reliable Democratic paper of the county.

            The Dayton Volkszeitung was started April 26, 1866, by George Neder. It was a six-column four-page paper, 22x32 inches in size. In June, 1866, a semi-weekly issue was printed in addition to the weekly, and in October following the semi-weekly issue gave place to a tri-weekly issue. This gave place to a daily paper about the 1st of September, 1876, since when both a weekly and a daily have been continuously published. From the time it was started until 1874 the Volkszeitung was published in the United Brethren Publishing House, and in that year it was moved to the Osceola Mills Building, where it has been published ever since. On the 15th of April, 1882, a stock company was formed with a capital of ten thousand dollars, the officers of which have been ever since the organization of the company, George Neder, president, and Otto Moosbrugger, secretary and treasurer. The other directors are at the present time Edward Neder, Max Neder, Kuno Moosbrugger, and Angelo Moosbrugger. The paper has always been independent in politics, supporting either the Democratic or the Republican party, according to circumstances.

            On the 17th of April, 1882, the Anzeiger was absorbed into the Volkszeitung. The Anzeiger was started September 1, 1876. It was Democratic in politics, and was owned by Otto Moosbrugger and Charles Schenck, when first started, but Mr Schenck sold his interest to Kuno Moosbrugger, and the two Messrs. Moosbrugger carried on the publication of the paper until it was consolidated with the Volkszeitung. The Dayton Daily Herald was started February 7, 1879, by Ferdinand J. Wendel, as au independent journal. At first it was published on Fourth Street; but in about two years it was removed to its present location, on the southeast corner of Second and Jefferson streets. The paper was for the first six months a seven-column folio, and then it was made an eight-column folio. At the end of about a year it was enlarged to a nine-column folio, and on Saturdays, a nine-column quarto. Ferdinand J. Wendel was sole proprietor until November, 1887, when the Herald Publishing Company was incorporated, with a capital of forty thousand dollars, the incorporators being Ferdinand J. Wendel, Edward B. Grimes, George L. Grimes, Alonzo Eaton, and Samuel Kehoe. The officers of the company at first were Ferdinand J. Wendel, president; George L. Grimes, secretary, and Edward B. Grimes, treasurer. Charles J. Geyer became secretary in November, 1888, and has since been secretary and (page 582) business manager. The president and treasurer remain as at first. The Weekly Herald was established at the same time as the daily, and is a nine-column quarto. The Herald has been one of the most successful newspaper enterprises ever established in Dayton, and the circulation of the daily is now six thousand, and that of the weekly four thousand, five hundred. Politically, the Herald remains as at first established, independent, though it has a Stroup, leaning toward the protective tariff principles of the Republican party, and advocated those principles during the presidential campaign of 1888.

            The Monitor was started as a weekly paper in 1886 by G. C. Wise, C. W. Faber, and J. E. D. Ward. In the following October the Daily Monitor was started, the intention being to run merely a campaign paper. At the end of three months; however, such had been the success with which the enterprise had been crowned that a company was organized under the name of the Monitor Publishing Company, with a capital of twenty thousand dollars. G. C. Wise was general manager until May 1, 1889, and np to that time C. W. Faber was editor. Since that time C. W. Faber has been general manager, with Harry Weidner assistant manager. The Daily Monitor has always been an evening paper, and in size up to May 25, 1889, it has been a seven-column folio. On that day it was increased to an eight-column folio, except that on Saturdays it was made an eight-column quarto. The paper is Democratic in politics, aims to be a good newspaper, and on Saturdays has a special literary feature which renders it a very popular publication.

            The Religious Telescope, the chief organ of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, was established in Circleville, Ohio, in 1831, the Publishing House of the Church having been founded at the same time for the special purpose of publishing this paper. The first number of the Telescope was issued December 31, I.S34, with a circulation of eleven hundred and ninety-seven. The editor was the Rev. William R. Rhinehart, and the first printer was Lewis Twining. The paper from the first was respectable in size and character, and it at once became a favorite in the Church. Even if sometimes unwise in its utterance, it was bold and powerful. Early in its history it was confronted with the question of the abolition of American slavery. The Telescope discussed the question with fiery and scathing language. This course of the paper was not altogether satisfactory to some of its patrons, but Mr. Rhinehart was in favor of the free discussion of the question and defended it in the columns of the paper. With the issue of May 1, 1839, he resigned his editorship. In his valedictory he expressed his enthusiasm on this subject in the following words: (page 583)

            "it is better, ten thousand times better, that this nation should put away the accursed thing, slavery, than that we should fall into the hands of all angry and avenging God."

            The vacancy in the editorship, caused by the resignation of Rev. Mr. Rhinehart, was filled by the appointment by the Scioto Annual Conference, of the Rev: William Hanby to the position. The first number of the Telescope under Mr. Hanby appeared May 15, 1839. He was reelected in 1841. In April, 1843, Mr. Hanby said, with reference to the publication of the Telescope, that it had waded through a variety of trials for the previous seven years, and had been passed by with heedless indifference by those who years before should have embraced it as a messenger of peace. Times changed, however, the next year, and there was a marked improvement in the condition of the Telescope. There was still further improvement in 1845 and its subsequent years by reason of the adoption of the cash principle.

            The Rev. D. Edwards was elected editor of the paper in May, 1845, and reelected in 1849. He, however, immediately tendered his resignation, and Mr. Hanby was again elected to the place. Early in 1850 the trustees elected the Rev. John Lawrence as assistant editor, which relation he sustained until the early part of 1852. At this time Mr. Hanby resigned and Rev. Mr. Lawrence succeeded to his place. In the following year 1853, the Telescope, with the Publishing House, was removed to Dayton, Ohio, from which place it has since been issued. Mr. Lawrence retained the position of editor until April 29, 1864, when the Rev. D. Berger took charge. Mr. Berger retained editor until May 20, 1869, when he was succeeded by the Rev. Milton Wright. In May, 1873, the conference determined upon having two editors and elected Mr. Wright and W. O. Tohey, who jointly assumed control of the paper July 2, 1873. In 1877, the General Conference determined to elect one editor and to give him all assistant, and elected Rev. J. W. Hott, D. D., editor, and W. O. Tobey, assistant editor. Rev. Mr. Hott was reelected editor in 1880 and again in 1885, serving until 1889, when he was chosen bishop and was succeeded in the editorship of the Telescope by Rev. I. L. Kephart, D. D. Rev. M. 11. Drury, A. M., was chosen assistant editor in 1881, in which office he continues at the present time. The present circulation of the paper is twelve thousand, four hundred and fifty. The size and form of the paper have frequently been changed. It was originally a folio, issued semi-monthly. July 30, 1845, it was changed to a weekly and has remained a weekly to the present time. It is now a sixteen-page quarto, and in size, appearance, and contents, ranks high among the religious journals of the country.

            (page 584) Its columns have contained vigorous discussions of many current subjects, which have agitated the Church, and among its editors have been a number of able men.

            Bishop Jacob Erb, writing from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, tinder date of September 24, 1839, first suggested to the United Brethren Publishing House the printing of a German religious paper. The first difficulty to be overcome was the securing of German type for the office, as it was thought that the establishment could not then afford to buy it. To overcome this difficulty it was suggested that the money be collected either by subscription or donation. Bishop Erb, approving of this suggestion, set the example by himself subscribing ten dollars toward the fund. He also found that nearly all the brethren were willing to aid the subscription in this way. In addition, the bishop offered to go security for the State of Pennsylvania and the city of Baltimore, that they together would contribute three hundred dollars, provided that other States and cities, where there were churches of this denomination, would aid the cause in due proportion.

            Rev. John Russel began the publication of a German paper in 1840 at Baltimore, Maryland. It was a monthly periodical and named the Busy Martha. The first number appeared March 7th. The General Conference of 1841 took steps toward the establishment of a printing office in Baltimore, Maryland, and John Russel, C. Staley, and H. Wigaug were appointed trustees. Bishop Jacob Erb was appointed editor. One third of the subscription list of the Religious Telescoppe was ordered turned over to this new paper. Mr. Russel's paper, Busy Martha, was merged into this enterprise, and the frst number of the paper under Bishop Erb appeared July 1, 1841. The paper was soon discontinued, however, from want of patronage.

            In October, 1846, there appeared a paper called the German Telescope, by Rev. N. Altman. It was issued from the office at Circleville, Ohio. In 1847, Rev. D. Strickler was elected its editor. It was an eight-page paper. After three years, or in 1849, its name was changed to the Busy Martha. In 1851, Rev. Henry Straub became its editor, and the name Busy Martha was changed to The Frochliche Botschaafter. The first number under this name appeared November 11, 1851.  This paper continued under the control of Rev. Mr. Straub until August 17, 1855, when he resigned, and Julius Degmeier was chosen to the place. In December, 1858, Mr. Degmeier resigned, and in 1859 it was resolved that the paper be reduced from a weekly to a semi-monthly on account of loss of money to the office in its publication. Rev. Solomon Vonneida was appointed editor, and occupied the position until August 28, 1866. The (page 585) paper was changed from a semi-monthly to a weekly, January 1, 1866. At that time it was removed to Lebanon, Pennsylvania, and for a time edited by Rev. E. Light. The General Conference of 1869 ordered it back to Dayton, and elected Rev. William Mittendorf editor. To this position he was reelected in 1873, 1877, and 1881. In 1885 the Rev. E. Light again became editor, which position he retained until. 1889, when Rev. Mr. Mittendorf was again placed in charge.

            The Unity Magazine first appeared in November, 1853. It was established according to the order of the General Conference of the United Brethren in Christ, and was issued from the Publishing House. It was at first called The Unity with God, and Magazine of Sacred Literature. It was especially devoted to the promotion of Christian holiness. In 1854, the name was changed to the Unity Magazine, and still later the name of The Unity Magazine and Ladies' Companion was adopted. At the time of this change there was a change in editors from Rev. D. Edwards to the Rev. Alexander Owen. Under Rev. Mr. Owen's management, the name was changed to the Christian. Repository. Its publication was continued up to the January number of its sixth volume, and in his valedictory the editor declared that the magazine had never been known to smile.

            The first number of the Children's Friend, a semi-monthly Sabbath-school paper, appeared May 5, 1854, from the United Brethren Publishing House. It has always continued a semi-monthly, and is handsomely illustrated. Its editor up to July 15, 1857, was the Rev. D. Edwards.

            He was then succeeded by Rev. Alexander Owen, who remained editor until January, 1859, when he resigned. He was followed by the Rev. Solomon Vonneida, who was succeeded in May, 1869, by the Rev. D. Berger, D. D., who was reelected in 1873, 1877, 1881, 1885, and 1889, and is still the editor. It has a circulation of thirty-eight thousand, one hundred and sixty-six.

            The Missionary Telescope was established in January, 1858, as a monthly periodical. It was the organ of the Home, Frontier, and Foreign Missionary Society of the United Brethren in Christ, and was issued from the United Brethren Publishing House. Its financial maintenance devolved upon the missionary society, but it was soon ascertained that much as a missionary paper was needed, it could not be published on the plan then followed without loss to the society. For this reason its publication was discontinued in November, 1861.

            The first number of the Missionary Visitor appeared. July 8, 1865. Rev. D. K. Flickinger, the corresponding secretary of the missionary society, was the editor, It began as a semi-monthly Sabbath-school (page 586) missionary paper and has continued as such ever since. It has always been handsomely illustrated, and has been the means of accomplishing much good. Rev. Mr. Flickinger ceased to be its editor in 1885, and was followed by Rev. Z. Warner, D. D., who remained until 1887, when the Rev. William McKee succeeded hire. It is now edited by Rev. B. F. Booth, D. D., elected secretary of the missionary society in 1889. Its circulation is thirty-three thousand, three hundred and seventy-fve. The Jatlencl Pilger, an illustrated semi-monthly German Sabbath-school paper, was first issued in 1870. It was published by the United Brethren Publishing House from 1870 to 1885, and was edited by Rev. William Mittendorf. In 1885, Rev. Ezekiel Light became editor, continuing until 1889, when he was succeeded by the former editor, Rev. William Mittendorf.

            Our Bible Teacher was first issued from the United Brethren Publishing House in April, 1873, its first editor being the Rev. D. Berger, D. D., who has been continued in the office ever since. It is a monthly magazine for Sunday-schools and families, and contains comments on the international Sunday-school lessons. Originally, it contained twenty-four pages, but in 1878, its size was increased to thirty-two pages. It has a fine reputation as a scholarly and helpful lesson commentary. The publication of Lesson Leaves for the Sunday-schools was commenced January 1, 1873, with the introduction of the international series of Sunday-school lessons. A Lesson, Leaf was issued for every Sabbath in the year.

            In 1873, Our Bible-Lesson Quarterly was first issued. This contained, with some additions, the same matter as the Lesson Leaves.

            In 1882, the Lesson Leaves were succeeded by Our Intermediate Bible Lesson Quarterly, intended for a younger class of scholars. They are very popular, and now have a combined circulation of 147,500. These lesson publications have been edited from their first establishment by Rev. D. Berger, D. D., and issued from the United Brethren Publishing House. The first number of Lessons for the Little Ones was published April 2, 1876. It is a weekly paper, and is beautifully illustrated with original cuts from drawings prepared especially for its pages by one of the best American artists. It is designed to furnish instruction and illustration upon. the Sunday-school lessons, as well as general literature for the youngest classes of readers. In 1880, its circulation was 17,840, and its circulation at the present time is 45,665. This paper has always been edited by the Rev. D. Berger, D. D., and issued from the United Brethren Publishing House.

            The Woman's Evangel was established in 1881, in accordance with (page 587) the following resolution, adopted by the board of trustees of the Woman's Missionary Association of the United Brethren in Christ, at Western, Iowa, in 1881:

            "Resolved, That the books be opened for voluntary contributions, and that when, in the judgment of the executive committee, a sufficient amount be secured, and one thousand subscribers be obtained, the executive committee be authorized, in conjunction with a committee appointed by this body, to publish a paper or magazine in the interest of the Woman's Missionary Association of the United Brethren in Christ." The first number of this paper appeared early in December, 1881, bearing date January, 1882, with a subscription list of twelve hundred.

            By the time of the meeting of the board it had reached seventeen hundred, and from the beginning, it has paid all expenses of publishing and editing The publishing committee is composed of Mrs. Benjamin Marot, Mrs. L. K. Miller, and Mrs. L. R. Keister. Mrs. Keister has been the editor of the paper ever since it was established. Since 1888, Mrs. L. K. Miller has been assistant editor. It is issued from the United Brethren Publishing House. Its circulation is 2,800.

            The Christian World was established in 1848, the first number of that paper being issued October 6th, of that year, the name at that time being The Western Mssionary. This was, however, only a sample copy issued to aid in securing subscribers, about eight hundred having been secured by the time the second number of the paper appeared, on January 15, 1849., Rev. Jeremiah H. Good, D. D., was the first editor of the Missionary, and served in that capacity until 1853.

            By the time of the annual meeting of the Synod in October, of the same year, the number of subscribers had reached fifteen hundred. The plan of publication of the paper was that it should appear semi-monthly so long as the number of subscribers was below eighteen hundred, but after that number had been secured it should be published weekly. The paper was published until October 15, 1850, at Columbus, Ohio. It was then published at Tiffin, Ohio, until October 15, 1853, at which time Dr. Good resigned his editorship, and was succeeded by Rev. George W. Williard, D. D., the first number of the paper under his charge appearing November 10, 1853, at Columbus, Ohio, where lie was engaged in pastoral work. The paper was published at Columbus until October 25, 1855. From November 8, 1855, to January 1, 1867, it was published in Dayton, the editor having been called to the pastorate of the First Reformed Church of this city. Under Dr. Williard the paper was changed in January, 1865, from it semi-monthly to a weekly, and otherwise improved and adapted to the wants of the Church. Dr. Williard (page 588) resigned the editorship in 1866, upon being elected to the presidency of Heidelberg College. His resignation took effect January 1, 1867, and his successor, Rev. Theodore P. Bucher, who was elected ad interim by the board, entered upon his editorial labors January 1, 1867, and remained in the position until October 28, 1869. With the first issue of the paper in 1868, the name was changed to the Christian World, and its form to that of a quarto. During a part of 1867 it was published in Cincinnati, and during the whole of the next two years, the subscription list having reached about forty-two hundred. Rev. Samuel Mease, D. D., having purchased the interest of Rev. Mr. Bucher, he was elected editor of the paper October 16, 1869, and assumed editorial management November 4th, following. The publication of the paper was continued at Cincinnati until August 29, 1879, when it was transferred to Dayton, the first number being issued here September 5th. In November, 1879, the entire interest in the paper passed into the hands of George N. Wliipp and George W. Shearer as publishers, but Dr. Mease, by private arrangement with the publishers, was retained as editor, in connection with an editorial committee, until the last week in March, 1880.

            Rev. Isaac H. Reiter, D. D., having purchased Mr. Whipp's interest in the Christian World and Sunday-school publications, and having become associated as publisher with Mr. Shearer, under the firm name of Reiter & Shearer, was elected editor ad interim by the board March 15, 1880, and was unanimously elected permanent editor by the Ohio Synod at Columbiana in the following October: In the beginning of 1881, Rev. Edward Herbruck, having purchased a half interest in the paper, became associated with Dr. Reiter as assistant editor. On the 8th of February, 1882, Dr. Reiter sold his interest to Rev. Michael Loucks, and on the 14th of March resigned his position as editor, the resignation to take effect April 1st. This course was taken with a view to establishing a printing department under the control of a firm with the requisite means for carrying it on. The result of this step was the organization of the Reformed Publishing Company, a short history of which may be found in another part of this volume.

            The Herald of Gospel Liberty was first published in 1808, the first number appearing September 1st of that year. It was published every other Thursday evening at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, by Elias Smith, at his house near Jeffrey Street; terms, one dollar per year, exclusive of postage. Daniel P. Drown was the publisher. October 27, 1808, it was published at Mr. Smith's house in Buck Street, and on July 21, 1809, at his house near Vaughan Street. On April 27, 1810, the place of publication was changed to Portland, Maine, and on July 5, 1811, to Philadelphia, (page 589)  Pennsylvania. It was taken back to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, February 14, 1814. Several other changes in the place of publication made, but it would be tedious, if not unprofitable, to note all specifically, but in 1862 it was being published at Newburyport, Massachusetts, where it continued until January 4, 1868, when it was removed to Dayton, and then became the successor of the Gospel Herald, which under various fortunes had been published -for many years, and which, on the 21st of December, 1867, ceased to exist. At the time the change was made, Rev. Henry Y. Rush, who had been for some time editing the Gospel Herald, became the editor of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, and was succeeded by Rev. N. Summerbell in January, 1877. Rev. T. M. McWhinney became editor August 10, 1878, and Rev. A. W. Coan in July 1, 1881, who retired March 25, 1885. Rev. Mr. Coan was succeeded by Rev. C. J. Jones, who had editorial charge until July 12, 1888, when he was succeeded by the present editor, Rev. J. P. Watson. The form and size of the paper have changed almost as frequently as the place of publication, the last change having taken place in the beginning of 1883. Each page is now 11x15 inches and contains three columns of matter, and each number of the paper contains sixteen pages. This is said to be the oldest religious paper in the United States, being now in its eighty-first year.

            The Gospel Herald, mention of which was made above, first appeared October 2, 1843. It was devoted to the interests of the Christian denomination, and was published by the Ohio Christian Book Association, at New Carlisle, Ohio. The editorial committee consisted of Daniel Long, Matthew Gardner, and Amos Stevens. Volume III commenced at Springfield, Ohio, November 1, 1845, with Isaac N. Walter as editor. With the commencement of Volume VI., James Williamson was the editor with J. W. Marvin as associate editor. In May, 1856, this paper was published at Columbus, Ohio, with James Maple as editor, and Levi Purviance and N. Summerbell as corresponding editors. Its place of publication was changed to Dayton, Ohio, May 7, 1859, and Elder John Ellis was then the editor. November 16, 1861, this paper became the Gospel Herald and Christian Banner, which name was carried one year, at the end of which time the Christian Banner was dropped and the name became again the Gospel Herald. Elder John Ellis remained editor until May, 1863, when he was succeeded by Elder E. W. Humphreys, who was succeeded by Elder Henry Y. Rush February 18, 1865, and who remained its editor until December 21, 1867, when the Gospel Herald ceased to exist, and was succeeded by the Herald of Gospel Liberty.

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