THE STORY OF MIAMI COUNTY
THIS being a history, or as the title suggests, the Memoirs of Miami valley, it will not be the province of this work to review those infinite details of each county, which have been so faithfully depicted in the past. Rather, it is a purpose to treat the Miami valley as a whole, with such variations as will be found necessary to preserve those vital or epochal events of each county. Thus, the great conservancy work will be treated as a whole as will also the Symmes purchase and other events. So, the work is intended primarily as a comprehensive history of the Miami valley in all of its important phases, with a broader and we might say a more sympathetic insight into the modern phases of each county embraced in this work.
Very properly the history of Miami county must begin with the Indian occupancy. It is true, the Mound Builders antedated this period. This period, however, has been the subject for numerous researches by archeologist, historian and student and is familiar to almost every school child and taught as a part of school curriculum. The monuments left by those pre-historic people-is the best assurance of the interest of future generations. The great Algonquin tribe, occupied this part of Ohio when the first white man penetrated into its fastness. The Algonquins were a powerful confederacy and held absolute sway over this dominion.
They had successfully contested all attempts to dislodge them, frequently measuring their strength with the powerful Iroquois. The Algonquins were composed of a number of tribal units, apparently, however, without many distinctive differences. The French first applied the name Miamis to the Indians living in and around what is now Miami county; by others they were called the Twigtwees ; the provincial council of Penn, referring to them as the Tweechtwese.
The history subsequent to the early incursion of the whites finds their allegiance divided between the French and the English. The same lack of common interest being found here as with other tribes throughout the country; the Miamis were allied with the French and a number of the other tribes in this vicinity were allied with the English. The English together with the Cherokees, Delawares and other tribes were victorious in one of their many clashes with the French and their Indian allies, including the Miamis; subsequently, the Miamis being continuously harassed by the English, removed to the Maumee river and left this territory to the Shawanoes, a nomadic tribe, who came originally from the South, in all probability from the vicinity of Florida.
There had been sporadic attempts at settlements by the whites in this region ; as far back as 1749, the French and English beginning that long drawn out contest for supremacy, which only ended with (page 496) the fall of Quebec. One Christopher Grist, who was an English agent for the Ohio Trading company who visited this part of the valley, found the Indians on terms of amity with the white adventurers as late as 1750. He referred to their villages as 50 miles up the Miami and states their number to have been at least 200. It is asserted and claimed with some degree of validity that some of these villages were near the present site of Piqua. As far back as 1849 the French controlled the trade of this country and claimed possession by right of settlement. The French Governor of Canada, Grallisonier, caused lead plates, engraved with the claims of the French government, to be placed at the mouth of rivers running into the Ohio. One of these plates dated August 16th, 1749, was found near the mouth of-the Muskingum. However, this attempt at possession was abortive, as the French claims were in constant dispute by the English. There was desultory fighting between the English and French for permanent possession and when the keystone of the situation, Quebec, passed into the hands of the English, the English claims were largely secured.
The French had built a line of fortifications from the Ohio toward the Great Lakes ; and about 1749 the English had established a trading center at the mouth of Loramie's creek. This so-called intrusion of the English, impelled the French to demand of the Twigtwees the surrender of the trading house to them. Their refusal to do so, resulted in the seizure of this place by the French and their Indian allies; the Indian defenders being killed or driven away and the English traders were carried to Canada as prisoners.
In October, 1753, the Twigtwees, Shawanoes and other tribes in this vicinity sent representatives to meet the commissions of Pennsylvania. This meeting was held at Carlisle and a treaty was concluded. Benjamin Franklin was one of the commissioners. In the summer of 1780 General George Clarke, after a prolonged contest with the savages, destroyed all the Piqua towns on Mad river, laid waste their cultivated lands and destroyed the last vestige of their possessions. The Shawanoes, humiliated by this defeat, moved to the Great Miami. Here they built a new settlement and largely turned to hunting for their subsistence. Two years later, recovering from their chastisement, they engaged in a series of raids into Kentucky, killing all whites whom they encountered. They committed many terrible outrages and swooped down on all unprotected settlements, killing without mercy.
This condition called for reprisals and General Clarke in 1782 raised an army of 1,000 Kentuckians. The well known fighting ability of these famous frontiersmen earned for them the name "Long Knives." They were fearless and their life in the wilderness had inured them to its hardships. The Indians had great respect for the fighting qualities of these men and often when the Indian scouts reported the "Long Knives" coming, the Indians fled into the wilderness without any combat.
Clarke and his "Long Knives" crossed into the Ohio, at what is now Cincinnati, and began their march into the interior fastness. Scouts were sent in advance and the command soon reached the (page 497) vicinity of Dayton. They then marched up the great Miami and crossed the river about four miles below the Piqua towns.
A pow-wow was about to be held in the Piqua towns. Braves, with their squaws, were flocking in from all parts of the territory; among these was a party on horseback, attended by their squaws. In this party was a white woman, a Mrs. McFall, whom the Indians had captured in a raid into Kentucky. This party had emerged from the forest when they came into full view of General Clarke's rugged army of "Long Knives." Taken by surprise and terror stricken, they fled, leaving their squaws and Mrs. McFall, the white woman, in the hands of General Clarke. When Clarke and his men reached the Piqua towns he found them deserted, the entire Indian population having fled at the first alarm.
During the following night, Indians lurking in the surrounding bushes, fired on the outposts. The whole army was aroused and, hurling themselves into the brush and woods, they fired indiscriminately into the darkness. The next morning five Indians were found dead. During this skirmish, several horses strayed away. Captain McCracken and another were detailed in search of them. The Indians fired at them, mortally wounding both. Captain McCracken lingered, until the command reached Cincinnati on its return trip, where he died and was buried. Among those who settled in Miami county, who engaged in the activities of this enterprise, were Abraham Thomas and Captain Barbee, the latter of whom became a judge of this county.
The spirit of the Indians was at this time completely broken.
Clarke had laid waste the towns, destroyed their crops and other substance. They were now reduced to absolute want and had been thoroughly cowed in this engagement.
On January 31, 1786, a meeting was held at the mouth of the Great Miami. General Clarke, Richard Butles and Samuel H. Parsons, Commissioners, met the Delawares, Wyandottes, and Shawanoes. At this meeting some of the Indians were still disposed to treachery and some of them were prepared to defy Clarke and his associates.
The stern demeanor of Clarke, his uncompromising attitude, and his utter fearlessness, thoroughly cowed the Indians. Clarke abruptly accepted the mandate of one of the chiefs, who seeking to bluff Clarke, gave him the alternative of war or peace, dictated by the Indians. Clarke instantly hurled defiance at the assembled Indians, choosing war if he could not have peace on his own terms. The Indians finally acquiesced and the terms of peace were arranged. This signal victory of Clarke and his associates again endeared himself to the pioneers of this territory, who idealized him as much as the Indians feared him.
The last great campaign against the Indians, which initiated the subsequent security from their attacks, was the Wayne expedition, headed by the intrepid Mad Anthony Wayne. After a bloody contest at Fallen Timbers, the Treaty of Greenville was accomplished in 1795, which ceded all the lands held by the Indians in what is now Miami county. A monument commemorating this event was erected at the foot of the Maumee Rapids. This is a great (page 498) limestock rock carved with the prints of many turkey feet. When Me-sa-sa or Turkey Foot-the English equivalent who was the Indian chief in the fight at Fallen Timbers, saw his braves deserting him he leaped with desperation on a rock at this spot. With all of his Indian eloquency and fired with desperation, he exposed himself to the enemy and harangued his warriors, but they fed in a panic of fear. Brave Me-sa-sa was struck by a bullet and died heroically on this spot. To preserve the memory of this brave Indian the turkey feet were carved in this stone and for many years the remaining Indians made pilgrimages to it, leaving offerings to the spirit of Me-sa-sa. It has been the object of interest to tourists and sightseers from many sections of the country.
By treaty and voluntary relinquishment, the Indian title passed out between 1784 and 1794, and the latter date found the Indian menace reduced to a minimum. The signing of the Treaty following the Wayne expedition gave impetus to the new settlement of this region. The next event of importance, the John Cleves Symmes purchase, might be said to mark the beginning of the real settlement of the Miami valley. The territory had assumed a definite position and titles could be made secure. The vanguard of the great army of pioneers now began to pour over the Alleghenies. The Symmes purchase is treated elsewhere in this work. Settlements were made in the vicinity and on the site of the present city of Dayton, by General Dayton and others and the drift began northward. Among the first to reach the present limits of Miami county were Samuel Morrison, David H. Morris and others. They located near the mouth of Honey creek and in the spring of 1797 established a permanent settlement. A short time later the boundaries of the town christened Livingston were defined. The same year Jonathan Rollins, Samuel Hillard, John Gerard, Shadrach Hudson, Daniel Cox, Thomas Rich and others entered Miami county.
In the spring of 1798 John Knoop, Benjamin Knoop, Henry Gerard, Benjamin Hamlet, John Tilden and Daniel and Christopher Knoop located near the present village of Staunton. In the spring of 1799 we find that John Gerard, Uriah Blue, Joseph Cole, Abram Hathaway, Nathaniel Gerard and Abner Gerard joined the little colony at this place. The settlers were from various parts of the country and although they filtered in slowly at first, Miami county soon drew a generous share of the sturdy pioneers. They came from New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Virginia ; from the Carolinas and Georgia and among the early settlers was a general sprinkling of Yankees. There was a pronounced Scotch-Irish strain in this vanguard of civilization, especially in the contingent from the Carolinas,
The land was heavily wooded with a touch of prairie appearing here and there. The sound of a woodsman's ax resounded throughout the valley and log cabins began to appear as if by magic. The valley soon became dotted with these primitive dwellings of the pioneers and the great tide of settlement had begun.
As the settlers gathered into communities and established definite settlements, the necessity for gristmills and sawmills (page 499) became apparent. This was the next step in the march of progress, and by 1807 there were six mills in operation in this county, as follows: Mordecai Mendenhall's on Honey creek; Henry Gerard's on Spring creek ;'John Freeman’s and John Manning's on the Miami river ; Moses Coate's on Ludlow creek ; Mast's, Weddle's and Empire's on Stillwater.
A great deal of trading at this early time was in the nature of exchange. Money was rarely seen at that time and values were largely standardized on a trading basis. Periodical trips were made to Cincinnati, which was generally a community affair. A trip of this kind was an event of great importance, goods needed at the settlement were listed, the wagon was provisioned and articles that might be traded, such as were produced at that time, were sent to Cincinnati on these trips to be traded for the necessities of the settlements.
Up to and including the year of 1807, we find the following settlers of Miami county living here at that time : - On the east side of the river, south, were Samuel Morrison ; David H. Morris ; William and Mordecai Mendenhall; Robert Crawford; John H. and Cunningham Crawford; William Ellis; Benjamin Lee ; Daniel Agnebrood ; Christian and Daniel Lefevre ; John Andrew ; Stephen, Benjamin, William and Andrew Dye, jr.; John, Christian and Benjamin Knoop ; Cornelius Westfall; Fielding Lowry ; Thomas Sayres ; Peter Felix ; John Gerard ; Simon Laudry; Uriah Blue; Barnabus and James Blue; Jonathan Rollins; Shadrach Hudson ; John, Samuel and Lewis Winans', Abner, Henry and Nathaniel Gerard ; Richard Winnans ; John Orbison; Joseph, Charles and Samuel Hillard ; Benjamin Hamlet ; William Knight ; John and Joseph Webb ; David and John Knight ; Richard Palmer; John Wallace ; William Brown ; Joseph Coe ; Stephen Winnans ; Abraham Hathaway ; William Carter ; Bennett Langley ; Caleb Hathaway ; William and James I. McKinney; John and Jacob Mann; Lewis and Obadiah Winters; Philip Sailor; George William; Jacob Sailor; Chris Prillman ; John Batterall ; Peter Harmon ; John Flyn ; James McCampbell ; Ralph French ; Samuel James and Louis DeWeese.
On the west side of the Miami, to the north we have John Johnston, who was Indian agent ; Frank and James Johnston ; Benjamin Leavel ; Hugh Scott; Mr. Hendershot; Armstrong Brandon; John and Enos Manning ; Alexander Ewing ; Joseph McCool ; Mathew Caldwell ; the Statler family ; the Beedles ; James Brown ; William Mitchell ; Alexander McCullough ; Robert Mackey ; William Barbee, sr., father of judge Barbee ; James Orr ; Reuben Shackelford ; Aaron Tullis and his sons, John, Aaron, William, David, Joel, John T. and Stephen ; Henry and Peter Kerns ; Samuel Kyle ; Thomas and Samuel Kyle, jr.; William Adams, Abraham Thomas ; Robert McGimsey; William, Adam and Samuel Thomas; William Gahagan; John Peck ; John Orbison ; James Knight ; Jesse Gerard ; George Kerr ; James Yourt ; George F. Tennery ; Joseph Layton ; Firederic Yourt; Jesse Jenkins ; Andrew Thomson ; Amos and David Jenkins, and David Jenkins, Esq.; Samuel Freeman and his sons, Samuel Daniel, John, Noah and Shylock; Samuel and Enoch (page 500) Pearson; Peter Oliver and his sons, William and Thomas; Arthur Stewart; Andrew Wallace; James Yourt; William Brown; Thomas Williams; Joseph Furnas; Joseph Evans ; John Mote ; Jonathan Mote; Benjamin Pearson; Robert and Joseph McCool; William, Thomas and John Coppock; Samuel, Jesse, John and Moses Coates; Thomas Hill and his sons Nathan and John ; Michael and George Williams; William Long; Robert Leavel; Samuel Jones; Jacob; Jonathan Mills; David Patty ; Abiather Davis ; Caleb Neal;, John Mart; James Nayton; Samuel Davis; Jonathan Jones; Samuel Teague ; Samuel Peirce, and Robert McConnell. In 1868 we find the following living, enumerated above : Christian Lefevre, Eliza Webb, John Webb, John T. Tullis, Samuel Thomas, Robert McCool, Samuel Coates, David Patty, Samuel Davis, Jonathan Jones, and Robert McConnell.
Boundaries of Miami County. Hamilton county and Montgomery county, Ohio, having been designated and organized the County of Miami was laid of with the following description: "All that part of Montgomery county be and the same is hereby laid of and erected, into a separate and distinct county, which shall be called and known by the name of Miami, to-wit : Beginning at the southwest corner of Champaign county and southeast corner of Section I, Township 2, and Range 9; thence west with the line between Ranges 9 and 10 to the Great Miami river, crossing the same in such directions as to take the line on the bank of the said river, between Townships 3 and 4, in Range 6, west of the said river; thence west with the said line to the state line; thence north with the same to the Indian boundary line ; thence east with the same to the Champaign county line, thence south with the said county line to the place of beginning.
From and after the first day of April, 1807, said county of Miami shall be vested with all the powers, privileges and immunities of a separate and distinct county. January 7th, 1812, all that part of the county of Montgomery lying north of the county of Miami shall be, and the same is hereby, attached to the said county of Miami ; and all that part lying north of the county of Darke shall be, and the same is hereby, attached to the said county of Darke." January 3, 1809. So much of the county of Miami as lies west of the middle of the fourth Range of Townships ; east of the meridian drawn from the mouth of the Great Miami, be and the same is hereby erected into the county of Darke. January 7, 1819, a part of Miami was taken in the formation of Shelby, which left it as it is now.
County Seat. A seat of justice was first established at Staunton, in the house of Peter Felix, a French trader and the first session of court was held at this place, June 23rd, 1807. Two commissions were produced, signed by Edward Tiffin, Esq., Governor of the state of Ohio, sealed with the great seal of the state of Ohio and countersigned by the Secretary of the State. The one bearing date the fourth day of February, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seven (1807) appointing John Gerard an associate Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for the county of Miami ; and the other appointing John Crawford Associate judge as aforesaid and bearing (page 501) date the fifth day of February One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seven (1807). Whereupon the said John Gerard and John H. Crawford took the oath to support the constitution of the United States and the state of Ohio and also the oath of office, and constituted a Court.
"The Court proceeded to prepare notifications to be set up in public places in the county for the election of a sheriff and a coroner and three county commissioners and signed the same.
"Ordered, that the electors of this county meet on Friday, the third day of July next, in Elizabeth Township, at the house of Peter Felix, in Staunton, and the electors of Randolph Township at the house of Mr. Joseph Evans in the town of Milton, for the purpose of electing a sheriff, coroner and three county commissioners. "Ordered, that the listers of each Township be notified to proceed to take the list of the practicable property in their respective townships, also to take in the enumeration of the white male inhabitants above 21 years of age.
"Adjourned until Tuesday, the fourteenth day of July, at this house, and appoint a clerk, pro tempore to our courts."
At a court held at Staunton on Thursday, the 14th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1807.
Present, the Honorable Francis Dunlevy, Esq., president of our courts, and John Gerard, and John H. Crawford, Esqs., associate judges. Cornelius Westfall was appointed clerk pro tempore of the Court of Common Pleas for Miami county, whereupon judge Dunlevy administered the oath to support the constitution of the United States and of the State of Ohio and also the oath of office prescribed by law.
A certificate was produced in the court, certifying that Thomas Kyle was a regularly ordained minister of the Gospel, and on application, license was granted to the said Thomas B. Kyle to solemnize marriage according to law.
The State of Ohio, Miami County, Common Pleas, September term, 1807.
Before the Honorable Francis Dunlevy, Esq., president, John Gerard, Thomas H. Crawford, associate judges ; Cornelius Westfall, clerk, pro tem. ; Stephen Dye, sheriff; Arthur St. Clair, Esq., prosecutor for the state. Grand jurors impaneled and sworn to-wit : James Blue, foreman of the jury; James L. McKinney; Henry Orbison ; Joseph McKorkle ; Henry Robinson ; Daniel Knoop ; Theodore Sanders ; Michael Blue; John Huston ; William Miller ; Andrew Dye, jr.; Matthew Caldwell ; John Wallace; John Jenkins ; James Youart, and Isaac Holt, constable.
Common Pleas, May Term, 1808. The state of Ohio, Miami county, ss.:
Before the Honorable Francis Dunlevy, Esq., president; John Gerard, John J. Crawford, and William Barbee, Esqs., associate judges. Present Cornelius Westfall, clerk; Stephen Dye, Esq., sheriff ; Isaac G. Burnett, Esq., prosecutor for the state. Grand jurors impaneled and sworn, to-wit : Arthur Stewart, foreman ; James Marshall ; William Ellis ; Charles Hillard ; Alexander Ewing; Joseph Beedle ; Robert Mackey ; Jesse Gerard ; Albia Martin ; Joseph (page 502) Case; Samuel Freeman; Jacob Kinser; John Manning; Patrick Lafferty ; Abraham Hathaway ; John Smith, constable.
The grand jurors, after receiving their charge, went out of court, and after some time, returned back to court, and made presentments as follows, viz.: We present George Overpeck for an assault and battery, and Alanson Shaw for assault and battery. And then the grand jurors having nothing further to present were discharged. June 6, 1808. Present, John Gerard and William Parker, Esqs., associate judges; Cornelius Westfall, clerk. The commissioners for the county of Miami, made application for the appointment of a commissioner, in the place of Joseph McCorkle, resigned, who was one of said board. Arthur Stewart is duly appointed to fill said vacancy.
Common Pleas, September term, 1808. The state of Ohio,
Miami county, ss.:
Before the Honorable Francis Dunlevy, Esq., president; John Gerard, John H. Crawford; William Barbee, Esq., sheriff; Isaac G. Burnett, Esq., prosecutor for the state. Grand jurors impaneled and sworn, to-wit : David H. Morris, foreman ; Reuben Shackelford ; Bennet B. Langley ; Joseph B. Robinson ; Thomas W. Furnas; Moses Coate ; Andrew Dye, sr.; Isaac Embree; John Knoop ; Michael Fair; Benjamin Knoop ; Thomas Coppock ; Joseph Evans; Shadrach Hudson and Levi Martin.
September term, 1808, September 17. It is ordered by the court, and is hereby understood, that Lots No. 34, 135, 145 and 146 are appropriated for the purpose of building a schoolhouse and academy, for public utility, on said lot.
Session of the associate judges. The State of Ohio, Miami county, ss.:
Sessions of November, Anno Domini, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight (1808). Be it remembered that on the fifth day of November, being the next judicial day after our Court of Common Pleas, at the house of Benjamin Overfeld, in Troy. Before John Gerard, John H. Crawford and William Barbee, Esqs., associate judges. Present Cornelius Westfall, clerk.
It was not until the September following the formation of the county that the commission appointed to define the seat of justice made their report. This report, signed by Jesse Newport, Daniel Wilson and Joseph Lamb, fixed upon a fraction of section 21, and the northeast corner of section 28-township 5, range 6, east of the Meridian line drawn from the mouth of the Great Miami river. The site selected embraced a tract somewhat in excess of one hundred and twenty acres, forty of which was owned by Aaron Tullis, who deeded this to Cornelius Westfall on the 31st day of July, 1813, for $120.30. On the same day William Barbee and Alexander McCullough deeded to the town director the east part in section 28 for $421.50.
The second place of holding court in this county was in the home or tavern of Benjamin Overfeld at Troy. This was situated at the corner of Water and Mulberry streets. The structure was built of hewn logs, with two stories, the lower floor being used for (page 503) the tavern bar and the upper floor for the court. In 1815 a new court house was started in the public square, but was not finished for a number of years, and as the population steadily increased it was realized that another of larger proportions was needed. This was brought about and it was located on lot 42, now occupied by the postoffice, and it served from 1845 until the present structure was finished in 1885.
Court House War. When the site was originally selected as the site for the county seat, there was keen disappointment, not only among the people of Staunton, who claimed priority, but Piqua also advanced many reasons why the county seat should be located at that place. The final selection of Troy marked the beginning of the so-called court house war between Troy and Piqua. When the court house was erected in 1845, being the second one owned by the county, Piqua again advanced its claims for the erection of that court house in Piqua; but these claims were again denied and the new court house was erected in Troy. This intermittent warfare over the county seat lasted more than seventy-five years. The rivalry was very hostile at times and the controversy engendered a very bitter feeling between the two groups of citizens. When the erection of the present court house was proposed the old time feud was again awakened. Delegations from both places visited the State capital in 1884 to present their claims to the State legislature.
After a prolonged struggle between the two delegations and much wire pulling by both sides, in which it was proposed (in advance of the times) to take a referendum vote, the legislature decided the matter by the act of April 10, 1884 (81st 0. L. 425), enacting a law which finally resulted in the building of the new court house at Troy.
That the court house question was the only source of hostility between the two towns and their people is attested by the feeling subsequent to the settlement of this question. From a state of bitter hostility the two communities developed a cordial friendship and unreserved co-operation, leaving no traces of their rivalry and its former bitterness.
Early Transportation in Miami County. Probably one of the first public transportation services rendered in this county was that of the early ferry operated at Troy. As this town developed the need became imperative for some method of crossing the river-a
matter of daily importance. A ferry was established between Market street and the opposite shore and tolls charged were as follows:
Foot passengers, 6/ cents; man and horse, 12 cents ; loaded wagon and team, 75 cents ; empty wagon, 50 cents. An attempt was made to ferry the boat by means of a rope and pulley, but this proved abortive after several pronounced failures.
First River Transportation. In the spring of 1819, river transportation was inaugurated under the auspices of Fielding Loury. Three boats were put into service on the river, the first under command of Captain Gahagan ; the second under Captain Hunter and the third under Captain Hamlet. The boat manned by Captain Gahagan was rammed by that under Captain Hunter, and the (page 504) former boat sank with all of its cargo. After strenuous efforts lasting three days it was raised and put into service. About the middle of July the boats were again launched and cargoed for their maiden voyage.
Mrs. Loury, wife of Fielding Loury, with her two daughters, embarked on one of the boats for an intended visit to her parents at St. Francisville. While on the Mississippi Mrs. Loury became ill and died. They buried her on the banks of the Mississippi, and her husband, who arrived at St. Francisville the following December, learned of this tragedy for the first time. On his return north, he brought the remains home for burial. The venture was a financial failure and completely ruined its promoter, Mr. Loury.
The Miami Canal. The tentative plans for the rehabilitation of canal traffic at this time, evokes an interest in the history of the old Miami canal. The service rendered by this waterway was a tremendous one; indeed, no little of the present greatness of the Miami valley is due to this early outlet of commerce. The service rendered to the early inhabitants, their industries and institutions, was comparatively as great to them as that rendered today by the locomotive, electric and auto transportation. It was no less great because of its comparative slowness. It filled the needs of its time, and, as a single factor, contributed more to the development of this region than any other of its time.
The revival of waterway transportation is a matter of serious discussion at this time and one that will be a reality no doubt in the very near future. On the 14th of December, 1818, the subject of internal improvements by canals was first. called to the notice of the state legislature by Governor Brown in his inaugural address. On January 14, 1820, the house of representatives responded to this recommendation, calling for information as to the practicability of a waterway connecting the Ohio river and the Great Lakes. January 31, 1822, an act was passed authorizing an examination of this subject. Benjamin Tappan, Alfired Kelley, Thomas Worthington, Ethan A. Brown, Jeremiah Morrow, Isaac Minor and Ebenezer Buckingham were appointed commissioners and these later reported favorably on the project. In January, 1824, Messrs. Williams and Kelley were appointed to direct examinations and survey. February 25, 1824, Nathaniel Beasley was appointed canal commissioner. At this time an act passed both branches of the legislature, authorizing the procuring of funds for the purpose of constructing the canal. Robert Young was a member of the senate from Miami county at this session and John McCorkle of this county was a member of the house of representatives.
A permanent board of canal commissioners was organized. One of its first acts was to invite Governor DeWitt Clinton, of New York, "Builder of the Eric Canal," as a guest to attend the commencement of operation. Work was begun July 4, 1826, near Newark, Licking county, Governors Clinton and Morrow turning a spade full of earth each, the same ceremony being shortly repeated at Middletown. The canal was finished from Cincinnati to Dayton and the first boats arrived at the latter place January 25, 1829. The boats were named as follows: The Governor Brown, The Farrer, (page 505) The General Marion and The General Pike. It is needless to say that there was great rejoicing at the terminals on the arrival of these boats.
Colonel John Johnston was untiring in his efforts to extend the canal north; as a citizen of Miami county he was very anxious to extend the benefits of the canal to this community. Being one of the canal commissioners, his influence was of great importance in its final accomplishment. That the canal was extended in this direction is largely a personal achievement of Colonel Johnston.
On February 3, 1830, a bill passed the senate authorizing a survey from Dayton to the Auglaize river, stipulating the costs of a survey at $1,500, the most practicable route to be selected. Largely due to Colonel Johnston's efforts, the canal was routed through Troy, Piqua, etc. On October 22, 1832, public sale of canal lands took place at the Piqua land office, Thomas B. Van Horn acting as register and Joseph Young as receiver.
Local contractors secured a great share in this extension, among them being Brownell and Sumner, J. G. and A. C. Furrow, William Johnston and others. Samuel Davis built the locks at Lockington and A. G. Conover was a civil engineer on this work. William J. Jackson was one of the chief engineers. The work on this division was completed and the water turned in at the state dam June 30, 1837. The "Emigrant" was launched the next day with a "passenger list" of "seventy souls" and thus was initiated the first water traffic through Miami county.
July 4, 1837, one of the greatest celebrations Piqua has ever held was in honor of the opening of the Miami canal for traffic. There were processions and orations and general festivities. Colonel John Johnston addressed the meeting and a grand ball was held at Tamplin's hotel in the evening. Many toasts were given and responded to. Among those speaking on this occasion were Colonel Johnston, General Robert Young, General Robert Lucas and General William Henry Harrison. On this occasion there was a delegation of fifty or more citizens from Troy, who attended the Piqua functions in a body.
This canal served the people of Miami county for many, many years. Its usefulness justified its construction beyond the expectations of its early sponsors. With the advent of the railroads and the quicker methods of transportation, canal traffic gradually dwindled and eventually was abandoned entirely.
County Schools. The first school in Miami county was organized in 1813 at what is now the corner of Market and Water streets, Troy. At that time there was not even a township organization. There were only fifteen children in this first school, which was considered a very good enrollment at that time, and the first teacher was Samuel Kyle. He was succeeded by John G. Clark. Somewhat later "The Academy" was built, a little brick school house on the present site of the Edwards building. The records of these very early schools are unreliable, but it is definitely known that Micajah Fairfield, who later started the Miami Reporter, taught for several years in the academy and was followed by Thomas (page 506) Barrett, afterwards county judge, and by John Pettit, who took charge in 1831.
The educational development of Miami county since that period is even more remarkable than its commercial growth. From the poorest log-cabin school house and its untrained instructor, to the splendid well-equipped institution of today, with its corps of specialists, is the growth of one hundred years of constant effort. The following summary is a review of Miami county schools under county supervision. The schools of Piqua, Troy and other towns will be set forth more fully in the chapters devoted to these places. Supervision. Miami county is especially proud of its system of district and local supervision of schools. There are four large districts and five of the smaller or 4,740 districts. Only one of the large districts has an excessive number of teachers, namely, fifty-one; the other three have from thirty-one to thirty-five teachers each. As a result of this division of supervision among a number of men, the schools are closely supervised in practically every case. It has been possible to get genuinely solid results even in the one room rural schools. In this class of schools a special effort has been made to improve methods of teaching in the lower grades with special emphasis placed on reading. As a result, the wasteful and almost worthless methods which formerly prevailed in this subject have practically disappeared from the county and have been replaced by modern methods applied 'daily. This change in reading methods, affecting the rural schools chiefly but also some of the villages has undoubtedly been the greatest specific benefit derived from the close co-operative supervision. Commensurable improvement has also been made during the past four or five years in the teaching of spelling and elementary arithmetic as proven by the repeated use of Ayres and Courtis tests.
Normal Training. County Normal school was established at West Milton in September, 1914, and has proven a very successful and helpful institution. It has had an average enrollment of about twenty each year, with the average number of graduates slightly less. The method used to keep up the normal school enrollment has been personal solicitation by the county superintendent among the senior classes of the various high schools. It is a good deal more economical in the long run to train teachers in a normal school than it is to supervise those already into service into being good teachers. although the latter can be done. The percentage of teachers who have had normal training depends not only upon the presence of a county normal school, but upon the willingness or ability of boards of education to pay enough money to attract teachers with training. By a constant campaign of education, the village and rural boards have been led to see that it is much better to employ a teacher with adequate normal training than to take chances on an "inexperienced" applicant. Nearly all of the boards of the county pay a higher wage to the teacher with one year normal training than to a teacher with less training, except in a case of those teachers who have had a number of years' experience and who have proven successful. Boards of education are usually quite willing to spend money to the limit for the best grade of teachers, once they (page 507) are convinced that there. are marked differences in the kinds of teachers to be had. As a result of the constant application of this policy, eighty teachers or fifty-three per cent of the elementary teachers in the village and rural schools of Miami county have had one year or more normal training of a recognized sort. About fifty of this number are graduates of the Miami County Normal School, while the remainder came from normal schools in other counties or from the State normals. A few of the graduates of the Miami County Normal School are teaching in other counties. The text books used in the elementary schools are uniform throughout the entire county district, excepting the fact that two systems of primary reading are in use-the Aldins being used in the towns and the New Education being used in the rural schools.
High School. The standard of teaching in the high schools is high. All high schools, except one, are first grade and the exception is planning to reach first rank in another year. The large high schools offer very liberal courses, giving many opportunities for elective studies. There are four teachers under the Smith-Hughes law, two ladies and two men. Each of these come in contact with a large number of rural pupils. A special effort has been made to make the enrollment of the high school classes as large as is reasonable in every community. Teaching of agriculture and domestic science has been stimulated not only in the high schools, but in the grades by the organization of boys and girls clubs in connection with the State University Extension Service.
Centralization. The first successful vote for centralization in this county was taken in Elizabeth township in December, 1914.
There are at present three centralized schools in operation, each of them maintaining first grade high schools. During the past year four more townships have voted to centralize, all of them by a good majority, two of the majorities running as high as seventy-seven per cent. Three of these new schools are maintaining high schools. The fourth lying near Troy will continue to use Troy High School for secondary education, but will build a fine building for the eight grades. Centralization is proving to be all that is claimed for it. There has been a very marked increase of interest in school affairs as the first big result. The work of the teachers has proven much more efficient, which is shown by the fact that the centralized schools graduate about sixty-five per cent more pupils per capita from the eighth grade than do the one-room schools. One of the three centralized schools in operation deserves special mention, as it is said to be the largest and best equipped rural school in Ohio. Bethel township, Miami county school. The township lies in the southeastern part of Miami county between Tipp City and New Carlisle. It contains some of the best improved farm land to be found anywhere and is also the home of numerous fruit tree nurseries. This abundant wealth has made it possible to erect a magnificent school building at a cost of approximately $160,000 at contract prices before the United States entered the war. The building is constructed of a beautiful pressed brick, with terrazza floors in all the corridors. The front entry way is especially beautiful.
(page 508) The portico is supported by gray sand stone columns. The broad stairway, just within the entry, is made of marble. Indirect lighting system is used in all the rooms. There are eight grade rooms, six of them being on the first floor. The high school occupies all of the second floor except the rooms used by the seventh and eighth grades. The study hall is a beautiful room, seating eighty pupils. The high school recitation rooms are of different sizes and each, is well adapted to its purpose. There are separate laboratories for both physics and chemistry with demonstrating and recitation room lying between the laboratories. In the basement is the agriculture laboratory, manual training shops offering both bench work and forge work and the household art rooms. These last include kitchen, pantry and sewing room. All laboratories are fully equipped in every detail. A pressure system supplies gas so that Bunsen burners may be used. The water system is adequate for all purposes throughout the building, including the laboratories. Both the domestic science and agriculture laboratories are presided over by Smith-Hughes teachers and each laboratory is fully equipped to meet the requirements of the State Board of Education in these particulars. The pupils' seats throughout the building are Moultrap chairs. The building contains two pianos and is in every respect well furnished. The library room is especially beautiful and is well lighted both day and night. It contains a collection of books much larger than is usually found in a public school building. It is card-catalogued and is under the charge of one of the teachers during several periods of the day, A number of magazines are taken and the reading room is proving very popular.
The building contains an auditorium and gymnasium, each of which is large and well arranged. The auditorium has a seating capacity of over five hundred. The stage is ample for all purposes.
Located at the rear of the auditorium is a fire-proof booth for a motion picture machine, which will probably be installed in the near future. The gymnasium is thought to be the largest floor found in any school building in the county. Ample provision has been made not only for players, but spectators, as double galleries have been arranged on three sides. The floor is well finished. In connection with the gymnasium are ample shower baths. The grounds consist of a ten-acre tract which is beautifully situated. There is ample space for play, agriculture experimentation and community meetings. The latter will be held in a four-acre grove which covers a part of the school property. The whole plant has been arranged and planned with the idea of being used as an educational and social center in all seasons of the year both day and night. It is said to be as near ideal as any rural school plant in existence. The school conducted in this magnificent plant is worthy of its quarters, from janitor to superintendent. Every employee in the building is especially adapted to the position which he or she fills. A fine corps of teachers is the result of the desire of the Board of Education to have the best and a willingness to pay the price to get it. The people of Bethel township deserve a great deal of credit for the wonderful financial and moral support which they have given (page 509) to the cause of education and community welfare. A school so unusual is naturally receiving a great many visitors, and visitors are always welcome.
Splendid Junior Red Cross work was done by the pupils and teachers of the county schools during the war, an account of which may be found in this volume under the head of "Miami County in Red Cross Work." Mr. L. J. Bennett, who has been county superintendent since 1914, is a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University, where he earned the degrees A. B. and A. M. He later studied at Columbia University, where he took the master's degree. Before occupying his present position, he was superintendent of schools in Covington, Ohio.
Early Banking. The old State banks have outgrown their usefulness, a new era of banking was ushered in with the advent of our National and State charged banks and savings institutions. Prior to the old State banks, currency was as fluctuating as a "grain exchange" when the "bulls and bears" are at death grip. Part of the wisdom of the early merchants consisted in being informed on the latest value of currency.
All this uncertainty of the "wild cat" banking days retarded the stability of business in general and it was not until the institution of sound banking laws that the country began to stride forward commercially.
Bank failures during early days seems to have been a pastime and the currency issued was as questionable as the beautifully engraved "wild cat" oil stock is today, in fact, the security behind the banks of that time -was frequently less than the real assets of the worst oil fakes of today. The State banks remedied the situation to a great extent. The gradual evolution of the new banking system, which has, with many improvements, continued to this time, solved the currency question and methods of exchange for all time to come. Among the early banks to be established in Miami county was the Piqua National bank, established in 1847. First organized as the Piqua branch of the State Bank of Ohio, the First National of Troy was established in 1863 as successor to the Miami county branch of the State bank, founded in 1847.
In 1871 the Miami County bank was established, later becoming the Troy National bank. A more detailed history of banks and banking in Miami county will be found in the sketches of Troy, Piqua and other towns.
Miami County Journalism. Prior to 1820 there was no means of news dissemination in Miami county. Communication was indeed slow; newspapers from other parts reached the community many days after publication. Very little news of general interest was received at the settlement as most of the papers received confined their general news to Congressional doings. Indeed, almost all news of interest was passed along by word of mouth. Every stranger was a source of news supply and generally regaled his hearers with the happenings along his journey, what he heard and what he saw, etc. Oftentimes a gullible public was feasted on strange and impossible yarns by these early "news" vendors. However, new arrivals, traders and wayfarers were called upon to furnish the latest news, (page 510) thus serving the needs of the community until the advent of the newspaper. About 1820 the first newspaper was established in Miami county, William R. Barrington, from Philadelphia, establishing "The Piqua Gazette." A more detailed story of the development of newspapers in Miami county will be found in the sketch of Piqua and Troy.
Physicians. Possibly in no other profession has so complete a change in method been made as in medicine in the last hundred years. In the last five years, under the impelling demands of the war, inventions that seem almost to revolutionize surgery have been made, and the efficiency of the entire profession has increased in leaps and bounds. Not only have scientists been able to provide curatives for disease, artificial limbs to replace shattered legs and arms, but have, by means of antitoxins and vaccinations, prevented the spread of malignant diseases that otherwise would have caused infinite numbers of deaths. When the first men came to Miami county the only resources to medical aid was the overworked country "doctor" who, mounted on horseback with his saddle bags hanging on either side, rode over almost impassable roads to the aid of the isolated sufferers. No more heroic figure can be painted than the pioneer doctor, for early and late, day and night, in fair weather and foul, he traveled weary miles in the interest of humanity. As good as were his intentions, however, methods at that time were so primitive that many a person got well in spite of the doctor's aid rather than because of it. Of course, everyone is familiar with the bleeding process that was supposed to be the panacea for all ills, which probably cost the life of as many persons as it saved. Anesthetics were unknown and the crude surgery of the day must have caused untold pain and suffering. Germs were as yet undiscovered and the necessity of segregation of patients suffering from contagious diseases was not realized. Epidemics of typhoid and small pox sometimes would leave a community almost depopulated, for in spite of all their care, ignorance of natural laws caused a tragic spread of the disease.
One of the earliest physicians in Miami county was Dr. Henry Chapeze, who came to Ohio in 1814 from his former home in Kentucky. He built a brick office on the corner of Wayne and Water streets in Piqua. In 1820 Dr. John O'Ferrall joined him and they worked hard to take care of the sick in the community. Other doctors in the early history of Piqua are: Drs. Jackson, Teller, Jorden, Hendershott and Worrall.
Of the Troy physicians, none stands out so prominently in the early days as Dr. Asa Coleman, who was born in Glastonbury, Conn. In 1811 he came out to Troy where he became identified with church and civic affairs and was known as a valuable citizen apart from his renown as a doctor. He enlisted in the War of 1812 and was made a lieutenant-colonel in 1818. At one time he was representative from Miami county and also an associate judge. He died in 1870. In 1850 his son, Dr. Horace Coleman, opened an office in Troy, but later became examining surgeon in the United States Pension Office in Washington. Other doctors of past fame are Dr. Alfired Potter of Casstown, Dr. G. Volney Dorsey of Piqua, Dr. William Patty of (page 511)Newton township, Dr. Isaac S. Meeks of Lost Creek township, Dr. De Joncourt, Drs. Abbott, Telford and Sabin of Troy.
The Miami County Medical Society, which was organized some fifteen years ago, enrolls most of the doctors of Miami county. At the regular meeting, December 5th, at the Piqua club, the following officers were elected : President, L. A. Pearson ; vice-president, R. O. Spencer; secretary-treasurer, J. F. Beachler; State delegate, J. E. Murray. The members enrolled at present are : Drs. A. J. Bausman, S. N. Bausman, J. N. Baker, J. Barker, W. Coleman, J. R. Caywood, Van S. Deaton, E. B. Davis, A. B. Frame, S. D. Hartman, G. Carrie, H. W. Kendall, B. J. Kendall, Ada L. Malick, J. E. Murray, R. M. O'Ferrall, H. Pearson, W. R. Thompson, T. M. Wright, I. C. Kiser, H. E. Shilling, L. A. Ruhl, J. Eichelberg, C. W. Bausman, C. A. Hartley, C. R. Coate, J. Prince, G. C. Ullery, M. Brubaker, F. Keener, C. E. Hetherington, J. F. Beachler, Chas. Baker, I. Trout, O. Stultman, P. L. Snorf, J. Funderberg.
Miami county has reason to be proud of the response made by its physicians during the war. When the urgent call for doctors came many offered immediately and although all who volunteered were not called, the following were chosen for service : F. W. Thomas, E. M. Clark, M. R. Haley, Robert Kunkle and E. A. Yates from Piqua; L. N. Lindenburg, J. S. Shinn from Troy; Judson Teeter from Pleasant Hill, and J. H. Warvel of Bradford.
Miami County Dental Association. The Miami County Dental society is included in the Western Ohio Dental society as a part of the Ohio Dental association. The Western Ohio division includes Miami, Darke and Shelby counties. This branch of the State organization was formed in 1914, and Piqua was the place of meeting designated for future meetings-unless otherwise decreed by vote. Besides the executive officers, the constitution required the election of one vice-president from each of the counties represented. The present officers are Dr. A. A. Davis of Troy, president; Dr. F. A. McCullough of Troy, secretary and treasurer. The vice-presidents are Dr. J. J. Little, Darke county ; Dr. V. W. Bedford, Shelby county; Dr. E. G. Eddy, Miami county.
Miami County Bar Association. A number of years ago a bar association was formed in Miami county. This, however, ceased to be active and for many years lay dormant. It was not until 1914 that an active organization of the bar of Miami county was effected.
At that time G. T. Thomas of Troy was elected president and F. C. Goodrich was elected secretary.
On April 11, 1901, a banquet was held by the bar association in Piqua that will long linger in the memories of those present. The toastmaster on this occasion was A. F. Broomhall of Troy. The responses were made as follows : Early Bench and Bar, Major Stephen Johnston, Hon. H. M. Jones and Hon. J. F. McKinney; The Early Troy Bar, Hon. J. W. Morris; Early Prosecuting Attorneys, Judge H. H. Williams; Probate Judges of Miami County, Judge W. C. Johnston ; Miami County Lawyers as Legislators, Hon. T. B. Kyle ; Lawyers in Journalism, Capt. E. S. Williams. In his response, the venerable M. H. Jones, dean of the Miami county bar, recalled his early life as a lawyer and reviewed the early (page 512) bench and bar of Miami county and famous trials of that period. Mr. Jones recalled that he was admitted to the bar on May 11, 1848, by the old supreme court at Cincinnati and was examined by a committee composed of judge Salmon P. Chase, Judge Timothy Walker, author of "American Law," and Judge Coffin. "After this examination," Mr. Jones continued, "buying a few law books, I took passage on the canal packet under command of Capt. W. J. Downs of Piqua, where I arrived without a dollar in my pocket. There were then practicing in Piqua Col. James H. Hart, Samuel S. McKinney and Gordon N. Mott. Two or three years later came Maj S. Johnston, J. F. McKinney and James T. Janiver. In Troy there were active in practice then, Daniel Grosvenor, George D. Burgess, Ebenezer Parsons, William I. Thomas, Harvey G. Sellers, Charles Morris, George H. Aylesworth and Henry B. Smeltzer."
Mr. Jones recalled many amusing anecdotes of early practice and described the characteristics of many of the figures of the bench and bar of early days.
"Our supreme court at that time," said Mr. Jones, "was composed of five judges who traveled to every county in the state annually, two being a quorum, and generally traveling together in a buggy. On one occasion the court came to Troy in their buggy in the evening, went to the court house and got the papers in all the cases from the clerk, read them and considered them in their room at the hotel that night, decided them, putting a slip in each package announcing their decision, took them back to the clerk before breakfast next morning, called his attention to their decision, and told the clerk to tell the lawyers when they came in, and after an early breakfast started in their buggy to `hold court' in the next county.
You can imagine the pious ejaculations of the lawyers when they `came into court' to try their cases."
The above anecdote and many others were recited by Mr. Jones amid the hearty laughter of all those present on this occasion. The evening was enlivened by the speakers who covered the entire range of practice, in all its pathos and humor. Tribute was paid to the departed members, Hon. J. F. McKinney and John W. Morris. This banquet will long linger in the memories of those present. It marked a period when there were but few of the older lawyers living. Some of these have since passed away. The responses on this occasion were treasured as the personal reminiscences of those who may well be remembered as pioneers of the Miami county bar. The Miami County Bar association now embraces most of the lawyers of this county. It meets annually each January. Brown Township. Among the first settlers to locate in this township were John Adney, John Oliver, John Kiser, Daniel Newcomb, John Simmons and John Caven. A number of the early settlers in this township came from Virginia and there was also a generous immigration to this region from Pennsylvania. A short time prior to 1812 the early settlers of this township erected a blockhouse, being in constant danger of marauding Indians. This was on the land owned by John Kiser. Among the first to settle here after the War of 1812 was Asa Munsell who subsequently became a member of the legislature. John Molloy settled here in 1821 and afterwards (page 513) engaged in the lumber business with John P. Davis. Molloy subsequently moved to California where he became a bonanza king. Among others of the early settlers in this township were John Caven, William Concannon, Major Manning, Joseph Cory and Michael Sills. Benjamin Bowersock opened the first blacksmith shop in the township. The first sawmill was built in 1821 by John Molloy.
The Methodists early held meetings in this township, having held services here in the homes of the first settlers. As early as 1809 traveling Baptist ministers held meetings at the home of Mr. Kiser. The first schoolhouse in the township was built in 1810 on Section 36 and its first teacher was "Aunt" Sallie Tucker, who was succeeded by "Aunt" Patty McQuillen.
Spring Creek Township. While John Hilliard was the first person to enter land in this township, his entry being made December 31, 1802, French traders had been in this community and one of these had built a small trading store in this vicinity. Among others who first entered land here were John McKinney, 1806; Gardener Bobo, 1807, and James McKinney, 1805. Following these came William Stuart, Daniel Symmes, Mathew Scudder; William Frost, James Cregan, George M. Caven; Henry Freeman, William Wiley and G. P. Torrance. John Dilbone subsequently entered land in this township, he and his wife and a Mr. Gerard later being massacred by the Indians.
Charles Hilliard, a son of John Hilliard, was the first white man to be married in this township, taking as his wife Sarah Manning, who lived just across the river from the Hilliards. John William Hilliard, a son of this couple, was the first white child to be born in the township.
In 1808 James McKinney, who had settled in the township a short time previously, erected a grist mill on Spring Creek. A distillery had been erected a short time prior to the erection of the grist mill, it passing into the hands of Henry Orbison who continued its operation for a number of years. The first saw mill to be operated here was that of Samuel Wiley, who built this in 1815, he building a dam across the creek for this purpose. The first schoolhouse in the township was built on Section 25 in 1815, and James Laird, a native of the Emerald Isle, first taught here. The first "smithy" to open a shop in the township was Caleb Jones, who was ready for business in the fall of 1814.
Union Township. While there is some division of opinion as to the very first to settle in this township, it is quite certain as to the early land holders. Among those to first enter land in this township were John Mast, Thomas Coppock, John Richardson, Samuel Coate, Moses Coate, John Compton, Jonathan Mote and the Mendenhalls. David Mote and his sons, Jonathan, Jeremiah, William, John and James settled here soon after the first vanguard. John Mote, son of David, was the first physician to practice in this township and was a fiery abolitionist. From Georgia came a number of adherents of the Society of Friends, among whom were Abiathar Davis and the Hollingsworths, Isaac, James, George and Nathan. John Mast established one of the first grist mills in the township. Samuel Kelly, a Yankee, built a woolen mill on Section 21 and (page 514) about 1824 Seth Kelly, a brother of Samuel, built and operated a scythe factory in the same neighborhood.
The first religious services were in all probability held at the Mendenhall home and were the "Friends' Meetings." The first school in the township was at the old "Friends' Meeting House" at West Branch and was taught by John How, an Englishman. Newton Township. Some time between 1797 and 1800 Michael Williams removed from North Carolina to Ohio. He met General
William Henry Harrison at Cincinnati, who told him of the wonders of this country. Mr. Williams and his family, consisting of four sons and five daughters, removed here and settled on Section 19, arriving here in 1801. His youngest son, John, later became a minister of the gospel, the first to be produced in this township. Others who entered land in the next two or three years were Michael Ingle, Sylvester Thompson and William Schenck. Moses and Samuel Coate came from South Carolina on a prospecting tour and were subsequently joined by their father, Marmaduke Coate, and the rest of the family. Marmaduke Coate entered land in Section 32 in 1804. Others who arrived at an early date were Thomas Hill and family, Benjamin Iddings, Joseph Furnas and Isaac Ballinger. William and David Miles came from South Carolina and settled west of the river about 1807 and were immediately followed by Robert Leavel, who settled on Section 2. Jacob Embree erected a saw mill in 1808 and later in the same year attached a four mill. The first school in the township was taught by Joseph Furnas in 1808, his cabin being used for this purpose. The first church to be erected was a Union church, built in 1820. Prior to this the "Friends" held open air meetings and in homes and barns, but had no special meeting house.
Concord Township. Among the first land entries in this township were those of Samuel Martin, Samuel Kyle, William Barbee and Robert Marshall, Aaron Tullis, David Tullis, William Gahagan, Abraham Thomas, John Orbison, Alexander McCullough and Joseph Layton. Others who settled here between 1803 and 1808 were Reuben Shackleford, Alexander Telford, John Peck and his four sons, Jacob, John, Joseph and Isaac, David Jenkins, James Fort and Thomas Kyle.
In 1807 a religious meeting was held at the cabin of Abraham Thomas, Thomas Kyle doing the preaching. A short time later the Baptists organized a church, also holding services on occasions at the home of Mr. Thomas. Abraham Thomas was an ex-soldier of the Revolution and Indian fighter. A short time after locating here he built a forge, using a hog pen for his smithy shop. James Orr came with his family from Kentucky and settled in this township in 1804, this family becoming prominent in the manufacturing business at a subsequent period. William Gahagan entered the land on which Troy was laid out.
Staunton Township. The French traders were up and down this territory long before the actual white settlement began. While the land entries may be regarded as the official title of settlement, there were settlers in Staunton township prior to the first person who entered land from the government. Peter Felix, a historical (page 515) character, who was known as a shrewd little French trader, had a small Indian trading store for some time prior to the actual settlement of this township. Simon Landry was another of the early French traders in and about Staunton.. The first land entries were those of John Gerard, Uriah Blue, Henry Gerrard, A. Blue, James Blue, John Whiting, Levi Martin, Mathew Huston, Peter Felix, Jacob Kinzer and John Knoop, who entered land July 31, 1805, Among others who subsequently entered land or lived in this settlement, Amariah Smalley, William Marshall, Jacob Riddle, John Gilmore, E. Hilliard, John Julian and Richard Winans, William and James Clark and the Rev. David Clark.
Amariah Smalley opened a forge on Section 15 in 1807 and Mr. Marshall, who was a weaver by trade, started in this business on Section 22 and did a thriving business. He later was elected justice of the peace, serving for thirty years. Levi Martin and his wife were the central figures in the well-known Indian tragedy, Mrs. Martin being scalped by the Indians.
Among the early preachers to visit here were Nathan Worley of the Christian denomination, Samuel DeWeese, Presbyterian, and Abbot Goddard, Methodist. The Baptist church was one of the early organized churches, their first place of worship being at the home of Stephen Dye. Among the early worshipers at this church were Moses Winters, Nathaniel Gerard, Stephen Dye, William Knight, Elizabeth Winters, Mary Gerard and Mehitable Dye. The ministers at that time were Elder Joshua Carmon and Elder John Smith. This church was formally organized December 1, 1804. Jane DeWeese was the first white female child born in this township and J. Knoop was the first male child born here. Isaac Gabriel was the first teacher in the township, Peter Landre was the first cooper and William Dye and Amariah Smalley were the first blacksmiths.
Lost Creek Township. Among the first land entries recorded in this township were those of Jason Burnett, who settled in this township in 1804, others being John Brownson in 1805, John Johnston, Abraham Edwards, Barnabus Blue, John Rogers, John Holderman, John Whipple, John Flinn and Daniel Lauden, all of whom entered land in 1805. Among others who settled here between 1805 and 1817 were Willis Northcutt, Gen. John Webb and Alexander McDowell.
Prior to the formal organization of the township, which took place in 1818, a .number of settlers had erected log cabins and the township began to draw its share of settlers. Prior to 1818 George Green had erected a grist mill and James Frazee had established a distillery. In 1814 John K. McFarlan operated a carding and pulling mill near the present site of Casstown. Gen. John Webb was probably the first school teacher in the township. One of the first churches erected was a primitive structure, built in 1821. This was a Baptist church, and later a secession taking place in this church, another Baptist church was erected on the Casstown and Addison turnpike. In 1832 cholera devastated many of the homes in this township, a number of homes being visited by this terrible plague, and the toll of lives paid in this township was very heavy.
(page 516) Elizabeth Township. The first settlement of this township began about 1802, the first land entry recorded being that of William Madden, who was an early settler in this township. Among those who entered land in this township between 1802 and 1805 were James Lennon, Michael Williams, Jacob Prillerman, Moses Winters, Daniel Knoop, Elihu Saunders, Peter Sunderland, John Johnston, John Shidaker.
The War of 1812 drew some strength from Elizabeth township, ,-John Williams and Jacob Mann serving as captains, while John Shidaker, William Mitchell, William Scherrer and Philip Sailor and others served as privates. In 1811 the first grist mill was erected in the township by John M. Dye. Mr. Dye at that time resided on the site of the present Children's Home. The second grist mill was built by Michael Carver and this was later used as a cotton mill by Henry Carver. Van Culen Hampton, a Dutchman, built the first saw mill in the township and Jacob Mann operated the first distillery.
The Methodists were the first to hold religious services, the home of Rafe Stafford being used for the purpose of organization, the first services being held at the home of John Gearheart. The first meeting of Baptists was held at the home of Stephen Dye in Staunton township, but later religious services of this denomination were held in this township at the home of William Knight, which later became the property of John Dye, and still later gave way for the erection of the children's home. In 1815 the New Lights erected a church near Cold Springs. The first schoolhouse erected in this township was on the Christian Knoop farm near the Staunton township line, the first schoolmaster to officiate being John Enyeart, who also officiated as justice of the peace.
Bethel Township. In 1802 Robert Crawford entered land in Bethel township, his entry being fled December 31, 1802, James L. Crawford, Jacob Siler, P. Short, Jonathan Downell filing entries on the same day. Prior to 1805 additional entries were made, among which were those of Elnathan Corey, Joseph Staford and Jacob Price. Thomas Stockstill was an early settler of this township and migrated to this region from Tennessee. His hatred of slavery prompted him to forsake his native state and on the advice of Gen. William Henry Harrison, whom he met at Ft. Washington, he came to this region. Among others to settle here prior to 1810 were David H. Morris, an ex-Revolutionary soldier from New Jersey. He was soon followed by Robert and John H. Crawford. Samuel Morrison, a relative of the Crawfords, was the next to come and immediately after Mordecai Mendenhall settled here, he later erecting one of the first mills in the township and one of the first in the county.,-John Ross, Daniel Agenbrod and James Fergus subsequently settled in this township, the latter becoming a member of the State legislature. Philip and Jacob Sailor settled on Indian creek at an early date and David Puterbaugh settled here in 1813. John Clayton, an Irishman and a soldier of the War of 1812, settled here at the close of hostilities. Among others to come about the same time were William Ellis, David, John and Abraham Studebaker, and John and Daniel Newcomb, the latter two gentlemen (page 517) coming from Scotland. The first mill to be erected was propelled by ox power, being a treadmill, this mill being erected and operated by a man named Teller. Probably the second mill to be erected in this township was that of Mordecai Mendenhall. In 1815 a mill was built at the mouth of Honey creek by David Staley, it later passing into the hands of Daniel Babb. Daniel Babb seems to have been a man of broad activities. In addition to his mill, he operated a store, coopershop and blacksmith shop, the site of these industries later being called Babbtown in honor of its founder.
One of the first churches to be erected in this township was a log church, presented by Davis H. Morris to the Methodist Episcopalians. The Methodists had erected a frame structure some few years previously and this was called Palmer's chapel, the Rev. Mr. Tatman being the first minister to officiate in this church. Among the early ministers of the Methodist Episcopalians were William H. Raper, James Finley and David Dyke. In 1802 the first schoolhouse was erected in the township and in 1804 another log school house was erected on Section 23, the first teacher being a man named Keelan.
Monroe Township. The first land entry in Monroe township was that of George Gillespie, who entered land in Sections 11 and 14, September 24, 1804. The same year Samuel Freeman and John Freeman entered land here and the-year following the entries were J. Fare, James Reed, Christian Grice, James Youart, Benjamin Chaney and Hance Murdock. David Jenkins and his four sons, Phineas, Amos, Eli and Jesse settled in Section 8, accompanying them from South Carolina was Elisha Jones who also settled in this township. John Clark removed from Maryland and later became a very successful boatman.
David Jenkins, or, as he was known, David Jenkins, Esq., became a justice of the peace of this township in 1818, continuing in this office until 1858. Thomas Pearson emigrated from South Carolina and was in his seventy-sixth year when he arrived here, with him were his sons, Enoch, Jonas and Thomas, Jr., Enoch becoming the first blacksmith in the township. John Jay and his family of seven sons and three daughters were early arrivals, a son, Walter Fay, being an ardent prohibitionist, a very rare species at that time : he was also a pronounced abolitionist and a man of great force of character. Among others of the early families to arrive here were the Macys Kerrs, Lay-tons, Ferguses, Westlakes, Puterbaughs, Schaeffers and Furnases.
Washington Township. Part of this township, that portion around the old Indian town known as Upper Piqua, was among the very early settlements of this region. Around this vicinity, the Shawanoes and Miamis held forth and a number of their villages are supposed to have been located within the boundaries of this township. Much of the history of this township is interwoven with the history of Piqua. ; A man named job Gard built a cabin near what is now Piqua in 1798 and in 1799 John Manning located on what is now the east side of Harrison street.
John Manning and Mathew Caldwell entered the land on which the early site, of Piqua was laid out. The earliest land entries in this (page 518) township were those of Mathew Caldwell, Edward Newcomb, John Manning, Joseph Bedle and William Willis from 1804 to 1805 and from 1805 to 1810 were Joseph Lovell, Samuel Trotter, James Vamman, John Widney and Henry Orbison.
Newberry Township. One of the first white men to locate in Newberry township was one McDonald, who came from South Carolina. His stay, however, was brief, returning to South Carolina in company with another dissatisfied settler named John Harrison. David Ziegler was the first to enter land in this township, he locating here in April, 1801. Michael Ingle was the next to settle within the boundaries of this township, entering land Nov. 15, 1804. Others who subsequently entered land were Thomas Hill in 1805, John Miller in 1805, S. Thompson in 1805. Subsequently Samuel Brown and John and William Coates located here. Michael Ingle established and conducted the first tannery in the township and was rated a well-to-do man after being here but a short time. The outbreak of the war of 1812 caused a general scattering of the settlers for the time being, many of whom enlisted for service in this war. One of the first mills built in this township was that of Jacob Ullery, who erected a water mill at the mouth of Greenville creek. The earliest school of this township stood at the north end of what is now High street, Covington. Among the early school teachers were John Barbour and Benjamin Dunham, Joshua Sanders and David Brumbaugh. Amos Perry was the first justice of the peace in this township, he later representing this country in the State legislature. The Dunkards held religious meetings at a very early date, not, however, having a regular church organization until about 1845. The Christians or New Light church held meetings prior to 1820 in dwellings and barns of the faithful, the Rev. Stackhouse ministering to the wants of this congregation at that time, he later organizing the Trotter's Creek church. Among the adherents of this church at that time were William Knox and wife, William and Lemuel Templeton and families, John McClurg and wife and Samuel Nicholson and wife. In 1824 Caleb Worley became the pastor of this church and continued so for many years, until dissension among the members caused the disorganization of the church.
Agriculture in Miami County.
Miami county, with a population of 47,000, is self-supporting for all ordinary agricultural products, and even in this day of phenomenal prices, reflects a wholesome condition as far as food prices are concerned. The latest government reports give the following figures in the live stock census: Cattle, 17,000 ; "horses, 11,000; sheep, 2,500; hogs, 25,000; pounds of wool, 7,000.
In the great crisis of the last several years when every nerve was strained to produce not only enough food for the United States but for our fighting men abroad and our suffering Allies, the farmers of Miami county, handicapped though they were by insufficient and often inexperienced labor, made a valiant effort to exceed all former records in the production of grain. The results were most gratifying and the following figures may give some idea of what was (page 519) accomplished: 3,330,000 pounds of tobacco, 1,000,000 bushels of oats, 2,200,000 bushels of corn, 13,000 tons of hay, 14,000 tons of clover hay, 119,000 bushels of potatoes, 103,965 bushels of apples. Of dairy products there were 430,000 gallons of milk produced for family use
and 608,000 pounds of butter made in home dairies.
Again the comparison of the early days with those of today is most interesting. Modern machinery, scientific analysis of soil, agricultural associations, extension courses from state universities and many other forces have completely revolutionized farming. When the first white man came out to the wilderness his first task was to chop down the trees, not with mechanically driven saws, but with an ax and the muscles of a pair of well-developed arms. When he had succeeded in making his clearing, he began to prepare the soil for its first crop. The tools and implements that he had brought with him, although the best the times provided, were, in the light of present-day improvements, most rude and clumsy. Plowing was a slow, laborious process ; when his grain was ripe he had only the sickle with which to cut it, or, if his crop happened to be fax. he pulled it by hand. No automatic hayloaders nor binding machines, corn planters nor reapers facilitated matters for him. The old-fashioned flail threshed out the grain in the barn, the sheaves of wheat and stacks of cornstalks were made by hand, hay was loaded on the rude wagons by a long fork and man-power was the controlling element in farm life of the day. However, the poorest kind of farming at that time was productive of abundant crops, for the virgin soil yielded bountifully to the slightest attempt to cultivate it.
Not only was the farmer handicapped by lack of implements, but he had little opportunity to market his produce. The Miami county farmer had no sale for his grain nearer than Dayton or Cincinnati, and it was a laborious task to haul it over the rough halfcut road on the ponderous wagons of the time. or put it on flatboats and pole it down the river to either of the two towns. Those who had not brought wagons with them from the other side of the mountains had to build their own, and awkward affairs they were, with heavy wheels and huge axles, made to stand the wear and tear of travel on the rough, irregular roads.
The farmer also had to add to his other duties, house-building and home-furnishing. The first log cabins in time gave place to larger frame houses, with glass windows and spacious porches ; hired labor being unobtainable, the neighbors would always be found ready and willing to get together for a "barn raising" or to harvest each other's crops. The crops at first consisted chiefly of oats, barley, Indian corn, wheat and rye. Wheat and corn were the two principal crops and unless attacks from the Hessian fly or the weavel harmed them the yield was most bountiful. Rye was raised chiefly for the manufacture of whiskey, and averaged about twenty-five bushels per acre. The straw from the rye was used as fodder for the horses. Oats was produced at about the rate of thirty-five bushels to the acre, and barley, which was largely used to supply two large breweries that later were established in Cincinnati, at the rate of thirty bushels to the acre. In another chapter (page 520) is to be found an account of the linseed oil industry that grew up in Miami county, making it a center for that commodity. Flax was therefore raised in large quantities for some time. In the lowlands some hemp was also raised and in the luxuriant meadows of the county different kinds of grass were grown in great abundance. Timothy, clover and grass for pasture grew with almost no encouragement. The woods supplied nuts and acorns for the swine,
and the game that abounded in the forest provided ample meat for the farmers with the expenditure of very little time or effort. Although Miami county is not notably a fruit section, 80,000 apple trees yielded in 1918 103,965 bushels of apples.
The Miami County Agricultural Society. As agriculture was the prevailing industry in the county for many years, the time for organization of those interested came in the year 1846. At that time the Troy Times published a notice that all who were interested in the formation of a society to promote the welfare of the farmers should meet in the office of John G. Telford in Troy. It proved to be a very enthusiastic meeting and it was decided that steps should be taken to organize an agricultural society. A committee composed of William Griffin, David H. Morris, William I. Thomas and William B. McClung was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws for the proposed society. The constitution which was submitted by this committee was as follows :
Article I. This Association shall be called the Miami County Agricultural Society.
Article II. The object of the society shall be the circulation of general intelligence and practical instruction in all the branches of agriculture.
1. By the establishment of a permanent library of the best books and periodicals, illustrative of the principles and practices of the sciences.
2. By the establishment of a correspondence with other bodies seeking the same object.
3. By procuring the most rare and valuable kinds of seeds, plants, shrubs and trees.
4. By the establishment of exhibitions at which premiums shall be awarded for the improvements of soil, tillage, crops, manure, implements of husbandry, stocks, articles of domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improvements as may be deemed worthy of encouragement.
Article III. The officers of the Society shall consist of a President, three Vice-Presidents, Corresponding Secretary, Recording Secretary, Treasurer, Librarian, standing committee of five persons on Agriculture, and a Board of Directors to be composed of the President, Vice-Presidents, and Chairman of the Committee on Agriculture, which Board shall have charge and general management of the property and business of the society, subject, however, to the order and direction thereof.
Article IV. All the officers shall be chosen by ballot, at the annual meeting of the society, which shall be held on the first Saturday in September in each year at such hour and place as the directors shall order.
(page 521) Article V. All special meetings of the society shall be called by the recording secretary on the requisition of a majority of the directors, or of any five members, made in writing therefore; a notice thereof, as well as of all general meetings, shall be published in one or more of the newspapers of the county fifteen days or more before each meeting.
Article VI. Any person may become a life member of the society on the payment of $10 into the treasury at any one time. Article VII. This constitution may be altered or amended by the votes of two-thirds of the members present at any regular meeting, providing the same shall have been proposed in writing at a previous regular meeting:
The election of officers that followed the adoption of the foregoing document, made William I. Thomas president; William C. Knight, Cyrus .Haywood and David Jenkins, vice-presidents; D. H. Morris, corresponding secretary; G. D. Burgess, recording secretary; Jacob Knoop, treasurer; H. D. Stout, librarian; John Hamilton, Daniel Brown, James McCain, Zimri Heald and William Giffin, committee on agriculture. The by-laws of the society provided for the annual membership fee of $1.00 per person, and a fine for any books held longer than the rules of the library permitted. The penalty for failure to pay such fines and dues was expulsion from the society. The library seemed to be the chief interest and all the books were carefully catalogued, and an accurate record was made of all withdrawals. In addition to the regular meetings provision
was made for the holding of three special meetings to be held on the first Thursday of the months of December, March and June, for the purpose of "hearing addresses, discussing questions, and receiving reports on the several subjects embraced by the society."
The first of these speeches was given at the first quarterly meeting which was held December 5, 1856, by the president, Mr. William Thomas, on the subject, "Scientific Husbandry." So much interest was manifested in the new organization that a representative was sent to the State Pomological Society exhibition in 1851, which was held in Cincinnati. Jacob Knoop was the honored member at this meeting, and somewhat later Dr. Asa Coleman was chosen to represent the Miami County Society at the meeting of the State Board of Agriculture.
The next important question that arose was that of a suitable place to hold exhibits and fairs that were the natural results of the enthusiasm that had been aroused. At first the spacious barn of W. H. Gahagan, on East Main street, Troy, was used for County Fairs and later the old Fairgrounds, situated on the present site of the Troy Water Works. In 1856, the Fair Board bought of William Senior, about forty acres of land in order to establish permanent grounds for the annual agricultural exhibits, horse races and other activities connected with the Agricultural Society. Fifteen hundred and twenty dollars were paid for this tract and somewhat later an Exhibit Hall was erected for the use of the contestants. For fifteen years this site was used, but by 1871 the space proved inadequate and a new Fairground was established on ground that was purchased by the Board from Mrs. Eliza McKaig. This land (page 522) lay on the west side of the Piqua pike, one mile north of Troy. The old method of electing directors in -open session of the society gave place to the better way of having two directors from each township, chosen by the electors of the county at annual elections. Much has been done in late years to make the grounds as attractive and commodious as possible. The old grandstand was replaced in 1916, by a concrete stadium which seats 2,860 persons. Several other modern buildings have been erected in late years for exhibition purposes and some of the finest specimens of agricultural products shown in the state are presented here for inspection. The showings of needle work and fine baking and canning, entered by the women of the county, prove the superior quality of the housewives and the interest that they take in their work. Miami county has sent many boys and girls to the Ohio State university, colleges of agriculture and household economics, and there have been several extension schools sent to Miami county which have not only been instructive but have encouraged prospective farmers and housekeepers to ft themselves to be most up-to-date and scientific in their work. Courses in agriculture and in domestic science and domestic art are offered in all the county schools at present, and, with a trained group of young people going out every year to put scientific management into the work of running their farms, farming will very soon take its place among the leading professions. During the war great interest was aroused among the school children as to who should raise the greatest quantity and of the highest quality of vegetables and fruit. Some schools had school gardens, but most of the work was done through the schools in the home gardens, and at the end of the season prizes were awarded to the successful young grower. War needs and war prices stimulated production throughout the county and bumper crops were the result. The agricultural society each year gives two boys and two girls free trips to Ohio State University's Farmers' Week, an annual event; the boys are awarded these trips on Pig-Growing contests and the girls are awarded for excellence in their work in the girls' food-clubs, etc. The present officers of the Miami County Agricultural Society are: President, George A. Fry, Tippecanoe City; Vice-president, George Stapleton, Conover ; Treasurer, J. H. Miller, West Milton ; Secretary, C. W. Kline, Troy.
The Miami County Horticultural Society is a most efficient organization for the promotion of interest in the production of fruits.
Miami county has several very fine nurseries and numerous orchards as well as some excellent vineyards and berry patches. The owners of these keep in touch with the work of the Horticultural Society and at their meetings discussions and papers prove most instructive.
In addition to the farm products that have already been mentioned tobacco has been successfully raised for some years. Both seed-leaf and Spanish are grown, and recent prices have made this crop one of the most profitable of any raised in the county. To discuss the agricultural interests of Miami county and fail to mention the stock breeding industry would be to omit one of the most important phases of the subject. In the last sixty years the (page 523) growth of the business of raising blooded stock has been remarkable. In 1860 Jersey cattle were first brought to Miami county and were raised on the Johnston farm near Piqua. The first one in Troy belonged to Chas. McCullough. The first entry of Holstein cattle at a Miami County Fair was made in 1876 by N. H. Albaugh. Captain John Drury brought the first Morgan horse to Troy, and in about 1860 displayed the first English draft horse in the county.
About ten years later the first Norman horses appeared. In 1847 Zimri Heald, whom we remember as one of the first officers of the Miami County Agricultural Society, introduced Merino sheep to the farmers of the county, and for many years this was the only kind to be found in the vicinity.
The raising of thoroughbred swine has made Miami county famous among stockbreeders throughout the United States. For the last twenty years, Ira Jackson, of Tippecanoe City, has been one of the most progressive and constructive breeders of Duroc Jersey hogs. He has produced a type that is so fine that the best breeders from every state in the Union attend his sales and buy his hogs for breeding purposes. Mr. Jackson's successful feats were the production of two hogs, Orion Cherry King, that won the Royal Grand Championship over the Grand Champions of all other breeds. This hog later sold for $10,500, subsequently another of his prize winners, Longendufer-Siegel, was sold for the phenomenal price of $35,000.
Farmers' Institute. Under the state law, each county may have state assistance at any four institutes held during the year. These institutes are held under the direction of the State Department of Agriculture and are very helpful adjuncts in the propagation of approved methods of agriculture. The state defrays the expenses of outside speakers to address these institutes, generally choosing men who are considered authorities on special branches of agriculture, in live stock raising, etc. The four institutes held each year in Miami county under state direction are always well attended and are of the greatest benefit. In addition, independent institutes are held which greatly supplement this work among the farmers.
The County Experimental Farm. Embracing 122j2 acres of land, situated about two miles west of Troy, the experimental farm of Miami county is rapidly becoming a source of much valuable information to the farmers of this vicinity. This farm was established in 1911 and is under the supervision of the Ohio State Experiment Station. Its work thus far has more than justified its establishment. In conjunction with the Experiment Station at Wooster, the Miami station has been developed along the advanced ideas in agricultural experiments.
All varieties of grain are tested, not only in laboratory work, but in the actual adaptation to soil conditions ; this station observing ten rotations of crops on its acreage. All fertilizers are experimented with ; not only the well known commercial variety, but others of various kinds are subjected to actual tests to determine their efficacy to the farmers of this community. The experiments thus far, in live stock, have been largely confined to hogs ; hog (page 524) raising in Miami county, being one of the leading items, and probably a more important item in Miami county than in many others, considered in the light of past achievements. The local experiment station is in charge of R. R. Barker, the well-known agriculturist, whose personal efforts have had much to do with the development of experimentation work in this state, and especially in this county. P. A. Jones is the active foreman of the local station.
Miami County's Military Record
The War of 1812. The participation of Miami county in the War of 1812, was largely confined to disrupting the influence of the British with the Indians. Tecumseh, the celebrated Indian leader, had welded many of the tribes together as a faithful unit, serving the notorious English General Proctor. Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet, had persuaded many of the tribes to ally themselves with the English in the War of 1812. That this alliance was largely selfish must be taken for granted. The conflict of 1812 afforded the Indians under their able leader, Tecumseh, a splendid opportunity to again assert their supremacy in this territory. That this promise was held out to them as an inducement, and decided their position in the conflict, is the natural conclusion.
At first, through the influence of Little Turtle, the Miamis and Shawanoes remained neutral, if not friendly to the Americans. On the death of Little Turtle, and yielding to the persuasive eloquence of Tecumseh, the Miamis joined in the Indian confederacy under him.
The alliance of the Indians with the English antedated the actual declaration of war by some months. The war itself was confidently expected by both sides. In anticipation of this exigency, strenuous efforts were made by the English to enlist the aid of all the Indians of this territory as a precautionary or preliminary feature of the impending conflict.
In October, 1811, General Harrison and Colonel Miller with the Fourth United States Infantry, and several companies of Kentucky volunteers reached Troy. The following November, they encountered the Indians under the Prophet at Tippecanoe. This decisive battle, so signally won by the Americans, settled the Indian question for a time.
On the 19th of June, 1812, war was formally declared, and 50,000 volunteers were asked for immediate service, and 100,000 for garrison duty. The expedition under General Hull, consisting of several regiments of Infantry, was organized at Dayton and proceeded north to Troy, later turning east to Urbana, and then proceeded to Detroit. After the surrender of this force to the English, northwestern Ohio was again exposed to Indian and English depredations.
There was, at this time, an organized regiment of Militia and two companies of riflemen in Miami county stationed at Greenville. Excitement ran high as reports reached the settlement, of the approach of the Indians and English up the Maumee. Several regiments were gathered from adjoining counties and assembled at Piqua, under General Meigs. An expedition of 700 or 800 men for (page 525) the relief of Fort Wayne, was equipped and sent post-haste. Military stations were established at Loramie, old Fort St. Marys and other places. Blockhouses, outposts and stockades were established along the frontier, the principal ones being at Greenville, another at the mouth of Greenville Creek (now Covington), one at the mouth of Turtle Creek, and another on the Miami. The two companies of riflemen from Miami county were stationed at Greenville under Major Charles Wolverton.
In the spring of 1813, Colonel John Johnston, Indian agent, began to exert great pressure on the Indians to remain friendly to the American cause. Prior to this the Indian chiefs were frequently called in council in the village of Washington, when they were prevailed upon to at least remain neutral.
Colonel Johnston assembled some five or six thousand Indians, men, women and children in the agency at Upper Piqua, where they were clothed and fed at Government expense. Colonel Johnston, by personal influence, and kind treatment secured the friendship of the remaining Indians in the vicinity. The Government was prevailed upon and consented to the employment of Indian warriors. To this end several companies of riflemen were organized and gave creditable service during the remainder of the war. They were officered by whites, a restraining measure against any possible inhumanities of warfare.
In 1813, two companies of rangers were stationed four miles north of Piqua; the local "minute men" of the war ready to respond to a call from the frontier posts for help. The British and their ally Tecumseh, constantly endeavored to enlist the neutral Indians on their side, secret emissaries being sent to the Indians assembled in the vicinity of Piqua. Knowing the vast influence of Colonel Johnston with the Indians, the British set a price on his head, but owing largely to the fidelity of the Indians in this vicinity, all attempts at their defection failed.
About this time Chief Pashetowa with two or three followers, penetrated to the vicinity of Piqua. They were the remnant of a band which met defeat at the hands of Zachary Taylor. Pashetowa and his followers had massacred a number of isolated white settlers, and their expressed mission was to kill Colonel Johnston. Failing in this, they proceeded to the east bank of the Miami, where t hey killed two settlers named Dilbone and Gerard.
This incident aroused the suspicion against the friendly Indians, encamped around Piqua; excitement ran high, and a disposition of the friendly Indians was felt necessary. It was at this time that General Harrison, on behalf of the government, invited the braves to join the American forces.
One other incident of importance occurred at this time, when the relief expedition for the relief of Fort Wayne, passed -through Piqua. This consisted of a force of men under General Harrison. They were met at Piqua by the friendly Shawanoes, who had accompanied Oliver and Worthington on a previous expedition. The Shawanoes, who had reached Ft. Wayne with Oliver, were sent with a communication to Harrison. They succeeded in escaping from the besieged fort and delivered the communication to him at (page 526) Piqua. He, urged on by the communication from Oliver, marched to the relief of Ft. Wayne, which was shortly accomplished.
As -a resume of Miami county in this war, we find that on the 3rd of May, 1812, a company of fifty volunteers was organized. The election of officers was by ballot and George Buchanan was elected Captain, John Bobo, 1st Lieutenant, and John McClay 2nd Lieutenant. They arrived at Camp Wayne, Greenville, Ohio, May 6th, where they corralled many Indian prisoners. Later, Captain Buchanan and his company were transferred to Fort Rowdy (Covington) at their own request. James Blue was appointed captain as was also Charles Wolverton, the former afterward becoming a judge.
On the rolls recorded and kept by Captain Reuben Westfall, for service in the war of 1812, appear the following: Captainsm E. Kirtly, William Barbee, sr., Charles Wolverton, Jacob Mann, George Buchanan, William Luce, Charles Hillard. Lieutenants Gardner Bobo, J. Orr, John Williams; Conrad Flesher, Robert Reed, Moses Patterson, Jonas Patterson, John and Francis Patterson, Timothy Titus and John Johnson.
Among the privates were: Joseph Marshall, Joseph Culbertson, William and James Shackelford, Andrew and John G. Telford, William Barbee, jr., McClung, James Howart, Aaron Tulliz, Andrew Thomson, James Brown, Samuel Mackey.
The close of the War of 1812, gave great impetus to the settlement of the Miami valley. The Indian and British menace was definitely removed. The great immigration was soon at full tide. Throughout the valley clearings were made, cabins erected, and the great Miami valley was soon the scene of peaceful activities, as the hardy pioneers laid the foundations for today.
The Mexican War. The contribution of Miami county to the Mexican war was limited to a fragment of a company, which was later merged with a company organized at Dayton. The war itself had no appreciable effect on Miami county, other than the national interests involved. As the part played by this county in this war was nominal, there is nothing of significance that could be said in this instance.
Miami County in the Civil War. The call to arms responded throughout the nation in 1861, and Miami county responded almost instantly. The Covington Blues, a local military organization, were equipped and ready for duty within a day or so after the call was sounded. They were on their way, post-haste, to Columbus, Ohio, and from there were quickly dispatched to Washington, D. C. Under the first call issued for 75,000 and 100,000 men ; approximately 1,405 men were enrolled from Miami county.
A military aid society was formed for the purpose of assisting in the care of Miami county soldiers. This was the local "Red Cross" of that war. This committee gathered together at the beginning of hostilities and sent many comforts in the way of clothing, delicacies and food to the soldiers. Funds for the relief of the dependents, left at home, were gathered and generously distributed. This committee alleviated the suffering of these at home and did much to smooth the life of Miami's soldiers in the field. The (page 527) personnel of this committee was as follows: Hon. M. G. Mitchell, Chairman ; Dr. Harrison, Robert L. Douglas, James Rowe, Charles Morris, W. W. Crane and John Wiggans.
Miami's soldiers enlisted in various organizations; mainly in the 11th, 44th, 71st, 94th, 110th and 147th Ohio Volunteer Infantries. Other organizations that drew a part of their strength from Miami county were the 1st Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 61st Ohio Infantry, 8th Ohio Battery, 11th Ohio Cavalry and the 1st Ohio Cavalry. The number of soldiers serving in the different contingents in the Union Army who were from Miami county has been variously estimated at from three to five thousand. One authority places the entire number at about thirty-two hundred.
The 11th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Dennison. Among those who shone brilliantly in the annals of this regiment was Augustus H. Coleman. He was born in Troy, Miami county, Ohio, October 29, 1829, son of Dr. Asa Coleman, one of the early pioneers and physicians of Troy.
Augustus Coleman attended West Point Military Academy, and at the call to arms, recruited Company D of the 11th and was chosen Captain at Columbus. He was later commissioned Major and subsequently advanced to Lieutenant Colonel. On the day he fell, while leading his gallant charge, his commission as colonel was issued. September 17, 1862, ordered to move on the. Confederate position across Antietam Creek, he fearlessly ordered a charge in the face of, a galling fire and took his position in advance of his men. A bullet pierced his side and he fell mortally wounded. His men, with a heroic dash, crossed the bridge, gained a position and with a desperate assault swept the Confederates from their ramparts. The 11th was mustered in as a three-year regiment on June 20, 1861, and five full companies were represented from Miami county, B and F, from Piqua and D, H, and E from Troy. On August 27th, they were ordered to Manassas Junction. The rebels were driving the New Jersey troops back as the 11th came up and crossed Bull Run, where they checked the enemy temporarily. At the Union retreat the 11th formed the rear guard. They were in a number of other sanguinary engagements among which were Missionary Ridge, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Resaca, Georgia, At the Battle of Missionary Ridge this regiment did splendid work. As the gallant 11th charged the Rebel position, a shot struck Sergeant Wall down, and Lieutenant Peck seizing the colors from the fallen Sergeant, rushed forward and planted them on the Rebel works. As he did so, a Rebel bullet found its mark and Lieutenant Peck fell mortally wounded. A part of this regiment, consisting of two companies, accompanied Sheridan to the sea under command of Lieutenant Colonel D. C. Stubbs.
The 44th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Springfield, September 12 to October 14, 1861, for three years' service.
At the _ Battle of Lewisburg they made a gallant charge. In the retreat to Gauley, this regiment protected the rear of the Union Army from the advancing Rebels. As the 44th the military record of this contingent was brief, as they re-enlisted in the 8th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry subsequently, losing many of their number. As (page 528) the 44th they participated in the battles of Lewisburg, W. Va., and Duttons Hill, Ky.
The 8th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, in which was merged the old 44th Ohio, reported for service at Camp Dennison, March 28, 1864.
This contingent now proceeded toward Lynchburg but the enemy, heavily reinforced, forced the Union Army to retreat. In the following August, the regiment having been divided, three companies of the 8th were surprised and captured at Huttonville. At Winchester they made a gallant charge and followed Early in his retreat up the valley, its entire work in the valley earning commendations of the highest command. At Phillippi part of the regiment was captured, later being exchanged and in August, 1865, was mustered out of the service. It participated at Covington, Virginia, Lynchburg, Liberty, Winchester, Cedar Creek and other engagements.
The 71st Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Dave Todd, Troy, and was recruited in part from Miami county. Barton S. Kyle, of Troy, was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel and later was mortally wounded while leading a charge at Pittsburg Landing. At Fort Donelson this regiment distinguished itself, losing 130 men. In the battle of Nashville one-third of their number was killed or wounded. This regiment participated in a number of battles among which were Shiloh ; Fort Donelson; Cumberland ; Jonesborough ; Georgia ; Columbia and Nashville, Tenn.
The 94th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Piqua, Ohio, August 24, 1862, to serve three years. It was of raw material and without much training, but was ordered to service in Kentucky. At the battle of Perrysville they distinguished themselves and subsequently at Stone River, participating in every day of that sanguinary contest. At Tullahoma and Hoovers Gap, at Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain their work shone resplendent. With Sherman they were at Buzzards Roost, Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochie River and other engagements of that campaign. They were the first to enter Raleigh and took part in the grand review. When mustered out June 5, 1865, they had a total of 338 men of the original 1,100. Many authorities cite this regiment as one of the most brilliant of the Civil war.
The 110th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Piqua, October 3, 1862, to serve three years. This regiment was assigned as part of the Second division, Eighth Army Corp. They were engaged by the superior forces of Lee near Kernstown and were forced to fight their way to Harper's Ferry. On May 4, 1864, they crossed the Rapidan and fiercely charged the Rebels. Their loss this day was 118 killed and wounded and taken prisoners. Altogether this regiment was in 21 actions and suffered a casualty list of 795 men. Among the engagements participated in were Union Mills, Winchester Heights, Mine Run, Spottsylvania Court House, Petersburg, Fishers Hill and Cedar Creek.
The 147th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Camp Dennison, May 16, 1864, to serve 100 days. It started for Washington May 20th and was there ordered to Ft. Ethan Allen. It was (page 529) later ordered to Fort Reno and then to Crystal Springs, where it supported the 1st Maine and 1st Ohio Batteries. On August 23, it was ordered to Camp Dennison and mustered out September 3, 1864.
Other contingents recruited in part and composed of a substantial number of Miami county men were the 8th Ohio Battery, the 42nd Ohio regiment, and these organizations participated in many sanguinary engagements. The contribution of Miami county to the Civil war was of the very highest order and does not suffer by comparison with any other military division in the Union army. The 1st Ohio Volunteer Infantry was organized at Dayton from August to October,, 1861, to serve for three years. The original members (except veterans) were mustered out September 24th, 1864, by reason of expiration of term of service and the veterans and recruits were transferred to the 18th Veteran Regiment. Ohio Infantry. The regiment saw its initial battle at Pittsburg Landing, and closed its career in front of Atlanta. It participated in the meantime in many of the fiercest and bloodiest battles of the war. Miami county contributed an entire company (K) to this regiment, a number of whom gave their lives on the battle field or in the southern prisons. Bearing the initial number of infantry regiments, this organization stood in the first rank for gallantry and efficiency.
The 1st Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. As in the infantry, Miami county was represented in the first numbered regiments in this branch of the service, one company (I) being entirely composed of Miami county men. The regiment was organized in August, 1861, and served during the entire war, not being mustered out until September, 1865, long after the close of actual hostilities. It had a long list of engagements, extending from May, 1862, to April, 1865, at the very close of the war, and occurring in seven or eight different states, and its career was as honorable as it was extended. The Spanish-American War. There were two regularly organized companies within Miami county which were called for duty in this war, Company K of Piqua and Company A of Covington, both becoming units in the Third Ohio Infantry. The officers of Company K were: McPherson Brown, Captain; James F. Hubbard, First Lieutenant ; Harry Mitchell, Second Lieutenant. Subsequently, Lieutenant Hubbard of Company K was promoted to Captain of Company A of Covington : Harry Mitchell was made First Lieutenant of Company K. and Harry Peterson was made second Lieutenant of the same company. Harry Mitchell later joined the regular army, eventually becoming Colonel in the U. S. A. and as such commanded the famous 165th United States Infantry in France during the World war.
Company A was organized at Covington prior to the outbreak of the Spanish-American war. The officers were : Captain, Samuel Palmer: First Lieutenant, Henry Freinfrock: Second Lieutenant, Harry Weaver. Weaver was later promoted to captain ; Z. Ramsey was made Second Lieutenant to succeed Weaver; Freinfrock continuing as First Lieutenant. Subsequently Weaver contracted an illness and died, Lieutenant Hubbard, of Company K, succeeding him as captain. (page 530) Both companies were sent to Columbus, Ohio, for mobilization ; were sent to Fernandina, Fla., later being encamped at Huntsville, Ala., and both were mustered out at Columbus, Ohio, October 26, 1898.
The World War. Unlike other wars in which we have participated, the individual identity of the separate states was merged with the National Army. Thus we cannot treat each state or county as a unit in this great conflict. We can only follow the movements of those companies or regiments that were made up as a whole, or in greater part, of the boys from home.
While the greater part of Miami's contribution to the great war was widely distributed among different regiments and divisions, the local identity was preserved in the two regularly organized companies which were distinct Miami county companies. We will confine ourselves largely in this instance to the exploits of these contingents as being distinctly representative of the county. The number of men who claimed Miami county as their home and who served in the World war cannot be definitely ascertained, of course. However, the number of those who joined the colors in the army and navy, by draft and enlistment, was approximately 1,100 men. Many of these served in the 83rd and 37th divisions, the latter division embracing the two units regularly organized within the county. Company C, of Piqua, and Company A, of Covington, were part of the old Third Infantry of the Ohio National Guard, and as such, they were called for service during the Mexican outbreak on the border. At this time the officers of both companies were as follows:
Company A, Covington, Ohio. Captain, W. L. Marlin ; first lieutenant, W. O. Boggs ; second lieutenant, Kenneth Little. Company C, Piqua, Ohio, Captain, James Freshour; first lieutenant, Frank McCullough; second lieutenant, Ray Wolf.
Called for service on the Mexican border, both companies were sent to Camp Willis, Ohio, July 3, 1916. They were assigned to the 11th Provisional Division of the United States Army and were stationed at El Paso, Texas, from September, 1916, to March, 1917. They entrained for Fort Benjamin Harrison to be mustered out but as the world war was imminent, the order was recalled. After a short stay at Fort Benjamin Harrison, both companies were sent to Ohio on guard duty. They were then ordered to Camp Sherman, August 14, 1917, which was in process of construction, and they later became a part of the 148th Infantry, Thirty-seventh Division, U. S. A. At Camp Sherman they entrained for Camp Sheridan, Montgomery, Ala., where they received intensive training and were sent to Camp Lee at Petersburg, V a. Here they were further trained and equipped for overseas duty and the following June, 1918, embarked for overseas service on the U. S. S. Susquehanna. On July 5, 1918, they disembarked at Brest, France, and were removed to the Napoleon barracks, where they remained for a short time and were then detailed for service on the Alsace-Lorraine front. As the activities of these two companies were largely merged with the general movements of the Thirty-seventh Division, we will divert to a short history of this division before following it into battle. The Thirty-seventh was a National Guard Division, made (page 531) up of Ohio National Guard units. This division was formed at Camp Sheridan, Alabama, and was completely organized in October, 1917. New numbers were given the various units and the identity of the old National Guard regiments was lost. On August 4, 1918, the infantry of the division took over the Baccarat sector, on the Alsace-Lorraine front, in the Vosges mountains, which had been comparatively quiet. It extended for a distance of fifteen kilometers from the Bois des Elieux, north of the village of Badonvillier, through the Bois Communal de la Woevre, Bois des Haies, the villages of Merviller and Ancerviller, along the edge of Bois Banal to the southern edge of the Bois des Pretres.
Here the men had their initial training and received their baptism of fire. They were made the special target each night, weather permitting, for enemy airplanes, which constantly raided and harassed them. The division responded by carrying out successfully a gas attack and also destroyed the enemy's ammunition dumps at Cirey and Blamont.
The division soon asserted itself and the night patrols made the enemy contest every foot of front they held. The control of No Man's Land became the sole prerogative of the Thirty-seventh after it was there a short time. This sector passed from a quiet zone into one of decided activity on the arrival of the Americans and in every encounter they maintained their traditional bravery. On being relieved, September, 1918, the French general, Duport, who was in command of the troops in this sector, commended the Thirty-seventh Division. In a special order he paid a tribute to their spirit, discipline and valor. The total casualties while on this sector were 102.
When relieved, the division was sent to the vicinity of Robert Espagne, a village, for a short rest, after which it was sent to Recicourt, France. Two days later they were transferred to the vicinity of the ruined Avocourt, within sight of historic Verdun.
On the night of September 25th the artillery preparation began for the great Meuse-Argonne campaign. The artillery barrage reached its height at five o'clock the following morning, and the infantry started on their great drive. The Thirty-seventh Division was in the vanguard and was one of the divisions which initiated this great drive. Over a shell-torn area, knee deep in mud, soaked in constant downpour of rain, the infantry plodded on, fighting every foot of the way, until they captured the little town of Ivoiry. A short time later the village of Mlontfaucon was captured. This objective was considered impregnable and had withstood assaults time and again.
To the men of the Thirty-seventh Division belongs the honor of first entering Montfaucon and breaking the great Hindenburg line for the second time. The division pushed on, without artillery support, fighting every foot of the way until it reached a position north of Cierges, was relieved October 1st, and was sent to the rear after four days' continuous fighting. The total casualties of the division in this movement were 3,136.
When the relief of the Avocourt sector was completed, the division was sent to Pagny-sur-Meuse and later to the St. Mihiel (page 532) sector. Here there was intermittent activity, although at the time no organized offensive was undertaken. At times they were heavily
shelled and constantly harassed by airplane raids. Here, also, they were subjected to a most vicious series of gas attacks which were largely facilitated by the thick woods and deep ravines. After nine days of desultory fighting on this sector, this division was withdrawn with a total casualty list of 197.
October 18, 1918, the troops were entrained in box cars, and, unaware of their destination, were whisked away to St. Jean and Weltje, Belgium, within sight of the ruined city of Ypres.
On October 22, 1918, the division was attached to the French army in Belgium and placed at the disposition of King Albert of Belgium. On October 29th and 30th it took over three kilometers of front trenches near the Lys river, the town of Olsene being approximately in front of the center.
On the morning of October 31st at 5 :30 a. m. the artillery began to pave the way for an infantry advance. In spite of a fierce reply of machine gun fire and gas attack, the Americans quickly overcame the enemy resistance and drove him between the Lys and Escaut rivers. The French artillery played havoc with the enemy and the Americans pushed on to the Escaut, forcing the enemy to give way all along this sector. The town of Olsene was completely destroyed in this engagement. Preparations were now made to cross the river. Early in the morning of November 2nd men of the 3rd battalion, 148th infantry, under command of Lieut.-Col. William L. Marlin, swam the Escaut river and under a perfect hail of shrapnel and bullets and secured a foot bridge by felling trees and anchoring them on the other side. Over this structure the soldiers began to cross, some falling of into the icy waters, drowned, and others fell victims to the enemy fire. At two other points attempts were made to construct a bridge, one of which succeeded. Enemy planes swooped low over this action, pouring their deadly fire into the ranks of the brave allies. The intensity of the fight continued November 3rd and by this time nine or ten companies of infantry had crossed the river. November 4th and 5th the division was relieved by French units and returned to Thielt for recuperation. This achievement of the Thirty-seventh was indeed a splendid one. It was the first allied division which had succeeded in crossing the Escaut (Scheldt) river and established a bridgehead. They were opposed by the flower of the Germany army, who in their desperation gave the gallant Thirty-seventh all they had in human and inhuman warfare.
The conduct of this division was highly commended in an order issued by General H. Penet, in command of 30th army corps. The casualties suffered by the division in this memorable engagement, were 1,612. The division was later transferred to the 34th French Army Corps. It was planned to force another crossing of the river, the initiative, this time, to be taken by the French troops. All speed was urged, in view of the rumors of enemy capitulation as a whole. At 8 a. m., November 10th, the advance troops were on their way, and at the village of Syngem were met by merciless fire from the enemy. The action began and the Thirty-seventh was again in the (page 533)n center of the fray. The division sector was at a U-shaped bend in the river, with all the vantage points held by the enemy. Slipping in mud and crawling on all fours, the men worked their way up the river bank and dug in. November 11th, the day on which the armistice was signed, found the Thirty-seventh secure in its positions.
They fought to the last minute, and were holding the line as far east as the villages of Dickele, Zwartenbroeck, Keerkem and Hundlegem, when the armistice took effect. The division casualties in this action were 66.
It will be seen that the Thirty-seventh Division was one of the very best divisions in action, measured by accomplishments. Time and again it evoked the praise of the Allied commanders, and covered itself with glory on the battlefields of France and Belgium. Company A and Company C of Covington and Piqua, respectively, were at all times part of this division. As units in the 148th Infantry, they were in the thick of action and took a prominent part in all the regimental and divisional movements.
At El Paso, Texas, Captain Marlin of Company A, was promoted to Major and W. O. Boggs succeeded him as captain. He in turn was succeeded by Robert C. Bunge who became captain of this company at Camp Sheridan. Captain Bunge was wounded at the Argonne, the command of the company subsequently passing to Lieutenant McCullough, and in turn to Captain C. W. Batchelor and Lieutenant George Kingery. On September 27th, at the Argonne, Company A was in the thickest of the fighting. They were continuously engaged from September 27th to October 1st, and during this engagement they suffered 52 casualties.
During one of the engagements of Company A, First Sergeant Luther Langston, of Covington, was cited for unusual bravery. He was far in advance of the firing line, when he perceived a machine gun nest on his right. Midst a hail of machine gun bullets he advanced, flanked the machine gun, and captured it and its crew, single handed. Lieutenant Kingery was wounded at Olsene, Belgium, but remained with his troops and helped to carry wounded comrades to the rear.
Major W. L. Marlin, who had been promoted from Captain of Company A, was in charge of two battalions at the crossing of the Escaut. During this terrific engagement, he rendered unusually distinguished services. For two days and two nights he worked with his men, urging them on and setting a splendid example himself. He was practically in charge of the 148th Infantry regiment being the highest commanding officer of that regiment present. At the Battle of the Lys and Escaut rivers and at the assault on Olsene, he performed wonderful service, not only personal service of the very highest order, but in the strategic handling of his men. It can be safely said that Major Marlin was one of the prime factors in the attainment of the objectives in this great battle.
The unusual service rendered by Major Marlin, who was then at the Escaut, won several recommendations for citations and decorations by American, French and Belgian orders. His promotion to Lieutenant Colonel was awarded for services of unusual distinction in the Argonne region.
(page 534) Later, at the home. coming of King Albert of Belgium, after his country had been freed of the Germans, Colonel Marlin was selected to command the guard of honor of American troops, an unusual distinction, conferred in recognition of his services in restoring Belgium to its former rulers.
The movements of Company C of Piqua and Company A of Covington throughout their active service were almost parallel.
Company C took part in all the general movements of the division, as a unit in the 148th Infantry. On the Baccarat Sector, at the Argonne and later in Belgium, Company C gained many laurels and contributed its share to the general victories. At St. Mihiel this company was gassed time and again and suffered many casualties. At the Scheldt and Olsene, the boys were in the thickest of the fray and sustained heavy losses.
One of the outstanding feats of heroism of the Piqua contingent was that of Clifford Thompson of Troy. At Baccarat, while Thompson and a number of his comrades were in an outpost, an enemy hand grenade was thrown into their midst, timed to explode. Thompson sprang forward and seized the grenade, with the intention of hurling it outside, fully realizing the imminent danger to himself and comrades. As he seized the grenade, it exploded, blowing his hand and part of his arm off. In making this heroic sacrifice, he saved the rest of his comrades from severe injury, if not death. For this feat of heroism, Thompson was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and Decorations from the French. He also was severely gassed. subsequently dying from the effects. In his honor, his comrades from Troy named the Troy Post of The American Legion-Clifford Thompson Post. Sergeant Paul Schnell, a Piqua boy, fell in battle at Olsene, wounded while advancing on an enemy position, dying on the field of battle. In his honor the Post at Piqua has been named the Paul Schnell Post. The A. B. Cole Post of Covington, was named in honor of one of their company heroes, who fell in battle also. A number of citations for bravery or service were earned by boys in both companies, indeed, these two companies time and again elicited praise and citations from the highest commands, both from American and foreign commanders. Captain Freshour and Lieutenant Wolf. of Company C, were both wounded in action, while leading their men. In citing these few instances of bravery, it is not the intention to minimize the many outstanding deeds of heroism of the boys who served over there. It is rather the intention to show in these few examples, the general conduct of our boys, and especially those of Company A and Company C. Miami county was well represented, on land and sea, and in the sketch of the two regularly organized companies of this county, is the epitome of all of the brave boys of Miami county, wherever they were called to duty.
Government War Loans. To tell the full story of the wonderful achievements of Miami county in this important phase of the war movements, would be to enter a field of inexhaustible possibilities. From the inception of the First Loan to the final Victory loan, Miami county rose splendidly to its full duty. When the call came for the first loan a compact organization was formed including most (page 535) of the leaders of the community in every avenue of life. The experience gained during the first two loans, defined the needs for the subsequent campaigns, and the very efficient organization perfected during the following campaigns was largely the result of many tireless and painstaking efforts on the part of the executive force of the first two campaigns.
The personnel of the executive force selected to push the First and Second loans were Chairman, H. E. Scott ; vice-chairman, R. C. Conner; Secretary, T. J. Appley and ; Publicity, A. R. Garver, C. A. Campbell, F. C. Roberts, George O'Donnell, B. J. Ford, A. A. Hall, C. C. Waltermire, Merrit C. Speidel, Henry Kampf and H. A. Pauley. Rural Sales, Wirt Kessler, Chairman; George M. Brecount, Harry Ammon, Sumner Senseman, D. G. Wenrick, C. M. Patty, Geo. M. Boak, A. B. Jones, J. F. Caven, John K. Knoop. Speakers, J. T. Nielson, Chairman; H. E. Scott, T. J. Appleyard, jr., and L. E. Coppock. Factory, L. M. Flesh, Chairman ; A. G. Timberlake, Henry Besanceney, H. H. Ritter, and H. L. Johnson. Finance, H. E. Scott, Chairman ; J. L. Black, L. M. Flesh, A. R. Garver, and Geo. M. Boak. City Sales, J. L Black, Chairman; J. K. DeFrees, F. O. Flowers, F. P. Irvin, Geo. M. Pefer, A. W. Miles, E. L. Crane, A. W. Landis, Dr. J. Kendall, C. F. Perkins, D. F. Douglass, L. E. Ellerman, L. G. Peffer, Seth McCulloch, W. B. Bu Bois, L. O. Shilling, J. L. Reck, and Roy Pohlman. The new members added for the Second Loan were: Louis G. Pefer, Seth McCulloch, L. O. Shilling, J. L. Reck, Roy Pohlman, A. W. Miles.
The results attained in these two loans are a testament to the very fine organization perfected by these men. A total sale of $577,550 was recorded in the First loan. The Second loan was greatly oversubscribed, the quota asked for this having been $781,400. and the amount subscribed $1,549,000, the number of subscribers being 3,011.
The campaign for the Third Liberty loan was also pushed with great vigor. Mr. R. B. Sullivan, of Piqua, relieving T. J. Appleyard, jr., as Secretary. The quota asked for this loan was $888,350, the amount subscribed being $1,698,900, and the number of subscribers, 4,822.
The executive force selected for the Fourth and Fifth loans was as follows : J. L. Black, Chairman- Bond Houser, Vice-Chairman, and R. B. Sullivan, Secretary-Treasurer. Executive committee : J. L. Black, Piqua; H. D. Hartley, Piqua: J. M. Spencer, Troy; Bond Houser, Troy; Publicity Director, Ralph C. Sykes, Troy, Assistant Publicity Director, J. E. Bryan. Township chairmen under H. D. Hartley, Harry Conley, Newberry township ; L. A. Frazier. Brown township ; A. A. Hall, Washington township ; J. B. Wilkinson, Spring Creek township. Township Chairmen under J. M. Spencer, A. B. Fessler, Concord township ; Geo. Rehmert, Staunton township : Geo. Boak, Lost Creek township ; Isaac Sheets, Elizabeth township ; Wirt Kessler, Union township ; C. F. Perkins, Newton township. Township Chairmen under L. E. Coppock, Sumner Senseman. Bethel township ; J. W. Scheip, Monroe township.
(page 536) Piqua City Organization : A. G. Rundle, corporation and business houses; F. M. Shipley, factory employees ; J. P. Spiker, individuals and homes ; R. B. Sullivan, local office ; J. E. Bryan, publicity; and Miss Stella Boal, women's committee.
Troy City Organization: Raymond Harris, corporation and business houses; F. M. Roberts, individuals and homes ; R. C. Sykes, publicity; L. A. Wheeler, townships; Mrs. Edwin Scott, women's committee.
County Quota Committee: John Arnold, L. E. Elleman, A. W. Landis, G. M. Pefer, L. M. Flesh, W. E. Bowyer, C. F. Perkins and E. L. Crane.
The result of this loan was very gratifying indeed. The county being thoroughly canvassed, many delinquents were aroused to their full duty. The quota asked for this loan was $1,742,150, and the amount subscribed was $2,235,100, the number of subscribers being 8,513.
The Fifth loan, the "Victory" loan, was accomplished in record breaking time. All the forces of the county were merged into one compact organization under direction of J. L. Black. Each township was divided into districts-with one or more chairmen for each township, who were assisted by a corps of well chosen lieutenants.
Piqua and Troy were divided into their respective political wards and a committee was assigned to each ward. All factories and other places of employment had their own special committees, and thus every nook and corner of the county was covered. The quota asked for this loan was $1,286,350 and the amount subscribed was $1,900,000, the number of subscribers, 7,412.
Miami county was among the counties throughout the country which subscribed the Loans in "record breaking time," especially the "Victory Loan," which went over the top among the first, if not the very first in the country.
War Savings Stamps. When the Government inaugurated its campaign for the sale of War Savings Stamps throughout the country, an organization for the sale of stamps in Miami county was perfected. It was decided to push the sale of these stamps with the utmost vigor. Many unique features were introduced and a county wide campaign was pushed.
The chairman selected to initiate this great campaign and to carry it through the year 1918 was W. K. Leonard, of Piqua. J. L. Black was selected to direct the campaign in the northern section of the county and Chas. H. Dale in the southern. Every known agency was selected for the distribution of these stamps : everyone who could possibly sell any amount of them was recruited for duty, the school children selling many thousands of dollars' worth. A county organization was perfected, including an active working organization in each township. The result of this campaign resulted in the sale of $1,200.000 worth of stamps.
F. 0. Flowers was selected as chairman for 1919, serving until August of the same year; many thousands of dollars' worth of stamps being sold under his direction. He was succeeded by Ralph B. Sullivan, of Piqua, and the drive conducted under his direction in September, 1919, resulted in a sale of $70,000 worth of stamps.
(page 537) A consistent sale is steadily maintained through various agencies, mainly school children, amounting to more than $2,000 worth each week.
The War Chest. The war chest idea having been adopted and worked successfully at other places, a movement was started to establish a Miami County War Chest. At the urgent request of the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., Knights of Columbus, and other organizations engaged in war-relief work, judge Walter D. Jones of the Common Pleas Court of this county, announced the formation of the Miami County War Chest Association. A citizens' committee of twenty-three members was appointed for the purpose of perfecting a war chest organization. This committee became very enthusiastic over the project and rapidly completed the organization, adopting by-laws for its government which provided in substance, that : An executive board of twenty-three members, representative of all elements of the community should be appointed, that the functions of this board would be to direct the affairs of the organization; that a board of trustees be appointed, consisting of seven members, the duty of this board being to appropriate such part of the fund and devote the same to any war need they might deem necessary, and to authorize all disbursements; that a treasurer be appointed, and that all funds be deposited pro rata among the banks, all funds to he drawn on by order of the treasurer and warrant of the Board of Trustees. It was further provided that a president, vice-president and secretary-treasurer be elected by the executive board.
After due consideration and consultation, an organization was perfected for the active solicitation of funds and the county was divided into districts as follows:
The Piqua district: Allen G. Rundle, manager; corporations and business houses, L. 2\1. Flesh; factory employees, H. D. Hartley, Frank M. Shipley; individuals and homes, John P. Spiker, townships, James L. Black; local office organizations. Ralph Sullivan: publicity and education. George A. Flesh.
The townships in the Piqua district were as follows: Newberry township, Harry N. Conley . Washington township, A. A. Hall ; Spring Creek township, J. B. Wilkinson: Brown township, Logan Frazier. The townships in turn were subdivided, J. W. Routson handling the campaign in Bradford. C. B. Maier in Covington, and J. E. Deetzer and H. C. McCrossing were appointed to handle the rural end of Newberry township.
The Troy district was organized as follows: Bond Houser. manager; corporations and larger prospects, Jno. M. Spencer; townships, J. L. Bennett. Chas. Dale; homes and individuals. Harry L. Landis, Perce H. Bridge ; local office organizations, C. E. Hottle ; publicity and education, Ralph C. Sykes, J. C. Fullerton, jr. Townships-Troy District: Newton township, Frank Longnacker; Concord township, Harry Schaefer; Staunton township, north, Charles Cline ; Staunton township, south, George Rehmert ; Lost Creek township north, Frank Wilson ; Lost Creek township, south, Ross Knoop; Union township, A. G. Eidemiller; Elizabeth township, Frank E. Thompson ; Bethel township, Charles Karns.
(page 538) Tippecanoe district: Tippecanoe city, Edward L. Cooper; rural Monroe township, H. W. Wilson. Edward L. Cooper was the manager of the Tippecanoe district.
All of the work connected with the fund-raising was in the hands of the campaign committee. This committee in turn appointed a budget committee; the latter committee to investigate and determine the amount of funds needed from the county for the year beginning May 1, 1918. This investigation disclosed that Miami county had contributed approximately $175,000 to various relief work during the previous year. On this basis, it was determined that $300,000 was needed for the ensuing year. A big drive was instituted throughout the county ; the organizations as above detailed, handling the campaign in their respective spheres. This drive covered every nook and corner of Miami county and the thoroughness of the work is best attested by the results. The drive ended June 2, 1918, and by that time approximately 17,000 subscriptions were taken, which totaled $510,000. The last quarterly payment being suspended: all subscribers who paid more than three-fourths of their subscriptions were refunded all in excess of three-fourths.
The War Chest appropriated money to the following organizations: Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., Salvation Army, American Jewish Relief, The Knights of Columbus, The American Library Association, American Friends Service Committee, American Committee for training maimed soldiers (French) in suitable trades, American Women's Hospitals, Armenian and Syrian Relief, American Committee for Relief in Near East, American Fund for French Wounded, American Committee for Devastated France, American JugoSlav Relief, American Jewish Relief Committee, Belgian Soldiers' Tobacco Fund, Camp Sherman Community Hostess House, Women's Committee Miami County Branch, Council of National Defense, Duryea War Relief, Fatherless Children of France, Inc., French Heroes Lafayette Memorial Fund, Friends' Reconstruction Unit, Italian War Relief Fund, Miami Co. Liberty Loan Committee, Miami Co. War Savings Stamp Committee, American Red Cross-Piqua Chapter and Miami Co. Chapter, Military Entertainment Council, Miami County Food Administration, Miami County Branch Council of National Defense, Permanent Blind Relief War Fund, Piqua Food Administration, Polish Victims' Relief Fund, Roumanian Relief Committee, Smith College War Service Board, Serbian Relief Committee of America, Serbian Aid Fund, Society for Protection Frontier Children, Salvation Army, and War Resources Committee.
Executive organization of Miami county war chest was as follows : Executive Board-H. D. Hartley, president; Rev. J. E. Etter, Nice-president ; Stanhope Boal, A. D. Hance, W. K. Leonard, Joe Welsh, Wm. C. Rogers, J. Harry Clark, Dr. R. M. Shannon, James R. Duncan, S. G. Frazier, H. B. Chaffin, D. G. Wenrick, Chas. E_ Perkins, George Rehmert, Ross Knoop, A. G. Eidemiller, Frank E. Thompson, Sumner Senseman, H. J. Ritter, A. L. Hershberger, Rev. J. E. Etter, Curt M. Smith, T. F. Rataiczak, A. G. Stouder; Board of trustees : H. M. Allen, Chairman ; L. M. Flesh, Vice (page 539) chairman ; Geo. M. Pefer, Frank P. Irvin, Edward L. Crane, H. K. Wood, Walter E. Bowyer; Office organization: Walter Bowyer, treasurer; Clyde E. Hottle, secretary ; Campaign committee : Bond Houser, Chairman ; Allen G. Rundle, H. D. Hartley, John P. Spiker, John M. Spencer, A. C. McClung, Edward L. Cooper. Publicity and Education : Ralph C. Sykes, Chairman ; J. C. Fullerton, jr., Harry N. Conley, A. C. McClung, Geo. A. Flesh; Budget committee: H. D. Hartley, Chairman; John M. Spencer, Allen G. Rundle. Woman's Committee, Council of National Defense. Of all the organizations created as helpful adjuncts to the Government in the prosecution of its part in the World War, probably no single organization contributed a service of such varied and far-reaching character as the Woman's Branch of the Council of National Defense. The far-reaching scope of this organization was certainly not anticipated at the outset. From a vague organization whose full mission had not been well defined, this national body of women in all the various activities which later developed, contributed a signal service, one that had not a little to do with the final achievement of victory. In the countless avenues which claimed their attention, these loyal, patriotic and self sacrificing women rendered a service that has not as yet received its full recognition by the public at large.
No less efficacious was the work of the Miami County Division of the Ohio Branch of this organization. At its initial organization Mrs. Addison F. Broomhall, of Troy, was elected chairman. Mrs. Broomhall was a woman of broad experience in club and organization work and was especially well fitted for so important a task. The other executive officers selected at that time were Mrs. Sterret Faulkner and Mrs. John Spencer, both of Troy and both of whom were recognized throughout the entire community as splendid and capable executive associates of Mrs. Broomhall in this great work. The work was divided into two general classes, Local Chairmen and Department Chairmen, the latter division being subdivided into a number of special committees. The Local Chairmen were as follows : Mrs. Edgar Todd, Piqua: Mrs. C. W. Cookson, Troy; Mrs. Eugena Wenzlau, Tipp City ; Mrs. J. H. Eichelbarger, Fletcher; Mrs. F. M. Longnacker, Pleasant Hill; Mrs. J. L. Cramer, Covington ; Miss Mary Knoop, Casstown: Mrs. George Brecount, Conover ; Mrs. John Arnold, Bradford ; Mrs. Will Eby, West Milton ; Mrs. Sumner Senseman, Phoneton.
The Department Chairmen were divided into the following divisions: Child Welfare, Mrs. A. Acton Hall, Mrs. Meyer Louis, of Piqua, and Mrs. J. B. Kendall, of Tipp City; Nursing: Mrs. William Leonard, of Piqua, and Mrs. R. A. Kerr, of Tipp City. Home and Foreign Relief: Mrs. Mary Sawyer, of Piqua, and Mrs. E. E. Edgar, of Troy. Food : Miss Eusebia James, of Piqua- Mrs. C. C. Hobart, of Troy : Mrs. A. L. Marshall, of Piqua. Red Cross: Mrs. W. H. Allison, of Piqua; Mrs. H. T. Gabriel, of Piqua, assistant. Liberty Loans : Mrs. H. E. Scott, of Troy, Chairman ; Mrs. Wm. Cook Rogers, Piqua ; Mrs. Alvilda C. Ziegenfelder, Piqua; Mrs. Stella Boal, Piqua. Educational Propaganda: Mrs. L. M. Lindenjerger, of Troy, and Mrs. George Dietrich, of Piqua. The (page 540) "Fourteen Minute Women" were in Piqua, Mrs. F. P. the Educational Propaganda in Piqua. Mrs. F. P. Brotherton, being chairman of the speakers’ bureau. The speakers were : Mrs. Allen L. Marshall, Mrs. J. D. Miller, Miss Dessa Shaw, Mrs. Wm. Cook Rogers and Mrs. Brotherton. These helped materially by their talks on Red Cross Work, Food Conservation, Nursing, Women and the War, Americanization and Patriotic Education. Mrs. Meyer Louis arranged the dates and places for the speakers.
A model kitchen was established at Piqua under direction of Mrs. Stanley Connell, giving practical ways and means of conserving food.
Women's Auxiliary to Camp Sherman : Mrs. L. M. Flesh of Piqua. Committee on Draft Board Assistants : Mrs. Frank T. Harmon, chairman. It will be seen by the titles of the various committees that the work outlined was very comprehensive indeed, and the results proved to be as comprehensive as the outlined work indicated.
It will not be possible to enumerate the many things accomplished by these women in their subsequent campaign. . To enumerate the many little sacrifices – the painstaking effort – the ramifications of all the departments of their work would require a volume of itself.
One of the great problems which confronted the Nation at this time was that of Food Conservation. This claimed the attention of our best publicists-lecturers and organizations. The Educational Committee of the local branch immediately took steps to spread the gospel of conservation. Posters were placed throughout the community and food cards were distributed to every home in the county. These pledge cards were a moral obligation to the signer to do everything within reason to help in the conservation of food.
Not only were these cards distributed, but helpful suggestions scientific information were given to the housewives, to aid them in this campaign. Going from house to house in Troy they determined the proper quota of coal per home, and also provided for the distribution of coal. This canvass in Troy was to determine the approximate amount of coal needed in the county. Early summer buying of coal was advocated to relieve railroad congestion. The Child Welfare Division was another field of distinctive proportions. It is an old adage that war-time is the time for emaciated babies. It was the professed intention, and this intention was carried out, that there should be no emaciated babies in Miami county during the war. All children under six years were weighed and carefully examined as to their general physical condition. The work accomplished by this division was simply wonderful. If living conditions were inimical to the child’s welfare – the living conditions were immediately improved. If a change of food was necessary -the food was changed. If a nursing baby was liable to suffer from an underfed mother-additional food was provided. In short, nothing was left undone in this great work of Baby-Saving and the results, familiar to everyone, speak for themselves.
(page 541) As Ohio was called on to fill a certain quota of student nurses, it became the duty of the Nursing division to supply Miami county's quota for this item. These nurses were to be especially equipped with the requisites that go to make good nurses. They were to be sent to training school, or if their previous experience justified, to be inducted into service. Despite the demand for nurses, which had existed for more than a year previously, and the comparative scarcity of available recruits for this service at that time, the Miami County Division supplied its full quota of twenty-five. The Division was called upon by the Governor of Ohio to furnish assistants to the Draft Board. A very efficient committee was formed with Mrs. Frank T. Harmon as chairman, and rendered notable services in his connection. These were only a few of the many contributions to the winning of the war, by the Miami County Division of this great organization. In the Red Cross, Liberty Loan and all other activities they were effective co-workers. When the final history of the great conflict is written, the Woman's Committee of The Council of National Defense will rank among the great forces that strengthened our Nation mightily, strengthened her in those little things which are collectively mighty.
The American Legion was formed for the purpose of perpetuating the interests of the American soldiers who served in the World war. Its functions are not political and it is not designed to wield arbitrary influence in American politics. It is the purpose of this order to perpetuate the great lessons learned in the world wide conflict, particularly the great American ideals which prompted our entry into the conflict. What the G. A. R. was, and is, to the Union soldiers of the Civil war, the American Legion is intended to be to the American soldiers of the great world conflict.
Miami county has three posts in the American Legion: The Clifford Thompson Post, No. 43, of Troy; The Paul Schnell Post. No. 184, of Piqua, and the A. B. Cole Post, No. 80, of Covington. The Clifford Thompson Post of Troy was named after one of the heroes who heroically sacrificed himself to save his comrades. The officers of the post are: Post Commander, Ira C. Helmick; Post Adjutant, Walter C. Miller: Post Finance Officer, Frank Rinehart: Executive Committee, Kenneth Little, Joseph Scott. John L. Babb. The Paul Schnell Post, No. 184, of Piqua, was named in honor of Supply Sergeant Paul Schnell of Company C, who was killed in Flanders. The first officers to he elected in this post are : Post Commander, Kenneth Miller Vice Commander, C. Worley Orr: Adjutant, Alfired P. Reck ; Finance Officer, Gray Sigler; Historian. George A. Flesh ; Chaplain, Dr. Francis - Thomas : War Risk Officer, Will J. Prince; Employment Officer. J. E. Jones; Executive Committee, Victor Washburn, Chairman ; Sharon Mote, William Hirt, Emmett Murray, Dr. M. R. Haley. Will J. Prince, of this Post, was elected as one of the first delegates from this district to attend a National convention-attending the National Convention of the Legion held at Minneapolis-1919.
The A. B. Cole Post, No. 80. of Covington, was also named after a fallen hero, a member of Company A of Covington. The officers of this post are: Commander, L. J. Langston; (page 542) Vice-Commander, W. C. Graber ;Adjutant, Galen Neer; Finance Officer, Otto Fulker ; Chaplain, H. D. Orr; Sergeant-at-Arms, Rob s and Hobart Executive Committee, William L. Marlin, W. O. Boggs
Red Cross, Troy Division. When the United States entered the Great War in 1917, the Miami County Chapter of the American Red Cross immediately began to adjust its program to meet the great and pressing need. Red Cross branches were reorganized under two main heads, the Miami county chapter including all of Miami county excepting Newberry, Washington, Spring Creek and Brown townships, which were embraced in the Piqua division. Headquarters for the Miami county or Troy division were established in Troy where work was immediately started. In October, at the election of officers, Bond Houser was made chairman; H. Coles, vice-chairman ; Miss Edith Gruelich, secretary, and John K. DeFrees, treasurer.
Membership during the subsequent campaigns resulted in an enrollment of 8,052 adults, exclusive of a very active junior department. In 1918 L. H. Shipman was made chairman ; H. A. Pauley, vice-chairman ; John K. DeFrees, treasurer, and Mrs. J. D. Miller, secretary. The women of the county rallied to the call for workers and under the following committeemen did an extraordinary amount of good work : Promotion and magazines, Mrs. A. F. Broomhall ; county rural campaign, T. F. Fullerton, Jr.; publicity, Perce Bridge; county organizer, Rev. D. L. Ferguson. By September, 1917, the flying fingers of the untiring women who knitted morning, noon and night had completed 12,121 knitted articles, including sweaters, scarfs. mittens, helmets and socks, and excluding the vast quantities of hospital supplies, garments for Belgian, French and Armenian relief. The women who did splendid work in the supervision of many of the activities of this work in the manufacturing, packing and knitting departments, were Mrs. Harry Gabriel, Mrs. I. S. Wagner, Miss May Nixon, and Mrs. E. E. Edgar.
The rural organization in the townships embraced in the Troy division, in addition to the active workers in Troy were as follows: Monroe Township-E. L. Crane, R. R. Tippecanoe City ; Mrs. L. E. Coppock, R. R. Tippecanoe City. Newton Township-W. Deeter. R. R. Bradford; Mrs. Frank Longenecker, Pleasant Hill. Staunton Township-Geo. Rehmerth, R. R. Troy: Mrs. M. E. Thomas. R. R. Troy. Union Township-Mr. and Mrs. Harry Ammon, Potsdam, Ohio. Bethel Township-Sumner Senseman, Tippecanoe City ; R. H. Deam, Phonetown. Concord Township-Harr- Shaefer, R. R. Troy: Mrs. Harry Duncan, R. R. Troy. Elizabeth Township Frank Thomas, R. R. Troy. Lost Creek Township-Chas. Rogers, Casstown; Mrs. Virgil Hale, R.R. Troy.
Under the leadership of Miss Ellen W Yheeler, the Junior Red Cross organized in the schools of the county made a remarkable record. As the result of a vigorous county-wide campaign, a membership of 3,658 school children was attained and general interest in this branch became very pronounced. Red Cross plays were given, sales of various kinds were held and money was raised (page 543) many ways to swell the treasury of the organization. The children also knitted and sewed, knitting 735 articles, the expenditures of the junior Chapter amounting to $565.37. Many, if not all the school teachers worked long and faithfully after school hours in bringing this branch to a success.
No sooner had the armistice been signed and the pressing need for such great quantities of supplies been lessened than a call, equally imperative but right at our doors, came to the Red Cross. The epidemic of influenza which swept over the country with such fatal results exhausted the supply of medical and nursing aid and only the heroic efforts of volunteer workers prevented a still greater number of deaths. With the nursing staff of every hospital in the country greatly reduced by the call from overseas, and the number of physicians lessened by the same cause, it was impossible to provide adequate care for the thousands of suffering civilians. It became the mission of the Civilian Relief to provide as well as possible for the many sick people in this community and excellent work was accomplished.
Great quantities of soup were made and delivered daily to the homes of the sick. Volunteer nurses did good work in caring for them, until, as often occurred, they themselves succumbed to the disease. From October, 1918, to April, 1919, there were 2,698 cases reported, and the cost to the Red Cross chapter in caring for the sick and providing sick room supplies was $825.75. The following hospital supplies were made and distributed tinder the direction of the Red Cross: 6,909 hospital shirts, 529 pillows, 56 bed sox, 70 napkins, handkerchiefs, 120 washcloths, 264 pinafores, 140 layettes, 102 underdrawers, 100 shirts, 300 chemises and 144 comfort kits, 100 convalescent robes.
The question of the returned soldier soon became the great problem confronting the Civilian Relief. It is the Government's agent for keeping in touch with and ministering to the families of soldiers and sailors who are in the army or navy or who have been discharged and are in need of temporary relief.
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