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Memoirs of the Miami Valley - Volume One
War Activities, Mills and Warehouses, The Tanning Industry, The Churches

War Activities in Shelby County


            In the scant and casual records of Sidney's past, one finds few details of the life and doings of its citizens out of official circles, and, (page 436) except for the records of the Civil war veterans, little mention of the participation of the men of Shelby county in previous wars.

            But enough evidence remains, in the form of military titles, to connect a just proportion of the fighting forces of the community with every call of patriotism uttered through the century. Not behind any other period of its history has the response of both city and country district been in the recent world war, now happily concluded-though the poignancy of sacrifices made has not yet faded from broken homes, where hearts are still bleeding and tears are yet undried.

            The report of the Shelby county draft board is to be given here complete, but it must be remembered, in reading the totals, that the draft did not include many who went from this county, from other places where they were temporarily located, into the United States forces ; or who, in their eagerness to do their part, did not wait for the United States to enter, but enlisted from Canada. "Company L," of the O. N. G., who had served throughout the Mexican border campaign, is not included in the totals, nor many others who sent no word, of their departure, from other points, until letters came from overseas to tell the story. The exact number of volunteers, who went before the selective draft had been decided upon, has not been ascertained. Letting the figures of the draft board speak for the rest, we find that in the registration of June 5, 1917, there were listed 2,078 men, divided as follows: Class I, 468; class II, 240; class III, 121; class IV, 1,042; class V, 207. Of the whole, 424 were inducted into the service, and, of those not drawn, 68 enlisted. The June and August, 1918, registrations totalled 233 names, divided into : Class I, 117; class II, 57; class III, 12; class IV, 29; class V, 18. The registration of September, 1918, covering the ages from nineteen to thirty-six, exhibited 1,217 names, divided into : Class I, 480; class 11,4; class III, 18; class IV, 661; class V, 54. Covering the eighteen year registrants, were 234 names : Class I, 230; class II, 0; class III, 4. Of the men aged from thirty-seven to forty-five, unclassified, there were 1,389; the total September registration being 2,840, and of all registrations, 5,151.

            Thirty-eight of the September registrants were inducted into the S. A. T. C., bringing the total number of inductions by the draft board to 491, with 70 enlistments recorded, making a record, for the county board, of 561 names, to which the reader must add the many suggested whom the draft board did not reach, but who nevertheless are to be counted among Shelby county's young patriots. The draft board, whose work was most faithfully carried out, consisted of B. F. Martin, chairman; W. T. Amos, secretary; Dr. M. F. Hussey, medical examiner, and Miss Anna Hennessey, chief clerk. From September, 1918, to January, 1919, a soldier clerk was employed as extra-being James Stuber, a "limited service" recruit from the fish and game department at Columbus. The work of Dr. Hussey in the first draft calls for special mention, great personal sacrifice and labor being expended in the examination of 640 men, with only occasional help in cases of haste, from Drs. J. W. Costolo, 0. 0. LeMaster and C. E. Johnston. The character of the personnel of the board was such as to gratify the entire community, exercising (page 437) justice, discrimination and due human sympathy in the discharge of their duties.

            Only one contingent of Shelby county soldiers was sent away with any public demonstration of farewell, that of May 28, 1918, when the largest group, 115 men, departed on the day of the great war chest parade, in which they were a leading feature, escorted to the station, where they entrained, by an immense crowd. For the rest, they had gone in little companies, as they were summoned, with only intimate friends to wish them Godspeed from quivering lips and aching hearts. Sidney sent of its finest younger surgeons to

            the service of the nation, and the brightest of her young men went first and most eagerly. Many have won honors and come home to love and hope, or have found their work the gateway to material advancement in other fields. Four Sidney boys attained high rank as aviators, Lieuts. R. D. Kenny, William Orbison, Firederick Stiles and Voress Loudenback. Lieut. Orbison electrified his home county by thrilling fights on war chest day. Lieut. Kenny was retained for months as commander of primary solo fight at Barronfeld, Texas.

            But the inevitable sadness of war fell heavily on the county, thirty-three of its brave lads being sacrificed. Ten of these were Sidney boys, the remaining twenty-three being from homes all over the county. Twenty-one sleep in France ; eleven died in different plague-stricken camps during the terrible influenza epidemic ; and one "suffered a sea change." Their names, collected and printed with brief biographies, in a memorial pamphlet by the Shelby county memorial association, are here recorded, followed by those of the association. Upon the occasion of the memorial mass meeting, an eloquent address was delivered by Hon. Charles M. Wyman, which forms part of the material of the pamphlet. It is not reproduced here, but it was a beautiful tribute to the patriotism of the dead, and full of inspiration to the living. In the freshness of grief, words are often but futile messengers of comfort to the bereaved; but the sympathy they carry lives long after their echoes die. The brightest laurels we can lay upon the graves of our boy heroes in France, or upon those of the victims of camp scourges in the United States, are, however, only pale symbols of the glory with which their story crowns the county.


"Lest we forget!"


            Firederick Napier Annandale, Sidney, Ohio, Company L, O. N. G., died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, thirty years.

            Floyd Briggs, of Sidney, Ohio, Company L, O. N. G., killed in action in France. Age, nineteen years.

            Homer R. Colby, of Loramie township, 6th regiment, U. S. Marines, died in France. Age, twenty-two years.

            Grover Cox, of McLean township, 9th Training battalion, died at Camp Sherman, Ohio. Age, twenty-six years.

            Louis Henry Daniel, of McLean township, U. S. navy, U. S. S. Trippe, washed overboard and lost at sea. Age, twenty-two years.

            Benjamin Logan Englerth, of Anna, Ohio, Medical Officers' Reserve corps, Coast artillery, died in France. Age, twenty-six years.

            (page 438) Leo John Francis, of Loramie township, 159th Depot brigade, died at Camp Taylor, Kentucky. Age, twenty-three years.

            Robert Comer Fogt, of Dinsmore township, U. S. Marines, U. S. S. Cincinnati, died at Key West, Florida. Age, twenty-one years.

            Stephen L. Francis, of Loramie township, Company D, 329th regiment infantry, U.S. army, died in France of wounds received in action. Age, twenty-five years.

            Noah Wilson Haner, of Sidney, Ohio, Company L, killed in action, in France. Age, twenty years.

            Edward William Heiland, of Dinsmore township, Company L, died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, twenty-three years.

            John Henry Helminger, of Jackson township, Company H, 330th infantry, died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, twenty-nine.

            Ralph Emerson Hineman, of Dinsmore township, Company K, 103rd regiment, 26th division, died in France. Age, twenty-three years.

            Don Henly John, of Sidney, Ohio, 158th Depot brigade, died at Camp Sherman, Ohio. Age, twenty-one years.

            Leopold Alonzo Kah, of Dinsmore township, Company D, 153rd regiment infantry, died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, twenty-five years.

            James McKinley Latimer, of Turtle Creek township, Troop B, 15th cavalry, U. S. army, died in France. Age, under seventeen years.

            John J. Layman, of Washington township, 158th Depot brigade, died at Camp Sherman, Ohio. Age, twenty-two years.

            Clarence Nathan Maxon, of Sidney, Ohio, Company L, killed in action, in France. Age, twenty years.

            Lloyd Leslie Mottoe, of Salem township, Depot brigade, died at Camp Sherman, Ohio. Age, twenty-two years.

            Earl Munch, of Jackson township, Company B, 146th regiment, killed in action, in France. Age, twenty-two years.

            Raymond G. Nettleship, of Salem township, Company G, 148th regiment infantry, died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, twenty-six years.

            Walter Raymond Pence, of Sidney, Ohio, Marine corps, died in France. Age, twenty-one years.

            Henry Elmer Regula, of Jackson township, 158th Depot brigade, died at Camp Sherman, Ohio. Age, twenty-two years.

            Abram Robinette, of Washington township, Company K, 4th regiment, U. S. army, died at Camp Perry, Illinois. Age, twenty-two years.

            Orla Sylvester Scherer, of Jackson township, Company L, died in France. Age, twenty years.

            Anthony Michael Sherman, of Sidney, Ohio, 6th regiment, U. S. Marines, died in France. Age, twenty-three years.

            Robert Lee Smith, of Green township, Company B, 104th U. S. Engineers, died at Camp McClellan, Annison, Alabama. Age, twenty-three years.

            (page 439) Simon Peter Snapp, of Perry township, volunteer in 13th Canadian battalion, died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, thirty-eight years.

            Herman Henry Soelman, of Van Buren township, 159th Depot brigade, died at Camp Taylor, .Kentucky. Age, twenty-three years. John E. Stanridge, of Sidney, Ohio, Company M, 329th infantry, U. S. army, died in France, of wounds received in action. Age, twenty-four years.

            Carl Firederick Troester of Sidney, Ohio, 32nd division, U. S. army, killed in action, in France. Age, twenty-three years.

            Oden Wilkinson, of Perry township, Training detachment, Mechanical institute,- U. S. army, died at Cincinnati. Age, twenty-seven years.

            Gordon Wright, of Sidney, Ohio, Company A, 23rd infantry, 6th division, U. S. army, killed in action, in France. Age, twenty-two years.

            The Shelby county men composing the Memorial association are :

            From Sidney, P. R. Taylor,* J. D. Barnes, Rev. W. B. Love, I. M. Apple, J. Wilson Roy,* W. P. Collier, William Young, C. C. Kelly, P. L. Frazier, M. A. Doorley, H. E. Bennett, James E. Way, Brice Smith, P. O. Stockstill, Louis W. Kah, Orin Staley, and James Sharp.

            From Botkins, Thomas Kennedy and Benjamin Artkamp. From Anna, J. W. A. Fridley, R. D. Mede, Wilson Dill, T. S. Price, J. F. Ailes, 'and John Deiters.

            From Houston, G. W. Carpenter, Dr. J. S. Strosnider and J. F. Flinn.

            From Jackson Center, F. M. Wildermuth and Elmer Meranda. From Swanders, Robert Evans and George Knasel. From Piqua Road, Frank Rhodes and John Booher; and W. J. Sherman, Fort Loramie ; Bernard Brandywine, Minster; Isaac Green, Pemberton ; B. C. Epler, Port Jefferson ; John Wones, Maplewood ; Henry Eisenhut, Kettlerville ; and Dr. S. S. Gabriel, Lockington.

            Not only to the dead is honor due, but to those who lived, sharing the risks and dangers, enduring the drudgery and dreary waiting, missing the great adventure, or coming out of it with maimed bodies and blinded eyes or, fortunate to seek once more the opportunities they sacrificed at the call of liberty-uncrowned         by the immortality vouchsafed in a patriot's death. The work of the memorial association may not be laid down until these, all, have been recognized by some fitting token of permanent dignity. Of all the great drives for funds during the war, that of the Y. M. C. A. was the first to be organized and put across, if the initial drive for Red Cross membership in 1917 be excepted. Sidney having no local Y. M. C. A., Hon. J. E. Russell, appointed to have charge of the campaign in Shelby county, was under the necessity of building from the foundation, in order successfully to raise the quota of $15,000 assigned to the county. Mr. Russell, (page 440) assisted by Mr. W. E. Kilborn, organized the county outside of Sidney, succeeding by personal and intimate work, in securing a chairman for each school district, in nearly all of which the detail organizations were promptly effected, though a few were somewhat

            slow. In Sidney, of course, it was possible to make the most headway, and as soon as the chairmen had accepted, a dinner was held at the Methodist church banquet hall, to which the group were invited, as well as many prominent citizens, a guest of honor being Dr. Bunton, of Dayton, who presented the subject and inspired the working forces for the effort they were about to make. Early in January, 1918, the drive took place, the county going "over the top" figure, and rounding up $16,500. The success of this first drive set the pace for the county, in other drives, all of which were greatly assisted by the foundation laid for future organization by the thorough work done under Mr. Russell.

            The second drive for funds conducted was that of the Knights of Columbus, which was launched by a banquet at the K. of C. hall on the evening of January 25, 1918, at which the Protestant and Catholic clergy of the city were present and addressed the company, in addition to speeches from Chaplain Grusemeyer of Camp Sherman, P. R. Taylor of the local Red Cross, A. J. Hess, W. A. Graham and Charles M. Wyman. The Catholic clergymen who spoke were Fathers Fortman, of Holy Angels' ; Kreuzkamp, of the parish at Russia (Shelby county) ; and Blottman, assistant at Holy Angels ; and the protestant churches were represented by Revs. W. B. Love, R. Wobus, William Piefer, and R. W. Ustick. The speeches were all short, pithy and enthusiastic, all seeming to seize eagerly this opportunity to show that in the real crisis of living, there is no division caused by creeds. Incidentally, the K. of C. slogan adopted was "Everybody welcome. Everything free." The weather being the most severe of the whole winter during the dates set for the campaign, with deep snows, piled in heavy drifts, making many country roads impassable, not only were the majority of the country chairmen prevented from coming to the banquet, but also from doing their expected part in the canvass. But in spite of this, the quota assigned, $5,000, was over-subscribed by nearly fifty per cent, the sum of $7,113.34 being amassed, a big "thermometer" on the north side of the Court House registering hourly the progress of the drive. There was fine co-operation among the people of the county, and with better weather, the quota would have been doubled. The chairman, Mr. Ed. F. Salm, was assisted by Mr. Ed. C. Wolf, secretary, Mr. Ben. B. Amann, treasurer, and Mr. Charles M. Wyman, publicity man.

            The War Savings Stamp campaign, growing out of the Thrift Stamp successes, was begun about mid-January, 1918. Mr. Percy R. Taylor had been first appointed chairman of the W. S. S. sales in Shelby county, but resigned not long after, on account of change of residence to Toledo. Mr. Val Lee, postmaster at Sidney, was then appointed by the state director to fill the chairmanship, and organize the campaign, which had scarcely begun at this date. Mr. Lee utilized the twelve postmasters of the county as sub-chairmen, with full instructions, and quotas of stamps were placed at each (page 441) post-office. Weekly reports on sales were required of them, and the relative percentage of sales was kept ever before them. The entire county force of mail carriers was impressed as salesmen for the stamps. Good headway was made, until April, by no other means but this, the postmasters without exception taking care of the business with unexpected ability. Mr. Lee, meanwhile, was mapping out his plan for the great drive, which he chose not to stage until the others should be past, and the early harvests had replenished the county purses. Up to June only about $150,000 had been sold, and Shelby county appeared to be a laggard. Appearances, as they often are, were deceitful. Chairman Lee's plan was now ripe. As organized for the drive, the personnel of the committee was : Chairman, Mr. Val Lee; executive secretary, Urban H. Doorley; rural chairman, Fired Wildermuth; board of instructors, D. Finley Mills, B. F. Martin, J. W. Simmons, H. E. Bennett, Judge J. D. Barnes, Wilbur E. Kilborn, W. J. Emmons, H. H. Needles, J. Edward Russell, M. F. Hussey, and W. T. Amos. Executive committee, W. A. Graham, J. W. Simmons, H. E. Bennett, Clem Crusey, J. C. Cummins and D. F. Mills.

            The drafted men of the deferred classification to the number of fifteen hundred were taken as the basis for working teams, and summoned to a mass meeting held at the high school auditorium where they were addressed by George Mannix, of Darke county (since, by appointment, common pleas judge of Darke county), in an impassioned oration, unmatched in eloquence throughout the entire period of the war, which made a patriot of every lad in the crowded hall, ready to die for his country, if needed, and also to do, before dying, everything in his power as a salesman of War Savings Stamps. A captain was appointed in every precinct in the city, and in every township in the county. So thoroughly had the scheme of organization been worked out, that, in its final ramifications, each canvasser had only five or six families to visit. The city captains were Hugh Bingham, Ted Flinn, Harry Piper, Carl Berger, G. U. Rhees, Herbert Quelhorst, F. N. Raterman, Walter Corey, Harvey Hanselman, Lee Francis, Orlie Rodgers, Roy Wones, Elmer Ludwig, Harry Hoewisher, Wm. Meckstroth, Clarence Polhamus, Roy DeWeese, Kerr Fulton, Milton McNeill, Clay Caven, F_ X. Lauterbur, and Thomas Studevant. The rural chairmen were : Salem, J. C. Wones ; Jackson, John Duckworth ; Perry, Rev. Furrow ; Green, Clifford Hetzler; Botkins, Thomas Kennedy; Anna, J. W. Fridley; Franklin, Samuel Hunt; Swanders, S. E. Sherer; Clinton, W. H. McCloskey; Orange, H. M. Martin; Van Buren, Henry Becker; Turtle Creek, F. M. Hussey; McLean, Joseph Kloecker; Cynthiana, John Marshall; Loramie, Felix Francis, and Washington, Mark Weymer.

            In the schools, directed by H. R. McVay, more stress was laid upon the education of pupils, by means of which the economic value of the stamps was impressed upon their parents, also,-than upon mere sales, although the sales were very good. The drive, set for the first of August, lasted ten days, the total sales in Shelby county amounting to $570,000, which was sent in at once. Mr. Lee's resignation went in at the same time, but was not accepted. (page 442) Chairman Lee attributes great credit to his county assistant, Mr. Wildermuth, whose knowledge of the county, as well as whose patriotic service, was of the greatest value; also to the rural postmasters, to whom the handling of the large sums of money was unprecedented, yet who performed this responsible task with safety and exactness.

            A permanent post-drive league was formed at once with the same captains, and basis, officered as follows : Urban H. Doorley, president ; F. X. Lauterbur, vice-president; treasurer, Thomas Studevant; secretary, Theodore Flinn. A final "Bring 'Em Back" campaign is scheduled for the season now current. (1919).

            Realizing the undue expenditures of time and labor in the individual drives for funds, and the increasing calls for money to be used in the different departments of war work, Shelby county followed the example set in many cities of conducting a drive for a war chest, from which each organized avenue of war beneficence could draw for the prosecution of its work, and none be even temporarily embarrassed for funds, nor under the necessity of taking civilian war workers from their tasks, to solicit separate funds.

            A mass meeting was called at the high school auditorium, at which judge Barnes presided, and the scheme of the war chest was elucidated to the public. A temporary committee was appointed to select a committee and officers for the conduct of the drive, their nomination of judge J. D. Barnes as general chairman being accepted, and he was vested, thereby, with full authority to select his associate committeemen. In accordance with this, Harry K. Forsyth was named secretary, and J. C. Cummins treasurer, the other members being Hon. J. E. Russell, Percy R. Taylor, W. E. Kilborn, Charles Wyman, Prof. H. R. McVay, Clem Crusey, and Ed. F. Salm. It was concluded upon, after study of the situation, to make a county wide drive for $100,000, to meet the county quota for all war benevolences. The slogan "1 in 31" was adopted, in accordance with the thought that as the soldier was giving thirty-one days each month, the civilian should give no less than the proceeds of one day's work each month for the soldier's benefit. The financial basis taken was, that all men working on salaries should give one day's pay per month, and all others should contribute 4 per cent of the gross income, divided into monthly payments. An educational campaign was conducted. Meetings being held in every township in the county, usually addressed by some local speaker, and also by some returned soldier. As no American soldiers had returned by that time, the soldiers who spoke were usually Canadians, sometimes Belgian and Scottish, disabled from wounds received in battle ; and their experiences, related in simple, native eloquence, were effective and convincing.

            The educational campaign terminated on May twenty-eighth, the closing feature being the grand rally day in Sidney, when the largest crowd ever assembled in Sidney gave the war chest drive a magnificent send of. The parade-the finest in Sidney's history started at ten o'clock in the morning, headed by a group of one hundred and fifteen selective draft men who were to leave that day for training camp. They bore a banner inscribed : "We go to give our all. (page 443) What are you going to give?" Next, came their mothers, sisters and sweethearts, carrying banners which said : "We are giving our boys. Are you willing to give one day's pay?" Following came the members of Neal Post, G. A. R., all carrying American fags. Next, marched the Red Cross chapter, in force, and after them the employes of Sidney's many manufacturing concerns, every unit carrying appropriate banners conveying inspirational information as to their purpose and its relation to the rally. A line of beautiful floats, emblematic of every phase of patriotic effort, and lastly, the entire Sidney public and parochial school enrollment completed the parade, with the exception of the interesting item that Governor Cox, who arrived in an automobile, marched on foot with the selective draft boys.

            After the parade, Governor Cox delivered a thrilling and patriotic address from the north entrance of the courthouse. About noon the selectives were escorted to the B. & O. station by the G. A. R. post, headed by the Sidney band and followed by a concourse of citizens.

            A feature planned for the day had been the "bombing" of the smaller towns, throughout the county, with handbills dropped from an airplane, driven by Lieut. William Orbison, a Sidney boy, from Fairfield aviation field. Lieut. Orbison started over the county about six o'clock in the morning, but after covering the northern half of the county, was obliged to make a landing, on account of a leaking gas tank. After hasty repairs he again started on his travels, was forced to land again, and was once more ready, but wet ground prevented a good "rise," and the plane smashed into a farm fence damaging its "nose" but not injuring the aviator, though the flight had to be abandoned. Lieut. Orbison had not previously met with an accident during his entire service, and it was a source of keen regret to him, as he had planned some thrilling stunts for the entertainment of his home city.

            A little after twelve o'clock, a squadron of twelve planes appeared from the south, coming from Fairfield, and few over the city for some time, exhibiting fine squadron work, and giving the multitude a thrilling and novel experience, in witnessing so many planes in formation overhead. After landing, south of the city, the aviators, the Governor, and other honored guests were entertained at the country club.

            The county had been so thoroughly organized that the enthusiasm engendered produced most gratifying results. With a population of only 25,000, over 8,000 persons subscribed to the chest, and a final tabulation showed the county not merely "over the top," but from starting to reach one hundred thousand dollars, the drive had achieved approximately a quarter of a million. All subscribers were assured that they would not again be solicited for any form of war benevolence for the period of one year from date ; also, that when the monthly payments had raised a fund sufficient to meet all county quotas for the recognized benevolences, further payments would be suspended. In accordance with this promise, the payments were suspended after five monthly installments had been paid. To date, (page 444) there is no quota standing against Shelby county. All have been paid in full.

            The Five War Loans. The Liberty loan committee for Shelby county, in the Toledo area, was appointed in May, 1917, and continued throughout the period of the war without change. Mr. Will A. Graham, of the Citizens' National bank, as chairman, handled the business of the loans with consummate ability and exactness, and the committee could not have been bettered, even in Sidney. Mr. Urban H. Doorley was detailed 'as executive secretary, in this as in several other important departments of civilian war work, and the following nine well-known business men and financiers composed the committee : Ben. B. Amann, J. C. Cummins, L. M. Studevant, W. E. Kilborn, Val Lee, J. W. Simmons, H. D. Bennett, B. T. Bulle and C. C. Kelly.

            The conduct of the drives was uniformly quiet and the reverse of spectacular, with only the silent appeals of posters by way of display, and addresses of educational intent by men of prominence.

            Many women assisted in the First Liberty loan, under the leadership of Mrs. L. M. Studevant, although the work of women was not made a feature of this or subsequent drives, the Sidney women being almost universally occupied to the utmost by National League or Red Cross war work. In the Fifth, or Victory loan, the women were directed to organize with Mrs. J. D. Barnes as chairman, and accomplished, in their canvass, an amount entitling them to credit for one-third of the whole subscription.

            The First loan, in May, 1917, was conducted from the popular basis, the subscriptions amounting to $312,250, divided among 1384 buyers. The Second, in late October, 1917, was guaranteed by the banks, and disposed of to 841 buyers, and totaling $560,400. The

            Third, in April, 1918, was again carried directly to the public by personal appeal, and 1874 buyers subscribed a total of $655,500.

            In the Fourth, in Autumn, 1918, 4164 buyers subscribed for $718,250. The Victory loan, heralded by a shower of paper leaflets from an aeroplane, and a convincing speech by Senator Pomerene, rounded up 1583 subscribers and the figures $670,800. The total of Shelby county's record for the five loans is $2,917,200. All loans far exceeded the apportionment for the county, and the number of subscribers seems an index, if rightly read, of the interest taken, the growing confidence of the people, their increased ability to subscribe-shown particularly in the Fourth loan figures, and the realization of the great value of the loans, as mere investment, evinced in the Victory loan. It may be added that more than fifty per cent of the subscriptions are attributable to Sidney. The Council of Defense was not fully organized in Shelby county, owing to the multiplicity of war duties devolving upon the same group of men. Judge J. D. Barnes received the appointment to chairmanship, and Urban H. Doorley was assigned to the secretary's duties, but while the fuel committee was put in operation, and similar measures were adopted and carried by consent, the organization of the council was still awaiting when the armistice was signed, and the necessity existed no longer.

            Shelby county and Sidney neglected, in fact, nothing of local (page 445) possibility in the way of service to the war department, even if organization was here and there incomplete, a general spirit of patriotic co-operation replacing mere formalities with marvelous efficiency. In the last analysis, it is results which speak.

            Woman's Work. According to the well-known custom of the past, Sidney women, like the women of other communities, were not given "speaking parts" in the war drama of the Sixties. However, women are now everywhere acknowledged to have been the moral force behind the boys in arms, whether in blue or khaki, and if the women of Sidney displayed signal initiative, in war work, during the two strenuous years just past, it was but a natural inheritance from mothers and grandmothers, who unobtrusively picked lint, rolled bandages, and sewed, and made jellies, and sent letters and comforts of various sorts to the soldiers of a long half century ago. A well worn and yellowed blank book, which served the secretary of the "Ladies' Christian Commission Aid Society," the local auxiliary of the "United States Christian Commission," contains many pages of neat handwriting, which tell the story of the remarkable work done by the women of Sidney, during the year of March, 1864, to April,             1865, under this organization. The journal was kept by Mrs. J. C. Frankeburger, secretary, with great faithfulness and detail. The society was organized March 7, 1864, at the home of Mrs. Thomas Stevenson, with forty ladies present, all of whom signed the books as members, and paid the annual due of twenty-five cents. The number of members subsequently increased to seventy-seven, and besides Mrs. Frankeburger the officers elected were Mrs. Judge Cummins, president; Mrs. Mary Bates, vice-president ; Mrs. E. R. Manor, treasurer; and Mrs. Black, Mrs. L. C. Barkdull, Mrs. Augusta Mathers, and Mrs. Reed, directors. Forty-two meetings were held for work, besides the suppers given every month, and the occasional "concerts by the band," by which means was raised nearly all of the money needed for the prosecution of the labor of love to which they were pledged, "for the brave boys who are periling their lives for their country."

            Twelve boxes and five barrels of hospital supplies, surgical dressings, garments and delicacies, were sent during the year from this group of loyal women. Altogether it represented a value of almost eleven hundred and fifty dollars, while the made articles numbered 2172. There had been a few donations of work, money and material, but in the main, the women earned the money for their materials, and did the work; yet were ready at the end of the year to "renew our sacrifices, and, so long as there is need, never relax our efforts." Nearer than they thought was the end of "need," for the meetings ended abruptly in April, 1865, and the conscientiously kept journal of the society, closes without a period. The joy of victory was punctuation enough.

            It was this spirit that flamed up in the hearts of the daughters and grand-daughters of those same women in an April just fifty-two years later, when the sudden flash along the wires of the nation proclaimed "War with Germany !" and drew the youth of America up standing in response.

            No official call had come from Washington to organize for war (page 446) work, or for emergency. Shelby county was quietly plodding its round of duty, its factory wheels humming, and its chimneys belching smoke as usual,-nor did they stop. It was the women into whose hearts the trump of war sent the vital spark. Removed from the great centers of activity, into what avenue of work they were to enter was a question scarcely asked before it was answered. The first that opened.

            The National League of Women's Service had speedily, in the year preceding, extended its organization to Cincinnati, and from there it had spread rapidly up the chain of Miami towns. Piqua had a flourishing branch, of which Mrs. Charles Stuart was president, and through this a small number of Sidney women had become aware of the work that was being done to prepare for war emergency. Miss Ruth Kilborn, also had been an enthusiastic observer of the National League in eastern cities during the winter. A meeting of loyal Sidney women was called for the afternoon of April ninth, 1917, at the home of Mrs. E. T. Mathers on North Ohio avenue, at which Mrs. Stuart addressed a large number of the active spirits of the city, and amid great enthusiasm the Sidney branch of the National League for Women's Service was formed. Miss Ruth Kilborn was elected president, and Miss Ida Wilson and Mrs. E. W. Laughlin vice-presidents, with Mrs. Robert Marshall, secretary, and Mrs. Laura Beebe Horr, treasurer.

            Within ten days, the young president had organized all her committees, and the Armory had been secured as a working centre, through Mr. Ben Higgins, the lessee; sewing machines had been donated by Miss Hannah Collins, Mrs. J. C. Cummins, and Mrs. Harry Given, and delivered by Mr. Sexauer. On the nineteenth of April the members met at the home of the president and listened to further elucidation of work and its purposes and methods, by Miss Grace Latimer Jones, of Columbus. The committees, which comprised the best talent and most faithful hearts of Sidney, had been arranged with unerring discrimination, and the right woman in the right place insured the wonderful results of the next two years. Mrs. W. O. Amann, with Mrs. Hugh T. Mathers and Mrs. W. E. Kilborn, formed the ways and means committee ; purchasing was placed in the hands of Mrs. W. T. Amos, Mrs. P. O. Rhodes and Miss Edith Silver. Soliciting of funds and material and membership was given to Mrs. B. P. Wagner; sewing fell to Mrs. Jesse Laughlin, Mrs. Mary Kennedy and Mrs. O. S. Kenny; surgical dressings were divided into classes, and in due order were detailed to groups of three, as follows : Slings, Misses Julia Kali and Elizabeth Smith and Mrs. C. B. DeWeese; binders, Mrs. J. W. Costolo and Misses Julia Collins and Louise Amann ; compresses, Mesdames F. S. Foster, B. S. Martin, and Harvey Roth ; pillows, Mesdames Carl Custenborder, Morton Piper, and Firederick McLean ; gauze packing, Mesdames H. H. Needles, Roy Redinbo, and James Hewitt ; tampons, Mesdames C. F. Hickok, C. M. Dorsey and W. H. Clayton ; comfort kits, Mesdames J. D. Barnes, John Perry and C. H. Ferrall ; knitting, Mrs. C. B. Orbison, and Mrs. W. H. Davies ; packing, Mrs. Frank Goode, Miss Bertha McLean. and Mrs. Hugh Bingham. Work began at once, but eager fingers were soon wanting more (page 447) material than the collections taken at each meeting could supply. However, the ways and means committee under Mrs. W. 0. Amann performed prodigies in the matter of obtaining funds. A chain of parties was devised and carried out, which netted nearly six hundred dollars ; a great Red Cross fag was made by the committee and carried in the patriotic parade of May day, 1917, by which $180 in coin was collected, young women and girls in Red Cross nurse uniforms assisting; occasional donations, voluntary and solicited, swelled the total to $900 during the year. This sum, wisely expended and the material conservatively managed, produced a total of five thousand surgical dressings sent to the National League S. D. committee; 91 sweaters, 116 pairs of socks, and 134 miscellaneous knitted articles of wool sent to the Navy league by the knitting department; and furnished the soldier boys of Shelby county with comfort kits to the last one called to the colors. The value of the work done, and especially of the minute organization of that work, cannot be given too much credit, in the total war work done by Sidney women. It brought to the Red Cross work room a body of trained and disciplined workers, ready skilled in all the needlecraft called for by the exacting requirements; and it had, in the meantime, lost not a moment of the precious time which had passed before the organization of the Red Cross chapter in Shelby county. The season of apprenticeship was over. By the end of the first year, the Service League had delivered to the Red Cross 56,095 pieces of surgical dressings. In addition, the women of the city had become fully instructed in the importance of conservation as well as of home production, and the whole scheme of women's war work was on foot and moving.

            When, in June 1917, in response to an urgent call from Washington to organize, the Shelby county chapter of the American Red Cross was formed and chartered, it inevitably took in all of the women who composed the local branch of the National Service League, and consequently, practically all of the working forces of the Sidney women. In fact, the initial drive for a Red Cross membership, resulting in the enrollment of 1612 names (many of them for life memberships), was mainly the work of women. The men of Sidney came forward as officers of the Chapter, the chairman being Mr. W. T. Amos ; vice-chairman, Mr. W. E. Kilborn ; treasurer, Mr. W. A. Graham ; secretary, Mr. Percy R. Taylor. Mr. Taylor resigned August 30th and Miss Elsie Piper was elected to the vacancy.

            Mrs. H. ML. Robinson was appointed chairman of the committee on instructions to women, and, at the order to organize the workshop for Red Cross activity, a change in the Sidney work became imminent. It was obvious that the same women could not serve two masters, yet had inadvertently become pledged to both Service league and Red Cross. Herein was the fineness of Sidney womanhood demonstrated : The Service league met, August 8th, and took steps by which they transposed themselves, as a body already organized, into an auxiliary of the Red Cross Chapter. Twenty of the young women entered the surgical dressings training class conducted by Mrs. Charles Ginn, of Dayton, fifteen completing the course and (page 448) thereafter carrying on the surgical dressings work in the same carefully detailed manner as before, yet conforming to the Red Cross requirements. From time to time they attended classes in Dayton to learn the latest new "fashions" set by the surgeons at the front. The practice of specializing the classes for surgical dressings work continued in the League Auxiliary workroom (which had been moved in October to the domestic science room at the high school, for better heating), where the advantage of the system was made apparent early, in the report of "perfect" which came from division headquarters upon receipt of shipments from Sidney. Before the end of 1917 larger quarters became necessary for the Red Cross work, and the assembly room was chosen, of the three places freely offered,-in the Oldham building, the high school, and the courthouse. Mrs. Howard Grant, Mrs. Harry Rice and Mrs. J. D. Barnes were a committee who transformed the assembly room into a bright attractive Red Cross workroom, fitted up with tables, sewing machines (with electric motor attachment), lockers, desks, telephones and all necessary paraphernalia for work. After January 1, 1918, all Red Cross work was done at or sent out to auxiliaries from this headquarters. The transition of the local N. L. W. S. into an auxiliary force of the Red Cross Chapter had taken place in October, and with the opening of the assembly workshop all effort was merged toward the common end, a self-forgetful harmony prevailing. In one respect only did the National Service league maintain its original identity-as a special committee to provide, out of its own treasury, the comfort kits and knitted comforts for Shelby county men. This work, which was not at first provided for in the Red Cross, had been a part of the Service league plan from the first, and they continued to carry it out until every Shelby county soldier had been furnished with kit and knitted articles, the well-known "Smileage Books" being a feature of the kits.

            The Red Cross knitting was at last organized, and put in the charge of Mrs. Orbison and her committee, who had conducted the Service league knitting. Sidney women were not behind the line of march in any department of Red Cross work, but organized with promptness and technical correctness every line of work suggested by the Council of Defense, carrying out the same to the extent of the local field. And not until the last call for effort had ceased was the closing of the Red Cross workshop effected.

            At the close of the first year of the Service league (now the Red Cross Auxiliary) Miss Ruth Kilborn, in retiring from the presidency, to engage in other work, took the opportunity to pay deserved tribute to "the wonderful team work of the women of the rank and file, who, when all the work was new, without models to follow, and, unused to bend to others' standards, forgot self in the nobility of the work," and brought about the splendid results recorded to Sidney's credit.

            The Auxiliary then elected new officers for the ensuing year : Mrs. Harry M. Robinson, president ; Miss Julia Collins, vice-president; Miss Ruth Kilborn, second vice-president; Mrs. Robert Marshall, secretary; Mrs. W. Cool Horr, treasurer ; Mrs. E. T. Custenborder, financial secretary; special committees : Ways and means, (page 449) backyard poultry, conservation, comfort kits, knitting, cutting, inspection, wrapping, packing, supply department, and publicity, were presided over respectively by Mesdames William Amos, Anna Robinson, W. H. C. Goode, J. D. Barnes, C. B. Orbison, Miss Olive Honnell, Mrs. Shine, Mrs. Howard Grant, Mrs. J. D. Barnes, Miss Julia Kah, Mrs. C. F. Hickok, Miss Oldham and Mrs. Howard Amos.

            The surgical dressings department was subdivided into special classes for the Auxiliary work, as in the original Service league plan (only with more classes, owing to the increased needs specified by the surgeons to the Red Cross), a method most successful in securing speed as well as accuracy.

            The efficiency displayed from first to last in the women's work and its administration has been most signal, and the final figures, stated elsewhere, are a lasting evidence of what Sidney women can do. Due credit must also be given to the auxiliaries, eleven of which were organized at different points in the county, and from which faithful service came until the end. At Jackson Center, the Red Cross sewing was carried on under the chairmanship of Mrs. Edward Kenneaster ; at Botkins, under Mrs. Herbert Sheets ; at Anna, under Miss Lena Dale; at Fort Loramie, under Mrs. Frank N. Raterman ; at Swanders, under Mrs. Frank Pfaadt ; at Houston, under Mrs. James Flinn; at Oran, under Mrs. Joseph Lehman ; at Maplewood, under Mrs. J. C. Wones; at Port Jefferson, under Mrs. A. L. Nettleship; at Plattesville, under Mrs. H. G. Princehouse; and at Pemberton, under Miss Bonnie Hain. The Mount Vernon (church) ladies formed a separate auxiliary in Sidney, and sewed for the garment department with unflagging ardor, under Mrs. Montgomery.

            The total of articles of all kinds sent to Lake Division from Sidney Chapter follows : Quilts, comforts and afghans, 37; refugees' garments, 1429; layettes, of fifty pieces each, 30; hospital garments, 181, miscellaneous articles, 35; men's socks, 1333; children's stockings, 55; wristlets, 431; sweaters, 884; helmets, 141; mufflers, 64; scarfs, 60; shawls, two. Surgical dressings, 92,593. Comfort bags, 701. Christmas boxes, for every Shelby county soldier boy, were packed and shipped by the women.

            Although Sidney was not in the line for canteen work, the motor corps was organized and under Mrs. Laura Beebe Horr, commandant, rendered fine service during the influenza epidemic, the Belgian relief drives, and similar emergencies. The community nurse became a part of the Red Cross work during the epidemic. Following the first year of Service league work, Miss Ruth Kilborn, its first leader, whose youthful enthusiasm had given it such a wonderful impetus, relinquished local work to enter training for service in the neuro-psychiatric social service. The preparation covered a period of eight months, two of which were spent at Smith College (her alma mater) and the remaining six months in the practice course in psychiatry at Boston, completing which Miss Ki1born was appointed a reconstruction aide, and was assigned (by her own choosing) to the psychiatric division of the I.T. S. army General Hospital No. 25, at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana. Miss Kilborn took up her duties early in 1919, and finds, in this (page 450) wonderful work of restoration, a gracious field for the exercise of her talents.

            At the first annual meeting of the Red Cross Chapter, October 1917, the only changes made in the official board were the elections of Mr. Percy R. Taylor, chairman, and Mrs. Robert E. Marshall, secretary. No executive nor chapter meetings were called during the year by the chairman, and the Christmas membership drive was omitted on account of bad roads in the country districts. The only attempt to augment the membership, beyond the reception of voluntary subscription to the charter and payment of dues, was made by Father Kreuzkamp, of Russia, who conducted a local drive at his own initiative, enrolling his entire parish. The war chest provided funds for the Red Cross work subsequently, and Shelby county may be said never to have had a real membership drive such as was held in most cities, even the Christmas Roll-Call of 1918 being omitted, though voluntary dues were accepted. At the election of October, 1918, Mr. Ben. B. Amann was elected to the chairmanship, to succeed Mr. Taylor who resides now in Toledo, Ohio. Upon the call from Washington to organize the civilian relief department of the chapter, Dr. Arthur Silver was appointed its chairman by Mr. Taylor, holding the position from February 1918, until September 1918, when he was recalled to military service in the medical department. Miss Edith Silver had been detailed by the chairman as assistant, and to attend to such calls for home service duty as were received during that time. No appointment was made to fill Dr. Silver's place until after the annual election in October. Miss Virginia Wing, in visiting Sidney after the signing of the armistice, urged the immediate necessity of organizing the home service section, and as soon as the influenza epidemic abated, Judge Barnes accepted the chairmanship of civilian relief, and nominated Miss Edith Silver as home service secretary. Miss Silver attended the institute course of six weeks at Cleveland, preparatory to entering upon her duties, judge Barnes meanwhile performing such duties of the office as presented themselves. The home service office was formally opened by Miss Silver, April 14, 1919, just in time to receive the first rush of returning soldiers and give them the assistance for which the home service section stands responsible, through the American Red Cross, to the government. The secretary's time is divided between the duties of visitor, which occupies forenoons, and those of secretary, in which from April 14 to July 1, 1919, she had come into official contact with full three hundred soldiers, and with the families of the same, and of others who have not yet returned, upon points including the varied problems of allotments and allowments, compensations, insurances, securing of bonuses, employment, emergency loans, tracking up lost papers, letters, discharges or policies, and relatives ; interviews with employers, filling out of employment blanks and returning the same to U. S. employment service, etc., etc. Countless difficulties come up for adjustment or investigation; legal advice must often be secured; but the soldier is helped to help himself, first of all. If it is thoroughly understood that civilian relief is the permanent work of the American Red Cross, and that home service is the war phase (page 451) (or perhaps the post war phase), the home service section will receive its due meed of appreciation. The home service board consists of the officials of the Red Cross chapter, and the following members chosen at large from the ranks according to their fitness for the duties : B. B. Amann, chairman ; G. U. Rhees, vice-chairman ; Mrs. R. E. Marshall, secretary; W. A. Graham, treasurer; executive committee : Messrs. W. E. Kilborn, J. C. Cummins, and F. D. Christian, and Mesdames W. O. Amann, W. H. Wagner, H. W. Robinson, L. M. Studevant.

            Frances L. Goode, another Sidney young woman to do major service during the war, enrolled for "Overseas Service" September 1918, and was sent to France soon after, remaining until August, 1919. Her first work was as a canteener for the Y. M. C. A., in the "leave area" at La Bourboule, in the central plateau of France. After La Bourboule was closed, Miss Goode was transferred to similar service in the French Alps at Annecy, near Geneva. The last two months were spent at Camp Pontanezin, Brest. How to get the questionnaires filled out for return to the draft board became a problem very early in the war days. The Shelby county bar is not large, numerically, and the ranks of the legal fraternity, upon whom the duty fell by precedent, were depleted by the draft itself, until help became imperative. In this emergency, Miss Silver, as president of the City Federation of Women's Clubs, offered the willing service of Federation women as clerks at the call of judge Barnes, who accepted the offer, and from then on a large contingent of club women performed double duty, serving at stated days and hours on questionnaire work, without dropping any of their Red Cross workshop activities. With the exception of occasional legal advice needed, the entire questionnaire routine work was done by Federation women.

            The City Federation of Women's Clubs was organized March 12, 1912, by the union of all the literary and philanthropic clubs in Sidney, ten of the same being represented at the meeting, and all concurring, within a brief period. The clubs now number sixteen, and are signed to the constitution as follows:

            The Women's Club, Mrs. Poppen.

            The Unity Club, Mrs. W. A. Graham. The Twig Club, Elizabeth Foster.

            The Newman Club, Mrs. J. B. Trimpe. The Tourist Club, Mrs. S. L. Wicof. Literary Soiree, Carolyn Brandt. Junior Shakespeare, Mrs. L. M. Studevant. Cosmos Club, Miss Olive Ailes.

            Medley Club.

            Euterpe Club.

            New Century Club.

            Senior Shakespeare Club. Business Girls' Association.

            W. C. T. U.

            Teachers' Association.

            Cultural Reading Club.

            (page 452) The Executive Board of the Federation is formed by the presidents of all the clubs, when in office, and the officers of the Federation. The first president elected by the Federation was Mrs. Henry E. Beebe, 1912; succeeded by Mrs. J. F. Black, elected May, 1913; third, Mrs. E. W. Laughlin, elected March, 1915; fourth, Miss Edith Silver, elected September, 1917; fifth, Mrs. W. O. Amann, president elect, for coming two-years' term (1919-20).

            Committees for department work were created by the Federation, as follows : Co-operative, ways and means, clean-up, and ward, Arbor Day observance, parks and playgrounds, school gardens, canal banks, V. N. A. supply, program, and editorial (or publicity). The Federation first took up the sale of Red Cross Christmas seals in 1915, and won thereby a temporary visiting nurse (Miss Davidson), sent from Columbus, to demonstrate the usefulness of such an individual in the community. A visiting nurse committee was appointed at once, and steps taken to raise funds for her support. Three hundred dollars was pledged by the Federation and the separate clubs made donations according to their ability, the rest being solicited from the general public; while the Red Cross seal sale was adopted as a regular campaign of each holiday season, $1800 is raised annually, the Federation being officially responsible for $300. In 1918-19 the war chest gave $1500, owing to the request that the Red Cross seal sale be omitted. A car was provided for the hard-worked nurse this year (1919), by popular subscription among the business heads of Sidney, and sufficient gasoline for a year's use was guaranteed by the garages. Miss Gertrude Williams,. a Red Cross nurse, has now filled the position of visiting nurse since October, 1916, with remarkable efficiency and success. The visiting nurse association is organized as a permanent wing of the Federation.

            Sidney has one organization so unique and beneficent as to call for a special paragraph. It originated in the heart to heart talk of two young girls of Sidney, following a series of meetings in which the religious people of the city had experienced a decided awakening. What to do for the girls, was the question. Sidney was not large enough to support a Y. W. C. A., nor would it grow sufficiently in many years. The problem was carried to other and older heads. A committee of women was formed, Mrs. W. H. C. Goode, chairman ; and at a luncheon on Friday, October 27, 1911, the "Business Girls' association" was formed, "out of a longing to help girls," in the hearts of other girls. The first officers were Miss Olive Ailes, president ; Miss Hazel Watson, vice-president ; Miss Irene Story, secretary; Miss Leal Robertson, treasurer; Miss Grace Sutton, auditor. Rooms in the Ackerly building, opposite the courthouse, on Ohio avenue, were rented, and made pretty with new paper, paint, rugs, tables, chairs and other furniture and pictures, a kitchen equipped for domestic science classes and rooms for gymnasium class and chorus singing. A New Year reception opened the B. G. A. home to the public of girldom, and the association, three hundred strong, made a warm place for itself in the Sidney heart, which has never cooled. The Friday evening luncheon was made a permanent institution. Mrs. Burdett, the first matron, remained with the (page 453) association until September, 1914. Mrs. Ida Epler was engaged as her successor, and is still in charge. The Ackerly building being bought by a fruit firm in 1918, it became necessary to move; and the old Ewing house (built by Jason McVay, and originally situated at the southwest corner of the East Court street and Main avenue intersection, but subsequently moved to Main avenue on the rear of the same lot), was leased, renovated and restored to something of its old simple beauty within, and became the present home of the B. G. A., accommodating a dozen or more young girls with safe and inexpensive rooms, under the gentle chaperonage of "Mother Epler" and the patronage of the association. Miss Kate Amos is now the president of the organization.


Mills and Warehouses


            It was not long, in Sidney at least, before the primitive sawpit was superseded by the early sawmills. Sidney was not, like many pioneer villages, a collection of log houses. But earlier than sawmills, the first harvests of the settlers had necessitated mills of some character at every convenient point, and wherever this primitive machinery was set up, it was an exception to the rule if its motive power did not serve the double purpose of sawing timber and grinding wheat. Sometimes the mill served a third purpose also, furnishing shelter for a small distillery, or ginmill.

            As indicated by the names of certain localities and points on the first roads cut through Shelby county, a few mills had become known long before the separation of this county from Miami. It is by no means the intent of this history to attempt a perfect list of all these, as such attempt could only end in failure, besides adding little or nothing to the interest of the sketch. Those mills which were in operation from ninety years ago to later dates may, for the greater part, be located with some degree of accuracy, sufficient for intelligent apprehension of the advance of the milling industry and its centralization at certain advantageous points.

            The senior Maxwell, called by his familiars in the days of old, "Grandfather" Maxwell, was the most widely known and one of the earliest mill builders of the county. The Maxwells at an early date obtained the exclusive water rights of Mosquito creek, the Maxwell farm being located at an upper point along the beautiful stream. The first of the mills was built on the farm, where was maintained also a small distillery-or old-fashioned copper still which produced a moderate amount of whiskey. Tradition has it that stills were an accompaniment of all the Maxwell mills, but this is an exaggeration, and somewhat unjust, for the small private distillery was to be found on so many pioneer estates, that few there were who safely might point accusing fingers at their neighbor, in the days when every man was convinced that immunity from chills and ague, milk-sickness, and similar plagues, was only secured by the aid of a stout dram. Shelby county actually did produce enough whiskey and gin to cause much and grievous havoc, but not all of it came from Maxwell stills. The second mill built by the Maxwells was located about two miles east of Sidney, where a dam was erected, which is still maintained. Here, distilling was done on a (page 454) more extensive scale than on the farm, the mill itself, erected primarily for the purpose of flouring, being larger. At the death of Grandfather Maxwell, this mill descended to the possession of his two sons B. W. and Abe Maxwell, who continued the same lines of production for several years, when B. W. Maxwell left it in the hands of his brother and partner, and himself purchased, from Seneca Hale, a mill nearer Sidney, which had been originally built by John W. Carey, and which was operated by waterpower drawn directly from the well-known weir along which lies the famous shaded walk called "Lovers' Lane." In this third mill, only four milling was ever done, and no more distilleries are definitely mentioned. Another old mill on the east bank of the Miami river, in Dingmansburg, just south of the Big Four tracks, was built by Cummins & Mathers, and for a part of its existence was devoted to woolen milling (it was commonly called "the carding mill"),* but introduced grain milling, and later was converted entirely to the latter purpose. It was purchased from Cummins & Mathers by W. P. Stowell, who after a term of years sold it to B. W. Maxwell. The water for this mill also was derived from the Tawawa weir, and a pond constructed near it was afterward utilized as "Timeus' ice-pond." Of all these mills there is scarcely a trace left, as each perished in successive fires-a common fate of wooden mills in isolated situations-the last described burning within easy memory of two-thirds of Sidney's citizens. The dam and spillway two miles up the creek, and the picturesque race, are surviving features, however, and at the point where the railroad embankment forms an incidental dam, the back water of the race has created a lakelet popularly called "Tawawa," beside which a little summer club house is maintained. South of Sidney, on the bank of the Miami opposite the newly acquired portion of Graceland Cemetery, are the crumbling foundations of two old mills, the oldest of which was a gristmill erected by Hardesty Walker, original owner of the land in the vicinity, part of which is now included in the cemetery. The current of the river is swift at this point, and the now ruined dam below the bridge was constructed by Walker to turn this power into the race which led past the foot of the mill bank. The second (saw) mill was built just north of the flour mill, by William Edgar, as early as 1840, and was intended only for sawing timber. It was abandoned in 1849, when Mr. Edgar left Shelby county for California. The Walker mill changed ownership more than once, and was last owned and operated by a man named Gerdes. When the first city sewer of Sidney was voided into the river above the old dam, Gerdes, who was already involved in debt, brought suit against the city for contamination of the water supply for the mill. The case was settled out of court, the city purchasing the entire river bank south of the bridge to a point below the old mill and water course, and it is to become "Wildwood park" at some future day.

            Inside the old village of Sidney were built mills both for saw and grist milling; and as Sidney became the market for the county, grain warehouses began to rise with the approach of the first (page 455) railroad. Starrett's Run, which used to cross the basin from west to east, its channel following the "dip" about half a block south of Water street, toward the Miami, furnished power and water for some of these, among them a sawmill erected by William Fielding. When the canal cut of the career of the lively little stream, it made changes not only in the topography of Sidney, but in its industrial chart. Starrett's Run, thwarted, ran wild about the west side for some time, but was gradually hedged in by embankments and stone walls, and now flows, very inoffensively, though quite unrecognizably, in its straight jacket, along Water street, turning at the corner, and hiding its ignominy in the canal which ruined it. Not even a Tennyson or a Kingsley could find a poetic thought about the little brook today.

            The oldest milling business extant in Sidney is that once known as the "old stone bridge warehouse," and now bearing the title The Farmers' Grain and Milling company. The site, on the west bank of the feeder canal, on the north side of Poplar street, was first selected for a warehouse by Frazier & Frankeburger, in the '30s. The Nutt Brothers came into possession about 1847 or 1849, the arrival of the railroad, by which they -communicated with a side track, giving them double transportation facility and assurance of prosperity. It remained a possession of the Nutt family for forty years, and was then sold to E. J. and Warren Griffs, who operated it as partners until about 1895, when Warren Griffs died. E. J. Grifs, after the death of his brother, formed a partnership with his father, and the old warehouse having been almost wholly destroyed by fire, built the present plant, to which they added, in 1898, a milling establishment where the "Triumph" brand of wheat f lour is produced. The firm, known as E. J. Griffs & Co., was dissolved in 1904 by the death of Griffs pere, and the warehouse was sold to Capt. E. E. Nutt. ' Capt. Nutt's death in the winter of 1911-12 occasioned the sale of the establishment by the administrators of his estate to The Farmers' Grain and Milling company, February, 1912, the personnel of the new company being J. M. Blake, Fired J. Russell and Mrs. Daisy Sayre. The latter retired from the company in September, 1917, but the caption remains unchanged. The plant has never been idle since its earliest days, except when undergoing repairs or rebuilding after partial or total destruction by fire. There is in the present buildings no traces of the original structures. The capacity of the elevator is ample, 50,000 bushels or thereabout, while the average annual shipments amount to upwards of 150,000 bushels. Coal, lime, salt, cement, seeds and feeds are handled by the warehouse, and the Sidney Milling Company, characterized as a "side plant," can turn out thirty barrels of flour daily, but does not always work up to capacity. As a warehouse building, that which stands on the northwest angle of the intersection of Court street and West avenue, rightfully claims the honor of being the oldest, its original gable (since augmented), having been erected in 1851 by William H. H. Gerard for Lamb & Zinn, for a grain warehouse and elevator. It has never been touched by fire or other disaster. A few years after it was built, it was converted into a steam flouring mill for Mathers & (page 456) McGrew, who operated it until 1862, after which it was again devoted to warehouse purposes under the management of J. B. Wilkinson, who removed the milling machinery. In 1868 the building became the property of John Hart, passing from him to H. M. Reed, and in 1875 from Reed to W. R. Moore. Mr. Moore renamed it "The Sidney Steam Elevator" and added an extension two stories in height and twenty-four by fifty-five feet in dimensions, to the main building. T. J. Orbison became a partner for a brief period in 1876, but the sole ownership soon returned to Moore until 1879, when O. S. Marshall became a partner. Other changes have taken place since then, but the warehouse has never been idle. J. E. Wells & Co. had been the owners for some time when, in 1907, the business was purchased by The Miami Valley Grain company, an incorporated firm with E. T. Custenborder, president; and W. H. Persinger, J. W. Allinger and George Allinger composing the company. Since the death of J. W. Allinger, the company is reorganized as follows : George Allinger, W. L. Alton, Isaac Lochard, Mrs. J. W. Allinger (Allinger estate), and George Kayser. The Allingers are a family well known in the annals of the county as prominent in the grain and milling line, at Port Jefferson, as well as at Quincy, Ohio, where Ben Allinger of the Quincy mill is a brother. The warehouse ships about one hundred thousand bushels of grain annually, the export being chiefly corn and oats, though wheat has increased since 1917. Mill products of all kinds are handled at the plant, but the only milling done here since 1862 consists of feeds.

            Three men from Troy, Ohio, located in Sidney in 1859. They came on a venture, like the three wise men of Gotham, and like that famous trio, their story is short, but not because the bowl lacked strength. Their names were Dye, Abbott and Cromer, and they came to build a distillery. The building was set on a high point, on the north side of the Bellefontaine & Indiana (Big Four) tracks, east of East avenue, though that was "no thoroughfare" then. How far the inundation of the city and county proceeded before the distillers were engulfed in failure is a subject upon which local tradition is silent. It was closed out with few regrets.

            In 1866, John Carey, as contractor, employed W. H. Gerard to remodel the building for grain milling, and the property passed into the keeping of B. W. Maxwell, who also secured the property lying west as far as Miami avenue, and bounded on the north by the feeder canal. On this low spot, using East avenue as a dike, the "Maxwell mill-pond" was created, which held the ground for many years and served many interests beside the Maxwell mill, which became widely known and an important part of Sidney's industrial life.

            When the distillery was established, the little old chapel which had served the Presbyterians for twenty-five years as church and school building, was sold and removed to the vicinity of the stills, and there used as a cooper shop where casks were made for whiskey. Perhaps the barrels for Maxwell's four were made there, too, and the vicissitudes by which the career of the little church was finally to a chapter. tradition has it that the third of the great steel scraper firms, (page 457) and it was at one time a dry storage house for the Anderson Frazier

            Wheel company-but that was later. It perished in the conflagration of the buildings west of Miami avenue, where the Sidney Power Press company now occupy. The Maxwell mill ceased to operate as a mill in the early 90s. (Subsequent history of the building, and the various industries which have clustered around in it, will be taken up in another section.)

            The Sidney Grain company is a modern firm. The builder and first proprietor of the warehouse, however, was a veteran in Sidney warehouse history, Mr. E. C. Nutt, who erected the plant in the winter of 1895-6. Mr. Nutt sold out, after a few years, to Messrs. Jones & Sheets, this firm being again changed within two or three years by the retirement of Mr. Sheets, who was replaced by John Wagoner and Mr. Jackson. The new firm incorporated as The Jones Grain company, and continued under that title until the death of Mr. Jones, after which Mr. Sheets re-entered the business, and the name became The Sidney Grain company. There is no milling done at this plant, which handles, stated in the order of their volume, oats, corn, wheat and rye, to the extent of from 150,000 to 200,000 bushels annually, with a storage capacity of about forty thousand bushels. Side lines are seeds, feeds, and salt, for agricultural purposes.

          The three warehouses described represent the total grain handling business, so disposed, in Sidney in 1919. The J. E. Wells Grain company, operating from a different standpoint, occupies offices in the Citizens' National bank building at the corner of Main and Poplar street.

            A very old warehouse is remembered by some, as standing on the rear of the residence lots of Dr. Hunt, on the west side of the canal and south of the Court street bridge. It was owned at one time by J. A. Lamb.

            In Dingmansburg, at the first corner across the Court street bridge, H. Enders long maintained an establishment where he wove coverlets from the native wool, many of these of decided beauty of color and design. Mr. Enders was an expert in dyeing, and his workmanship is still to be seen in many Sidney homes, sometimes carefully packed away from moth, in cedar chests, and sometimes boldly defying moth and time while doing duty as portieres. South of the weaving house, some little distance, stood a pioneer pottery, where crocks, jars, jugs, etc., were made for the folk of Shelby county. A cement block works is now located not far from the spot. About 1881, O. O. Mathers started a flax mill in an old frame building two stories in height and of goodly dimensions. The original purpose of the building, which stood on South Ohio avenue, adjacent to the old Davies pasture, is not remembered, but it may have been a hay barn, which Mr. Mathers reconstructed for his purpose. At all events, the mill operated for a few years quite profitably, but was not long-lived. Only green tow was manufactured, and shipped to other mills. Many of "the old boys" remember the farmers' wagons loaded with the fresh straw driving into town, and also recall that the place was afterward used as a storage house for corn husks, which were cured for mattress manufacture. (page 458) A row of small dwellings now occupies the ground, and at the north end of the lot is the home of Louis Weingartner. Mr. Mathers instituted a number of mills of various purpose in the county,. none of which were of long duration, but served the time. Other mills and warehouses now operating in Shelby county are described in the sketches devoted to the smaller towns where they are located.

            A large poultry and produce and egg shipping depot, built about 1912, by E. J. Griffs & Co., stands along the Big Four track opposite the Sidney Manufacturing company's buildings, and at the north of the high school athletic field, from which the major part of these products in Shelby county is shipped to metropolitan markets. A very heavy trade passes this depot annually.

            Other industries are developing rapidly. Welding establishments are numerous, and at present a large plant to be devoted to heavy welding is being pushed to completion at a location overhanging the old feeder canal bed south of the West avenue bridge. Agricultural warehouses and setting up plants are maintained by all the well-known companies.

            The Sexauer bread-baking firm have a growing business as manufacturing bakers, and ship large quantities of their excellent bread to other towns.

            Nearly every line of retail trade is well represented in Sidney, some of them in remarkable degree. The Thedieck Brothers department store is one of the most beautiful stores in a large district; and that of Piper & Son, of pioneer establishment, presents equal attractions to buyers. Hardware has always held a foremost position in local trade, with a tendency to specialize of late, along different lines. The Lauterbur Machine company not only carries complete lines of automobile accessories, but special tools and parts of varied uses, and often proves a valuable auxiliary of the manufacturing plants of Sidney, in emergency.


The Tanning Industry


            The first industry established in the old pioneer days, when necessity demanded shelter first of all, was carpentry. Simple and rough it often was, but the builder's art was nevertheless in evidence in every log cabin or more pretentious habitation. Carpentry involved the introduction of a second industry without which it could not be carried far. Saws, hammers and axes came in the oxcarts from the older settlements, but nails, hinges, bolts and latches required a blacksmith's forge.

            Waiting only upon these to make its necessity felt, was a third industry, tanning. With wild animal pelts accumulating in the wake of the pioneer rifle; with rough living demanding stouter material than cloth for a part of every pioneer's clothing, to withstand the mud and briars of his daily travels ; and with shoes or boots only to be procured at great difficulty and expense, it devolved upon the pioneer to apply every art learned in the east and south to the exigencies of his situation. Springs of pure water abounded everywhere. Oak trees studded the forest which progress in farming (page 459) compelled to be cut down. Space in the settlement was begging to be occupied. Hence, scarcely later than the sawpit and the forge, the tanner's vat was established in Old Sidney.

            It has been an interesting, if somewhat arduous, search to unearth, from the forgotten past of Sidney, the earliest tanneries established. There is, in fact, still some doubt as to which was the very first to be built. It seems, however, that the builders of the town objected to tanneries being located within the village plat, and that the earliest of the three which are known to have flourished here stood outside the village pale in what was once called "Lacyburg," though it has of late years become a highly favored residence section. The land whereon it was built belonged originally to James Starrett, by whom it was sold to Matthew Gillespie ; Gillespie disposing of it, soon afterward, to James Clark, who is known to have been a tanner, and who, after quitting the business in Sidney, opened another tannery on his farm near Jackson Center, where his son continued the same industry for many years following. The tannery in question stood at the corner of South Ohio. avenue and Dallas street, the vats and workshop occupying the angle, while the large tan-bark shed stood on Dallas street next to the alley. No one now living has any memory of this tannery in its working days, but it is probably the same tannery which Edmund Lytle leased, when he came to Sidney in 1834, and which was abandoned when he left the village for his farm in Clinton township, near the infirmary. All that is now recalled by a few of the elder men of Sidney is that, as lads, they played about the old tan-bark shed, which at that time was used for weighing hay; and the incidental recollection that the boys were wont to burrow tunnels in the hay, and play hide and seek in these passages. During this period it is remembered, also, that an old shoemaker named Dodson had a little two-room house built over the spot once occupied by the tanning vats, where he cobbled the village footgear in the front shop, and cooked and ate his lonely meals in the rear. Later, when the county infirmary was building, the old shed was used as a temporary infirmary one summer, a man named Miller living there. But all that was effaced, many years ago, by the building of the Weingartner home, in which Harry Taylor, sr., resides at present.

            The Sidney fathers must have relented in regard to compelling tanneries to keep company with the dogs of old Jerusalem, for it is certain that, neither long before nor after 1830, a second tannery     stood at the southwest angle of North Main avenue and North lane, where, after many years, Hamlin Blake built a home which is now occupied by Dr. Hobby. This tannery was built by John Whitmire, but perhaps not for his own use. Whether it ever had more than one owner is indefinite, but during at least a part of its existence it was the property of James Skillen, father of John W. Skillen, It is fairly clear that it ceased to operate about the date of the building of the third tannery, at the' corner of Ohio street and the canal. Small tanneries on the farms were comparatively numerous in pioneer days, as settlers who had practiced the art in former homes found it better to avail themselves of the bark and spring water, at home than to await the slow process of carrying hides to the town (page 460) through miles of forest and muddy roads, and of going after the leather when it was ready. For it must be remembered that the shoes were oftener than not made by the itinerant shoemaker, who made yearly rounds of the backwoods districts and shod the settlers with their own leather. The little tanning establishment on the Lytle farm was in operation during the building of the county infirmary, a part of the bricks being made at the farm; and when weather conditions forbade brickmaking, the workmen were, at option, employed in the tannery.

            The present tannery plant is the last development of that industry, begun in 1836 by Mr. Neiswanger, and acknowledged to be longest established of any existing industry in Sidney. It stands on its original site, and its only move has been in the way of expansion, it now covering every foot of available space, and practically closing North lane to public use, at the corner where the lane skirts the feeder canal. Mr. Neiswanger sold the business at a date and to a customer not definitely known. The different owners and operators appear to have been legion, but only a few names have been recorded, while creditable tradition mentions numerous honorable names in Sidney history, among the many changes. Certain it is that the plant has never been idle. Gen. Taylor, the father of the late 0. J. Taylor, was either an owner or lessee at one time. His son, 0. J. Taylor, was employed there as a young lad, and the discussion of wage scales, in later days, was wont to remind him that his wages, for a day's grinding at the old tanbark mill, had been considered generous at six and one-fourth cents. The same incidental memory fixes the date of Gen. Taylor's ownership at a very early day in the tannery's history, for, about sixty-five years ago or more, the handmill had been replaced by a low tower, in an upper floor of which an old horse, led up the wooden incline each morning, was hitched to a beam lever, and set a-plodding patiently round and round the treadmill course, while the tanbark, fed into a hopper from above, fell down the chute to the level of the vats. This may have been the beginning of the development of the plant to its present elaborate and efficient mechanical equipment. S. Alexander Lecky, son of George D. Lecky, became interested in the tannery, also Charles Myers ; and Turney & Evans were in full control at one time. Robert Given entered the tannery as an apprentice when a boy in his early 'teens, rising to a partnership, first with Mr. Myers, then with Mr. Lecky, Given & Lecky first purchasing the plant from Turney & Evans ; after which Mr. Given became sole owner in 1869. Later, he took one of his sons into partnership, and in 1902 the R. Given & Son company was incorporated, and large extensions ,made in the establishment, which then took a foremost position in the business world of Sidney. Mr. Given, sr., died, but the company continued without change of title, until the sudden death of John Given in 1917 precipitated a crisis in the business which made the sale of the whole advisable.

            The Sidney Tanning company, an aggregation of entirely new personnel, were the purchasers, the officers of the corporation being: Leo Henle, Cleveland, president; E. H. Morrison, Sidney, vice-president; Roy E. Fry, Sidney, secretary and treasurer. (page 461) The present aspect and condition of the industry is so revolutionized since the days of old that if one of the pioneer tanners could step into it today, he would recognize little but the odor-and, thanks to modern treatment, there is not nearly so much of that as in our grandsires' day. Vats must, of course, maintain certain characteristics, but are more safely covered than in former times, when it used to be common for the village mothers to warn their venturesome little ones that death from drowning was frequently the fate of children who strayed to the tannery. Vats were then scarcely covered at all, or only for convenience in stepping over them, and often stood open to the sky. Yet so far as can be learned there was never an actual casualty, such as drowning, at any tannery in Sidney.

            In the early days of the local tannery, oak timber-and hence, tanbark-was plentiful throughout the county, as well as water of the necessary degree of purity. Practically all of the bark now available here is shipped in train-loads from Ontonagon county, Michigan. Then the waste tan-bark served to keep the villagers from sinking in the black ooze of Sidney's thoroughfares. Today, this by-product, dried, goes to help feed the furnaces and operate the machinery.

            The hides (now cattle hides exclusively) are first washed in mammoth tubs or pools to remove all dirt and foreign particles, then passed through machines which remove all fragments of flesh which still adhere. They are then immersed for a period in a depilatory lime solution, to loosen the hair, following which they are passed through a machine which removes the hair. All the fleshy waste is sent to glue factories for reduction, while the hair is used by manufacturers of saddle and harness pads.

            The lime solution is next removed from the hides by a bath, after which they are draped over sticks or poles and, thus suspended, submerged in the tanning liquid in the vats. During the tanning process, which takes several days, the hides gradually thicken, though without contracting, until, when thoroughly tanned, they are over twice the original thickness and, except for sole and harness leather, must be split. The machinery used in this process, which is purely mechanical, is capable of the most delicate adjustment as to thickness, suitable to the ultimate uses of the leather. Leather which is not split-such as harness leather- is shaved by the machine on the inner side, and then stuffed with grease until pliable enough for use. Rough-tanned leather is too hard for any purpose. The leathers which are to be split, such as strap, bag and case leathers, are put into drums containing water and sulphenated oils for the softening process, the presence of water being necessary for the uniform absorption of the fats by the leather. After the softening process comes the dyeing of the hides to be used for cases, straps or bags, and all leather, after softening, is set, both by machine and hand. The latter (hand) process is one which can never be eliminated by machinery, and consists of making the hide perfectly smooth by placing it on a table, and working it to the required state with stone and steel blades.

            The machinery by which all is accomplished is the last word in (page 462) its line of achievement and worth a visit to the plant, to see in operation, by every school boy in Sidney-or by any citizen who has never yet taken the pains to inform himself of the interesting scientific developments and details of the tanner's useful and dignified, if not dainty, art, which in any phase is worthy of study, and in which invention and discovery are always possible. The products of the company, which go as far west as the Pacific coast and as far east as Maine, are : harness, belt, strap, case (smooth), bag (embossed), and sole leathers. Goodyear welting, for shoes, is the only leather manufacturing undertaken by the Sidney Tanning company.

            Woodworking Industries. Wood working as a craft, apart from the mere production of lumber for builders' use, has had its representation in Sidney from very early days, flourishing according to demand in some lines, and in others branching into the manufacture for outside trade. There are only approximate dates now to be secured for the establishment of any of these older craftsmen, and comparatively few names have been preserved, with the exception of a few firms, still existing, which date their origin from fifty to seventy years ago.

            Two early wood turners whose names are still recalled were Mr. Murray, of North Miami avenue, whose "power" lathe was driven by a plodding steed; and Mr. Caleb Nutt, whose shop stood in West Poplar street, about where the furniture house of Fired. Salm is now located, on the north side of the street. Mr. Nutt was a genuine craftsman of the old school, and specimens of his work, not done for trade but for sheer love of the turner's art, are still preserved as they deserve to be, for their delicacy and merit. Mr. George Lippincott, of South Miami avenue, owns a compote turned by Mr. Nutt many years ago, which displays the high degree of his craftsmanship. The article is of native pine, the stem and base daintily patterned and perfectly executed, and the basin a marvel of turning, scarcely thicker than an .eggshell. The whole is lacquered in color and gold leaf, by the possessor, a veteran carriage finisher of the Crozier works.

            Near the Caleb Nutt shop, another old frame shack sheltered the pioneer gunsmithy of John Sharp, who was famous the country round for his fine workmanship, as well as his character. The Rupert wagon shop stood on ground which formed a part of the site of the Sidney Steel Scraper works, but was cut off in the early fifties by the Bellefontaine & Indiana railroad, a date which fixes this as one of the earliest of all the vehicle industries of Sidney. The Sharrit Pump works on North lane made pumps for all Shelby county, and farther, during a period of forty to fifty years ; the Rench Wagon works, also on North lane, was about co-existent with the pump works, and both passed out of existence during the boyhood of men now middle-aged.

            The Piper Wagon works, established on Court street (west) in 1847, was devoted for several years to the manufacture of farm wagons ; but in 1854, the buildings passed into the hands of the Miller Carriage company, who changed the business to light vehicle manufacture. A blacksmith shop was added at the east end of the (page 463) factory and the whole is still operated by Miller & Smith, though the manufacture of buggies ceased there many years ago, and only a painting and repairing business is now carried on.

            In 1854, Lorenzo Bimel erected a three-story building at 218 South Ohio avenue, and embarked, with a large spread of canvas, in the manufacture of carriages. Failure ensued after a few years, and Mr. Bimel removed to St. Marys, Ohio, leaving the buildings vacant.

            To Sidney from Piqua, in 1858, came James S. Crozier (of French Huguenot ancestry, filtered through Ireland), a young man of thorough training and practical experience in carriage manufacture. He purchased the empty Bimel building in 1860 and entered upon a long, honorable and successful career which ended only with his life, in the early summer of 1919, at which time Mr. Crozier was the only man still in active business who was so engaged when he began work in Sidney sixty-one years before.

            Carriages and light vehicles have been the exclusive output of the Crozier works, in the operation of which was never anything spectacular-only a record of unfailing high quality and integrity of workmanship which became synonymous with the name of Crozier as far as their vehicles were known. From eight to ten men were employed in the factory and blacksmith shop. William Crozier, only son of James S., and a prominent citizen (ten years mayor of Sidney), became a partner in the business in the '80s, since which the firm has been known as Crozier & Son.

            The carriage industry is, of course, less flourishing than in preautomobile days, but there is still demand for well-made light vehicles, and of all the industries of this nature which have come and gone in the local field, the Crozier works alone survive. Maintaining all his faculties, mental and physical, to the very close of life, James S. Crozier's career as man and citizen stands out as a model of simple, honest, Christian gentlemanliness. He was above reproach. The relationship, both business and personal, between the Croziers, father and son, has been one of the idylls of Sidney's quieter life.

            The first establishment for the manufacture of vehicle parts attempted in Sidney was a spoke and wheel works, built in 1870, near the canal between Ohio and Main avenues. The proprietor, J. Dann, included in his lines of manufacture the making of all         grades of wheels, spokes, hubs, felloes, shafts and poles, and kept five skilled workmen employed. Nothing now remains of this factory, which, with the exception of the engine house, was constructed of wood and perished by fire.

            The Benjamin "D" Handle factory was first established in 1878-9 by the late C. R. Benjamin, who was at first associated with a Mr. Clark as a partner. Both men came from New England. The establishment became at once a solid factor in Sidney's industrial system, and has remained so. Charles W. Benjamin was taken into partnership with his father, C. R. Benjamin, in 1891, and since the latter's death is sole proprietor. The factory stands in its original location north of the canal and east of Broadway. The handles, designed for shovels, forks, scoops, etc., are made in several sizes, (page 464) from a high grade of white ash wood, requiring an expert in its selection. During the war, the works were taxed to capacity with government orders only, but the manufacture is lively under all circumstances, and employs an average of thirty hands. The Sidney Planing mill was established about 1880, by J. E. Wilkinson, who sold out in 1882 to Farris & Birch, Farris later selling to Monroe. By still further changes it became the George H. Worch Lumber company, of which the manager was William Klipstine; and ten years ago a new company took possession, building a new dry house, the whole becoming more a lumber supply house than a place where lumber is manufactured. It is now known as the William Klipstine Lumber company. It is situated on Walnut avenue, north of the old Charles Starrett homestead. The Anderson-Frazier Wheel works, organized and established by Enoch Anderson, Cyrus W. Frazier and J. N. Anderson in 1881, built and occupied quite extensive factories situated on the north side of the Big Four tracks, from Miami avenue on the east to Main avenue on the west. They manufactured wheels and wheel parts, and did a large and successful business for about eleven or twelve years, finally selling out, in 1893, to the American Wheel company, an outside trust, under whose ownership, during the nineties, the entire plant was destroyed by fire, and its affairs wound up by a receiver. In the meantime, upon the dissolution of the Anderson Frazier partnership in 1893, after the sale, J. N. Anderson purchased the Maxwell mill property, and erecting extensive additions, established in it the Anderson Wheel works, which flourished for ten years, or until the early part of 1904, when, his health beginning to fail, he sold out the machinery plant of the wheel works to the Wheel Makers' association, a sociable trust, who removed it, leaving the buildings vacant. Mr. Anderson died soon after. After the burning of the American Wheel company's plant at the old Anderson-Frazier site, William Bimel, son of Lorenzo Bimel, came to Sidney from St. Marys, Ohio, and in 1897, under the patronage of the city of Sidney (through the well-known $100,000 bond issue), erected new buildings on the Miami avenue corner, and transferred the Bimel buggy business from St. Marys to this city. It was an error, as could be seen within a few years. The automobile was surely and rapidly crowding carriage manufacture from the platform of profitable industries, and in 1904 the crash came. The Bimel Buggy works and the German-American bank went down the same year. The fine new factory was empty, and also the remodeled Maxwell mill. The Mutual Manufacturing company took over the latter buildings and undertook the manufacture of carriage bodies only, but, being unable to compete with the automobile trade, declined and closed out before long. The Sidney Manufacturing company, a combination of some of the keenest financial heads of Sidney, then assumed in 1907, the responsibility of putting thoroughly practical and up-to-date industries into these valuable buildings ; and the enlarged old Maxwell mill, its original tall gable still perfectly recognizable, is now the home of an auto body works, in which all styles of auto bodies are manufactured in the white, for manufacturers' trade, to order. The works are running to capacity (page 465)  all the time. Metal seat forms, oil pans, and gear guards for lathes, and other details, are also manufactured in the foundry. The personnel of the company, as incorporated in 1907, is I. H. Thedieck, president; L. M. Studevant, vice-president; A. A. Gerlach, secretary and treasurer; directors, P. P. Dyke, Herbert Sheets, E. J. Griffs, and A. J. Hess. W. C. Horr is retained as manager. John D. Loughlin and T. D. Scott came to Sidney in 1880, purchased a factory site north of the canal between Main and Ohio avenues, and erected office and factory structures which they opened in February, 1881, for the manufacture of school furniture. The leading line was the fashion pupils desk, but the output included recitation benches, teachers' desks, and other items of school furniture. The industry prospered in almost fabulous manner, and its products were shipped over many states. Mr. Loughlin's first partner had been a man named Beardsley, and his own trade was that of a molder. After several years T. D. Scott retired from the firm and Loughlin became sole owner. During the most prosperous days of the furniture works, Mr. Loughlin built the residence which crowns the top of the hill on Walnut avenue, naming it Bonnyconnellan. In 1891 the original school-desk plant was destroyed by fire, but was immediately rebuilt of brick, and since then has not needed enlargement for any purpose until now. About 1901 Mr. Loughlin sold out the business to the school-desk trust at a high figure and retired from the plant, which soon after languished.

            Mr. Loughlin invested large amounts of money in the once famous Mary L. poultry plant, on the east side of the Miami on what is now Brooklyn avenue, in which, it might seem, a fortune should have been made, rather than lost, in the wholesale breeding of chickens for market. But it proved otherwise. The wonderful plant, then the largest poultry plant in the world, and visited by people from afar, became a quicksand in which the entire Loughlin estate was drawn to ruin ; the castle, Bonnyconnellan, mortgaged to the German-American bank, went first, and the rest, including the Mary L., followed. Miss Mamie Loughlin, the only daughter, married Mr. John Kaufman of the school furniture trust, and Mrs. Loughlin now resides with them. Mr. Loughlin died a year or so ago.

            J. B. Tucker, of Urbana, Ohio, came to Sidney in 1901, and bought out the Loughlin plant, in which the manufactures had been varying rather unsuccessfully, and converted the shops to the exclusive manufacture of bicycle rims. This line advanced so rapidly that it soon became known as one of the most successful of its class in a large district, and was second to no industry in Sidney for a time. The average production was 1,000 rims per day. The factory was known at this time as the Tucker Bending works. Auto manufacture becoming a leading consumer of bent work about this time, the change in the tide was met by the immediate change of a part of the plant to the manufacture of steering wheels, a department which grew so rapidly as to absorb almost the entire capacity of the factory. At this juncture, when at the top crest of success, Mr. Tucker's death occurred, and while the work of the establishment never stopped, being carried on during the (page 466) re-adjustments and sale of the property, by old line employees and department heads, the plant was taken over by a new company, and is now the Mull Wood Work company.

            Mr. Edward B. Mull, president and general manager, came to the new company with the distinction of being the oldest man in length of service in the employ of the Willys-Overland people. The other officials of the company are Mr. Royal Scott, vice-president; Mr. Floyd G. Hutchins, secretary and treasurer; and D. R. Shelton, cashier, the latter retiring from five years service in the First National Exchange bank, of Sidney.

            When Mr. Tucker undertook the manufacture of steering wheels only three manufactories of this commodity were in existence in the United States, and the Sidney plant has since become the second largest, in production, of them all, with business growing in pace with that of auto building. The plant is now increasing its capacity at top speed to meet coming emergencies. Two of the old and trusted department heads who came to Sidney with Mr. Tucker are still valued employees of the new company.

            In 1883, a branch of the New York Spoke works was set up in Sidney, under the firm name of Crane & McMahon, with James O'Neill as the local manager. Rapid manufacture of spokes from second growth white oak was the object, and after the abundant supply subsided, the plant moved on.

            The Buckeye Churn company, a partnership concern in 1888, originated in Carey, Wyandot county, where James Anderson and Wilson Carothers were, previous to that date, engaged respectively in coal and oil and the drug business. The line of manufacture was the Buckeye barrel churn.

            Needing more space, which was unobtainable in Carey, while Sidney. was offering free factory sites to desirable parties, Messrs. Anderson, and Carothers located permanently in this city in 1891 and enlarged their line of manufacture to include a hardwood sawmill and general lumber working establishment. Primus cream separators were also partly made here, and during the war a large amount of hardwood airplane stock was turned out by the factory for government use. In 1904 the company was incorporated under the state laws, Anderson and Carothers still owning all of the stock. The firm continued in this form until 1911, when Anderson bought out Carothers. Both partners had families of boys, and the rising generation needed more room than the single factory gave them. The Anderson sons remained with the churn company while the Carothers group took up confectionery manufacture. Without change of name from the original Buckeye Churn company, the corporation now consists of Mr. Anderson and his three sons, Lawrence B., Thomas F. and Robert J. Anderson, who together own 70 per cent of the stock and control the manufacture. The capital stock has been increased from $70,000 to $250,000.

            About eighty persons, exclusive of the office force, are employed, and the plant is running to its capacity.

            In 1917, R. J. Anderson, fourth son of the house, invented and patented the Prima domestic laundry machine, which has been so successfully demonstrated and put upon the market, that it is now (page 467) the chief output of the factory, which is disposing of the other woodworking interests and planing-mill business as rapidly as possible, in order to devote the entire forces of the plant to the manufacture of the laundry machine, every part of which, except the electric motors and wringers, is made in the churn plant.

            Already the contracts of the company demand an output of fifty of the machines daily, and within a year it is expected that the factory must be enlarged to produce one hundred daily, with three hundred hands at work, and the capital increased to $3,000,000.00. The Dayton Domestic Engineering company use the Prima washer exclusively in their contracts.

            The washer, which is the invention of a boy brought up and educated in Sidney schools, accomplishes its work by surface tension of water only, with no rubbing devices, the only force being that of water stroke in the elliptical cylinder, and the contrary suction of air through the fabric, which cannot be torn nor injured in any way. It is made in but one size, one style, and one price, and that aimed to be the most practical, neatest and lowest possible, respectively. The Anderson family are all strongly inclined to things mechanical, and are "to the manufacture born," three sons and sixteen grandchildren growing up to the business. The company is organized thus: James Anderson, president; R. J. Anderson, vice-president; Thomas Anderson, secretary; and Lawrence D. Anderson, treasurer.

            Beginning in 1890, under the name the Commercial Pole and Shaft company, this company, whose factory is at the corner of Park street and the B. & O. railroad, engaged in the manufacture of poles and shafts. Mr. A. R. Friedman of Cincinnati became connected with the firm in 1892, and at that time the business was incorporated as the Sidney Pole and Shaft company, the directors being J. H. Smith, of Muncie, Indiana; W. A. and A. G. Snyder, of Piqua, Ohio ; H. A. Lauman, of Columbus, and F. G. Waddell, of Akron, Ohio. The capital stock was $20,000, and the manufacturing purpose was the making and ironing of carriage poles and shafts, from the raw materials. Clyde C. Carey entered the employ of the firm in 1893, and has for some years past been manager of the works.

            About 1903 the establishment was absorbed by the Pioneer Pole and Shaft company, of Piqua, Ohio, and while much enlarged and employing many more men, it is operated as a subsidiary factory to the plant at Piqua. No pole nor shaft making is done here now, the local labor being devoted to a general line of detail forging, with strap and leather cutting of all sorts, valve and pump cups, etc., while carriage irons are forged for the Piqua factory. At present the plant is not running on normal schedule, not having recovered its balance, as yet, from the war work, which was nearly 100 per cent government contracts. Business is slowly but steadily recovering tone, although only about thirty-five to forty men barely one-third of the wartime payroll-are busy at present. The outlook for the immediate future is an enlargement of the market for small iron forging, which is being pushed. Mr. A. R. Friedman is president of the company.

            (page 468) The Underwood Whip company, once of Sidney, was a transplanted industry, coming from Wooster, Ohio, in which city it was established in 1864. It was lured to Sidney in 1891, at a time when Sidney first began to attract general attention as a manufacturing center. Within two years after its establishment here, the concern became a part of the United States Whip company, a trust, and for the next twelve or fifteen years was operated at full speed and the factory enlarged to double its former capacity. Eventually, the trust did what trusts usually do, and removed the plant to a Massachusetts center, leaving its large buildings empty. However, all things seem to work together for the good of Sidney, and the vacuum is now filled to its limit with one of Sidney's new (and native) industries.

            An old and almost forgotten shop devoted to a branch of woodworking was built in the seventies, on South Main avenue, by James Van Gorder, whose parents owned, then, the house one door north. The business of the shop was the manufacture of dowel pins for indoor woodwork and furniture construction, cask heads, and similar work. The shop and house were afterward occupied by Toy & Son, and the house, modernized, is now the home of Edward McClure. A large, fine old orchard flanked the premises toward the river. at that date. Hickory timber was still so plentiful then, in Shelby county, that it excited no comment, when the Van Gorder shop was closed, that the store of fine straight-grain hickory stock left on hand was sold as cord wood to feed a neighbor's hearth fire. James Van Gorder is recalled as having owned the first bicycle in Sidney. It was a crude affair, and had no pedals.

            Steel and Iron Industries. Whoever was the first village blacksmith of Sidney cannot be answered. His name has not been specifically preserved, and it is more than probable that there was more than one disciple of Tubal Cain in the wilderness seat of justice. At all events, the blacksmith's forge being a prime necessity of civilization, smithing and forging and plow making, and similar useful arts, were practiced wherever the necessity of the settler pointed the way or led it, as not a few did, at his own anvil. The industry received an impetus in the approach of the canal, which demanded shops for the making and repairing of earth-working implements, and irons for the locks and floodgates. Except for the influx of laboring population in the open season, Sidney did not at first receive the chief industrial benefit from the construction period

            of the canal era. That went to Port Jefferson, which threatened to outgrow the county seat, and even cherished for a few years secret hopes of a transfer of the honor. The crisis passed, however, and not long after the sale and removal of the temporary courthouse from Ohio to West avenue, the building became the headquarters of at least one of Sidney's blacksmiths, whose name is doubtless a well-known one in Sidney's after history in some other capacity. The Kingseed shop, located at the northwest corner of Ohio avenue and North street, was established as early as 1846, and plows were the principal output there, while to the north other smithing establishments began to gather closer to the canal. Up to 1848, when Dan Toy, sr., arrived in Sidney, the industry was confined to iron (page 469) working, steel being as yet a new development in American manufacture.

            Daniel Toy was born in Burlington county, New Jersey, November 24, 1821. He learned plow making as a lad at Jacobstown, New Jersey. In 1843 he came to Mansfield, Ohio, traveling all the way on foot, and from Mansfield made his way to Mason, Warren county, to engage in work on wagons designed for use in the Mexican war. About this date, William Wood, a steel worker under James D. Quigg of Pittsburg, rolled the first slab of steel ever made in the United States, and shipped it to Thomas Wilmington, a railroad construction engineer then located at Brant, Ohio. Mr. Wilmington engaged a Dayton man to make some heavy breaking plows from the steel, 'but he failed in the attempt. Mr. Toy was then recommended as a plow maker, and succeeded in converting the steel into plowshares, winning the honor to be named the first man in Ohio, if not in the United States, to make a steel plow. In company with William Swain, Mr. Toy opened a plow works in Troy, Ohio, about 1846, and while working at Brant met and married Miss Eliza Jane Hoover, with whom and their infant son, William Miner Toy, he came to Sidney to make a permanent home some time in 1848. Here he established a plow works in the old courthouse on West avenue, where (and also at Troy) he made many of the plows that were used in the grading of both railroads, and also manufactured agricultural plowshares,, while carrying on the general work of a smithy, in which, within a few years, David Edgar, then a hardware dealer on Ohio street, became a partner, with the style of Toy & Edgar.

            Mr. Toy was a man of extraordinary size and strength, and given, after the manner of the times, to wrestling, in which his prowess was sometimes useful and sometimes amusing. An instance of the first quality may be noted in the reminiscence of occasions when he, single-handed, defended his shop from being wrecked by gangs of drunken railroad laborers ; while of the second, a friendly wrestling bout with David Edgar, his partner, was so engrossing that the contestants wrestled themselves of the Court street bridge and into the canal, where the town marshal, to preserve his dignity in the face of a crowd of onlookers, placed both men under arrest for quarreling. Seeing that they were in for retribution, the friends stayed in the water until the bout was finished to their satisfaction, and then delivered their dripping persons to the strong hand of the law, were marched to court and fined, each paying the other's penalty, and shaking hands, to the marshal's discomfiture.

            From the West avenue shop Toy went to the Kingseed shop and continued the business for several years, then retired temporarily to a farm, but returned to Sidney the following year and built new plow shops on North Main street. These he only operated personally for a year or two, leaving them to enter the Slusser Sulky Plow works. When that company dissolved, he embarked in (page 470) the new plow works of Haslup & Toy, this again being of but few. years' duration, Mr. Haslup retiring to engage in other business.

            In company with his son, William Miner Toy, a plow works was opened on South Main avenue in 1878, at a site immediately north of the old Starrett burying ground. The residence of the late John-Oldham now occupies the spot, and the family residence of the Toys was the little cottage which, remodeled into a modern bungalow, is now the home of Edward McClure. Mrs. Toy, sr., died in 1886, Daniel Toy surviving her until 1903. W. M. Toy became sole owner of the plow works in 1881. They were removed in later years to the old McClure shop on the river fats east of the Presbyterian burying ground, remaining there until the site was needed for an athletic field, when it was taken to its present location in the substantial old foundry building, once a part of the agricultural works of a past day. This change was made about six years ago (1913), and after some vicissitudes the business is now prosperous and quite extensive, structural and ornamental iron work and general foundry business being carried on in addition to the regular line of plows. W. M. Toy is the father of four sons, all of whom are trained in steel craft-Dan and Robert, both with the Sidney Steel Scraper company, Hugh, associated with his father, and William, jr., just returned from fifteen months' service in the army. Mrs. Toy, who was Miss Mary Haslup, died in 1918. Christian Kingseed, builder of the plow works at the corner of Ohio and North streets, came to Sidney about 1846 or 1847. The shop, as first erected, was but one story, and was practically demolished by a fire, at which time the Kingseed home was threatened, also, because of a high wind blowing the burning shingles from the roof. The shop was rebuilt, of brick, and a second story was added. Conditions at the date of Mr. Kingseed's arrival in Sidney were difficult in the extreme. Iron was hard to get, and every scrap of waste iron had to be utilized and treasured to provide the wherewithal for manufacture. The shop, which was afterward the property of John Heiser, was left unchanged by him, and others of the earlier moulders and plow makers operated in the same building. It was the age of milk-sickness and the deadly ague, and strong men came and went-many of them to their "long home"-not even great physical might being immune to the ravages of malaria, which undoubtedly had much to do with the fact that the descendants of the pioneers are not their physical equals. Christian Kingseed, builder of the familiar old shop, was noted as one of the "strong men" of his day.

            On the corner where the postoffice stands a little stove foundry stood in the fifties, just how long was its tenure of existence being a matter of mere conjecture. George D. Lecky owned the land at that time, and it is suggested that the builder of the foundry may have been his son, S. Alex. Lecky. It was a wooden building and probably was destroyed by fire. Few persons now living remember it.

            A much larger foundry, also of wooden construction, stood at the site now occupied by the Philip Smith Manufacturing company, which is believed to have been erected by the Edwards brothers, (page 471) but the line of product is not remembered. It was vacant in 1858, when Mr. G. G. Haslup came to Sidney from Springfield and Dayton, and was rented by him in company with young Philip Smith, the two conducting business together until the burning of the plant, after which Mr. Haslup built an independent smithy where he operated until the Miami avenue machine works was erected. He was a workman of ability and a man of fine sturdy character, whose life, long and honorable, left its mark on Sidney industry and society. Philip Smith, the son of an honest but unlettered emigrant named Reinhardt Schmidt, who had settled first in Pennsylvania, afterward migrating to Indiana, and then to Dayton, Ohio, where he entered a foundry and trained his sons in steel craft, came to Sidney in advance of his father; but, after the fire was followed by the remainder of the family, Mr. Schmidt ("Smith"), senior, assisting in getting the new foundry built on the site of the old. The elder Smith lived, active in the business of the foundry, until 1875, and was no small part of his son's success. Philip Smith, little better educated than his father, had a very engaging personality and possessed a marked degree of diplomacy as well as mechanical genius, all of which was employed in enlisting the help which he often needed in financial straits; and by the advice and good offices of several able financial heads in Sidney, he was enabled at last to withdraw from the manufacturing field a wealthy man. He died in 1914. Rhinehart Smith, a brother, was long associated with him in the business.

            In the Philip Smith foundry and machine works, where were manufactured many different grain-handling machines for farmers' and warehouse use, with other machines of various character, stationary engines, and all sorts of foundry products for which the plant was available, a number of Sidney's best men have from time to time exerted a saving hand. But it has been a valuable institution and an asset to the town well worth the saving. It was here, in 1864, that the little cannon intended to figure in the political demonstration in favor of Vallandigham, candidate for governor, was cast by the ardent young Democrat, Phil Smith. About 1904 the industry was put upon a sound financial basis by the formation of a stock company, the partners being Lafayette M. Studevant and B. D. Heck, Mr. Smith becoming manager until 1907, when he resigned. Since that time the business has had a splendid growth, the receipts having more than trebled in the years between 1915 and 1918.

            Mr. G. G. Haslup in 1868 built, or had built for him by the Careys, the machine works where the elevator company now operates ; and there began the manufacture of agricultural implements. Three years later he vacated to permit the Slusser sulky-plow works to occupy. In 1872 Mr. Haslup again occupied the building in partnership with Dan Toy, sr., in the manufacture of plows ; but in 1879 the place was bought by the Sidney Agricultural Implement company, with 0. 0. Mathers, president; John Hale, secretary and treasurer; R. O. Bingham, superintendent; and John Brubaker, J. A. Lamb, Wilbur E, Kilborn, and the S. A. Lecky estate, directors. This company at once erected a foundry building on Shelby street, (page 472) east of the works (now the location of the Toy Plow works), and embarked in the extensive manufacture of agricultural implements, mill machinery, and all sorts of. castings and foundry work. The Miami Valley hay rake, the. Slusser excavator, and the Valley Chief reaper all were manufactured in this plant.

            In 1902, the agricultural works having declined locally, Mr. Walter R. Blake purchased the buildings and plant and began the manufacture of elevators and elevator machinery of all descriptions, specializing in freight elevators, also power and hand elevators, and dumb waiters for hospital, hotel and private home use. The firm, known as the Sidney Elevator Manufacturing company, uses the trademarks: "Semco" and "Sidney." Mr. Blake is sole proprietor. Broom manufacture was carried on in both buildings prior to this, afterward being confined to the foundry structure, but declined with the failure of the broom corn harvests, and was abandoned. Hollow Ware. The Wagner Manufacturing company, makers of high-grade cooking utensils, is one more monument to the successful business initiative which is Sidney's characteristic as a manufacturing town. Originally founded in 1891 for the purpose of manufacturing cast iron ware of a better grade than was commonly to be found ,in the market, the industry began in a small plant which served the successful and growing industry but a year or so, when enlargement became imperative, the history of nearly every year for twenty-five years recording successive enlargements, until now the plant is thirty times the size of the first little foundry, with plans in preparation for still further extension.

            The Wagner brothers began with an ideal which makes extension inevitable. Stated simply, that ideal is to make Wagner ware better than any other ware, and stands for constant striving to produce articles of "quality.". In the twenty-nine years of striving, the ideal has become a habit of the house, which is the pioneer of cast aluminum ware, the manufacture of which was not entered upon until Wagner hollow ware in iron had become a synonym for "the best."

            The original venture was simply an attempt to supply a "commonplace but vital want" of the American housewife, made clear to the manufacturers by their own experience in the retail hardware trade. For two years "better cast iron ware" was their output. Success in this line led to the introduction of still further improved lines of nickel-plated hollow ware, which greatly increased the reputation of the firm and led to the development of an idea which was at that time, 1894, very advanced indeed.

            Aluminum cooking ware was beginning to attract public attention and to create a demand for lighter, yet durable utensils, free from the patent objections to enameled ware. Owing to the cost of the metal, the aluminum ware then on the market was too light -even when not actually flimsy-to be durable, and being short-lived was both expensive and not practical. The Wagner firm undertook a radical improvement in aluminum ware as they had in cast iron ware, and braved the market with a line of seamless cast aluminum ware (not pressed nor "spun") of sufficient weight to hear the hardest, long-continued service required of any utensil in (page 473) domestic or farm uses. The ware is necessarily rather expensive to begin with, but its reliability and worth. are synonymous with economy of the greatest degree, and the Wagner cast aluminum ware is now known and used all over the world, wherever people are to be found who appreciate the best. Incidentally it carries with it everywhere the name of Sidney, Ohio. Wagner ware has won distinguished honor medals in every great exposition held since it was first manufactured, at Chicago, Nashville, Paris, Buffalo, St. Louis, and San Francisco, where it captured the Grand Prize, acknowledging it to be the finest aluminum ware on the world's market.

            The former cast iron ware is still a large part of the output of the company, and there is and will always be, a steady demand for this line. In addition, cast articles of various uses, for lard and sausage making on the farm and small packing establishments ; steam-table ware ; mortars for chemists ; grates for furnaces; cellar windows, ditches, and sewers, and ventilators ; feed troughs, tampers, rubbish burners, gutter bridges, hitching posts and bob sled runners; and smaller building hardware. In aluminum ware, nothing ever used or desired in the culinary art but can be found in the catalogue. The daintiest kitchenette and the heaviest hotel ware have been given the same attention. The designs have been most carefully worked out to obtain artistic results, while sacrificing no whit of the practical value of the article. Wherever strength is needed it will be found, and where lightness is compatible with strength and durability, the most desirable degree of lightness has been attained. The process of aluminum casting is, of course, proprietary, and the outsider may see only the mechanical parts of the work, which are open to inspection and make a visit to the plant well worth while.

            A trade journal is published from time to time, setting forth the ideals and progress of the concern and its wares. The little book is called the "Griddle," is edited by L. Cable Wagner, and does credit to the establishment.

            The Wagner brothers, William H., Milton, Bernard P. and Louis Wagner, are the sons of Mathias Wagner, from Alsace. France, who came to Sidney as a canal laborer. and staved to become a landholder and pioneer merchant of the town, and one of its most solid and respected citizens. He married Miss Mary Rauth, and their family of eight surviving children are and have been in every tray worthy of their parents. Much of the Wagner success may be attributed to the remarkable unity of the family group, harmony and co-operation marking every undertaking.

            The hollow ware business was first organized as a partnership, Milton M. and Bernard P. Wagner composing the firm. W. H. Wagner entered the firm in 1893, and Louis Wagner, the youngest of the four, was admitted soon after, when the business was incorporated as the Wagner Manufacturing company, now organized as follows: W. H. Wagner, president ; B. P. Wagner, vice-president; M. M. Wagner, treasurer ; Louis R. Wagner, secretary and sales manager ; Cable Wagner, assistant sales-manager. R. O. Bingham, who has been with the company from the outset, is still (page 474) active in the capacity of superintendent, an honored and trusted associate of the business. Salesmen who have been with the company from fifteen to twenty-eight years are W. F. Mellen,-of Oak Park, Illinois; J. M. Harvey of Baltimore, Maryland ; E. W.. Laughlin of Sidney, Ohio ; and W. S. McCune of Los Angeles, California. Including Mr. Bingham, employees who have served the company faithfully for its entire period to date are, F. J. McDowell, C. M. Bush, R. F. Boyer, J. E. Fitzgerald, H. Wehlege, J. Rickert, J. C. Corbin, and D. H. Wilmore, each of whom has become the friend and intimate of the firm. When the Wagner company says "we," it means all these valued employees.

            The entire Wagner plant is not surpassed in Sidney for efficient equipment and conservation in management, beside being replete with interest in every department, from foundry to finishing rooms.

            The surroundings of the works also have received attention and present the most attractive aspect of any factory in the city. About 1894, at the site of Sidney Machine Tool company's buildings, which now front on three streets, West North, Carey and Highland avenue, the firm of Sebastian & May established a manufacturing business along the same lines, and built the first of the factory structures now in use there. The site was given by the city of Sidney, as were several factory sites about the same time, for the encouragement of new industries. The concern was not notably prosperous, and Mr. May and-later-Mr. Sebastian, were bought out by Allen P. Wagner. Mr. Wagner became involved in dispute regarding patents and brought suit against his superintendent, who, however, was exonerated by the court, after which Mr. Wagner closed the plant and transferred the machinery to Detroit, Michigan, where the manufacture was continued, but under financial difficulties which finally closed it. In 1909, Mr. I. H. Thedieck purchased the plant and brought it back to Sidney, setting it up with enlarged and improved capacities in a new and very modern factory on Oak avenue.

            In the meantime, however, the factory of the defunct Sebastian May firm invited the attention of prospective manufacturers, among them Mr. A. C. Getz, who was a sojourner in Sidney for some time, without succeeding in getting serious attention. Mr. Getz then left Sidney for a time, and made a good start in Defiance, Ohio, returning in 1904 with a little capital of "success"; and with this running start "The Sidney Machine Tool company" took over the old Sebastian May site and began a business that has become one of the most important in Sidney. Drills and blacksmiths' forges were the first lines of output, to which have been added various wood-working machines, saws of all descriptions and uses, engine lathes, gauges, vises, bevel and mortising machines, planes and borers, et cetera. A special achievement of the factory is the production of the "Universal" wood worker, Mr. Getz' invention, a machine which combines five to sixteen machines, by supplementary equipment, and at which five men may work at one time without interference, if desirable. This machine is invaluable in the small woodworking factory, where there is not room to accommodate several individual power-driven machines. The machine tools, of course, mean those (page 475) which are to be power-driven, and the company uses saws, bits, and other details from the Toledo Saw and Supply company, the Forest City Bit and Tool company, and others of the highest grade, in the setting up of their machines. The "Universal" has had an enormous sale, and the manufacture of engine lathes has been equally heavy, government orders for this line demanding about ninety per cent of the company's capacity during the war. The plant and buildings have been repeatedly enlarged, and at present extensive additions are being completed. Beginning with about seven workmen in 1905, two hundred men now answer the roll call, while the annual business of the past few years is not far below a million dollars.

            The company as organized at present is: Mr. I. H. Thedieck, president; Mr. E. H. Griffs, vice-president; Mr. A. C. Getz, secretary, treasurer and manager. Clarence Brown is superintendent. The incorporation was effected June, 1904.

            When Mr. Getz is not busy at the works, he is resting his mind in agricultural pursuits, specializing in the culture of aristocratic breeds of hogs, which he is having trained to habits of refinement which will eliminate the tendency to vocalization and entirely root out the propensity to wallow. The animals are fed on fresh whole milk and clean grains, shampooed and manicured every morning, and so serene are they that the casual visitor to the Getz country home is obliged to ask the way to the pens. All this has nothing to do with the fact that bacon is 75 cents per pound, as none of Mr. Getz' herd has yet been taken to market. The aim is purely scientific.

            The Monarch Manufacturing company, as the re-organized Sebastian-May company was named in the transformation, was transplanted from Detroit to its native soil in Sidney in 1909, where it began after 1910 to thrive phenomenally, the wartime activity causing the most unprecedented growth, in order to fill the government orders for engine lathes, until it claims-with figures to prove to be the largest engine lathe manufactory in the world at the present date. Two thousand three hundred and fifty lathes were shipped in 1917, and a still larger number in 1918, being used by munitions manufacturers, gun makers and air-plane builders. It is said that the company paid 600 per cent on investments during 1918. The equipment of the plant is of the most complete character, both for work and as to working conditions, safety of employees, and general efficiency. Both the Monarch and the Sidney Machine Tool companies operate on the same system with regard to employees, a graduated rate of bonus being paid to the workmen, in addition to their wages.

            The company incorporated in 1909, with Mr. I. H. Thedieck, president, and Mr. W. E. Whipp, manager. The directors are I. H. Thedieck, L. M. Studevant, W. H. Wagner, A. J. Hess and E. J. Griffs.

            About 1905, William Harmony and Frank Lucas established what was known as the Standard Clutch company, building for their concern a part of the structure now included in the Peerless Bread Machine plant. At first a general repair shop, they added (page 476) a foundry and manufactured the clutch for some time, but closed out about 1912, at which time the building and plant were taken over by E. J. Griffs and W. E. Wenger, who continued the repair shop until October, when the whole was converted to the manufacture of the Peerless bread machines, a series of machines of practical excellence unequalled in their line, and all of them invented and patented by F. X. Lauterbur, a young man born and educated in Sidney.

            These machines, intended for the use of manufacturing bakers, include the Peerless dough mixer, the Peerless loaf moulder, the Peerless double-armed cake creamer and icing beater, and the rotary proofing tablets. The Peerless Bread Machine company was formed and incorporated in January, 1913, with the following personnel: E. J. Griffs, president; William Piper, vice-president; F. X. Lauterbur, secretary, treasurer and manager; directors, E. T. Custenborder, Jennie E. Custenborder, D. F. Mills, Leo B. Lauterbur, and Mary M. Lauterbur. The plant is operated to the utmost capacity, and an addition which doubles the size of the floor space is being rushed to completion, and the factory will then accommodate, in all, three hundred workmen. The site is at the corner of East avenue and Clinton street, and covers all that was left of the locality once included in "Maxwell's mill pond," the west half having been built up years ago. The "Peerless" will have the newest manufactory in Sidney.

            The Bimel building has been occupied since July, 1917, by a new, "all Sidney" company, who bought the premises, and have established a plant for the manufacture of power presses, for use in sheet-metal working plants, one of the newest departures in Sidney industries, and well illustrates the facility with which the little city has learned to snatch victory from defeat. The business, still young, employs but thirty-five workmen, but its output is increasing steadily, and at a safe gait. The company incorporated two years ago, with the following personnel: W. E. Whipp, president ; W. C. Horr, vice-president and secretary; P. C. Pocock, treasurer and general manager ; is known as "The Sidney Power Press company."

            Opposite the Mull Wood Work plant, on the east side of Miami avenue, is the building (once a part of the Anderson-Frazier company's property) of the Eclipse Folding Machine company, which was formed in 1884, by A. T. Bascom and L. M. Studevant. Mr. Bascom came to Sidney from Bellefontaine, where, in the office of the Bellefontaine Republican, the suggestion of an inexpensive but practical newspaper folder for use in the small town office, had come from Mr. J. Q. A. Campbell, the editor and proprietor of the paper. The inventor had the necessary mechanical genius, not possessed by the editor, to develop an idea, and Mr. Campbell financed Mr. Bascom for several months while the machine was perfected for patenting. This partnership was broken by Mr. Campbell purchasing the few machines already made, and Mr. Bascom located in Sidney, where, with Mr. Studevant's assistance, the machine was put on the market successfully, apparatus of this nature finding a ready market with small publishers. About 1887 Mr. Bascom's interest was purchased by John W. Skillen and the (page 477) manufacture has continued quite steadily ever since, improvements being patented from time to time. Mr. Skillen sold out to Mr. Studevant in 1906 and retired. from business, and the concern then became incorporated as a stock company, with a capital of $50,000. Since 1912, W. C. Horr has been secretary and general manager of the business. The Eclipse folders are widely known and extensively used. It is rather remarkable that of five folding machine factories in the United States, Sidney should possess more than one, but such is the case.

            About 1897-8, in a small building at the rear of a lot on South Main avenue, George Mentges began the manufacture of the Mentges newspaper and job folding machines. The patents were inclusive not only of newspaper folders, but of folders designed for small work, papers, letters and circulars of all sizes, and adjustable to different foldings. These have been improved and elaborated until the last word seems to have been said, in the way of adjustability and application of power. The business of the little establishment increased so that in 1905 it became necessary to build larger quarters, and a substantial and practical factory was erected and the plant installed at the corner of Oak and Poplar streets, on the elevated, tracts beyond the railroads. Here the company, which owns all of the patents manufactured in the establishment, employ about eighteen to twenty highly skilled workmen in one of Sidney's most distinguished, though not largest enterprises. Originally George Mentges was sole owner of the works, which gradually became a partnership concern, and in February, 1919, was incorporated as a stock company with the four Mentges brothers and William Blake as the incorporators. The personnel of the company is George Mentges, president; Fired Mentges, vice-president; John Mentges, manager ; William Blake, secretary and treasurer, and Jacob Mentges. The Mentges brothers first gained experience in the Eclipse factory.

            The product of the Mentges plant is sent all over the world and orders are now awaiting only the re-opening of traffic, which will occupy the full capacity of the works for months ahead. A third and even a fourth company once attempted to compete in Sidney, with the manufactories just described, but were of short duration.

            The Steel Scraper was introduced to the manufacturing world by Shelby county. A Shelby county boy, Benjamin Slusser, invented and first manufactured a steel road scraper in America. Benjamin was born June 28, 1828, a few miles north of Sidney, on the farm of his parents, who were the fifteenth pioneer couple to brave the wilds of Shelby county as settlers. This lad, who worked on the home farm until he was sixteen years of age, was the genius who really put Sidney on the industrial map of the world. His education consisted of the training then to be had in the country schools, supplemented with five years of work and study in Philadelphia and other eastern cities, where he learned the principles of applied mechanics. Returning to Sidney at the age of twenty-one, he began his life work as an inventor and manufacturer. His first practical invention was a self-loading excavator, combining the (page 478) work of plow and carrier, and unloading, automatically, at the turn of the beam. This machine came into favor at once and was extensively used in the road improvements of the Mormon settlements of Utah and also in the building of the Mississippi river levees.

            Financial ability, unfortunately, was not included in Benjamin Slusser's array of talent, and this line of manufacture proved unprofitable, to the extent that Mr. Slusser became involved in contracts which he could not fulfill, and was obliged to abandon the manufacture of the excavator, personally. The idea of a road scraper made from sheet steel had by this time definitely shaped itself in his brain, and he devoted himself to its development, patented it, and began its manufacture in Cincinnati, but after a few months established the American Steel Scraper works in Sidney, in 1876.

            Mr. Slusser had for a partner Mr. W. S. Magill, and the business was established in the frame building then standing along the railroad track, east of the Maxwell mill, power for the machinery being obtained from the mill weir. Immediate success followed the venture. Two or three years later, Mr. W. H. C. Goode came to Sidney and purchased Mr. Magill's interest in the works, and by 1880 had become the sole owner of the works and title, while Mr. Slusser, who retained the rights of his patents, formed a new partnership with William Taylor McLean. Slusser & McLean built a fine large brick and stone factory on the north side of the canal at the foot of Shelby street, which was the largest scraper works in America at that date. The main factory is 107 feet long by forty-two wide, with large blacksmith shop, emery wheelhouse and ample fuel and storage sheds.

            While the original Slusser steel scraper has been the basis of manufacture, the factory output is kept up to the hour in improvements, and every development in the scraper line has been met by the Slusser-McLean company. Wheelbarrows are the one exception to the usual lines of scraper output, the Slusser-McLean people never having given any attention to this department, which would involve enlargement for which the site does not offer space or other advantage. A unique feature of the works is that it still uses water power obtained from the canal by means of an intake which conducts the water directly, with a fall of about ten feet, to the penstocks of two large turbines, the waste being carried underground to Tilbury run, which at this point passes under the canal, emerging on the farther side to rush noisily down to the Miami. This water power has never failed, but auxiliary engines are kept in readiness for emergency. No other firm in Sidney now uses water power. W. T. McLean, the surviving partner of the old firm, is a grandson of Gen. Taylor, pioneer citizen, and a son-in-law of Benjamin Slusser, the inventor. Mr. McLean received his first lessons in steel in the 0. J. Taylor hardware store, but did not immediately devote himself to that line. For some years previous to 1884 he was actively connected with the manufacture and sale of crackers, for the Forest City Cracker company of Cleveland, but eventually (page 479) returned permanently to his native town, and became the needful complement to Benjamin Slusser's inventive genius, and business manager of the Slusser-McLean Works. Mr. McLean has also been many years a member of the state board of public works, a holder of high offices in the Masonic order, both local and in the grand council Of Ohio.

            Mr.. Slusser died quite suddenly in 1899, since which the partnership has-been the Slusser estate and W. T. McLean. Taylor T. McLean, youngest son of the house, is assistant manager of the works. A policy of absolute business integrity and frankness, coupled with the live and let live principle has characterized the firm and its output, always, and the institution is a substantial factor in Sidney's business prosperity.

            The .American Steel Scraper Works, finding the old quarters growing too tight for its increasing proportions, erected a large plant west of the B. & O. tracks, at the corner of Court street and Wilkinson avenue, moving into it shortly after the Slusser-McLean factory was occupied. Mr. W. H. C. Goode remained the sole owner for several years, Mr. W. E. Kilborn, of the Citizen's bank entering the firm about 1886, as a partner and manager of the mammoth plant. The success of the establishment has been scarcely paralleled in Sidney, and the products go all over the world wherever construction work is being carried on. Some years ago the partnership of Kilborn and Goode was incorporated as the American Steel Scraper company and so remains without change of personnel, although Mr. Kilborn has retired from active participation in the business, as manager of the works. Mr. C. E. Betts is the present manager.

            The Sidney Steel Scraper company was founded in 1880, by William Haslup, son of G. G. Haslup, and J. H. Doering. It was conducted as a partnership until 1892, when it became incorporated, with William Haslup, president; J. D. Barnes, secretary, and William A. Perry, sales-manager. At Mr. Haslup's death Mr. Perry became president and general manager of the company, Mr. B. D. Heck being office and sales-manager; and George Dan Toy, grandson of the pioneer steel plow maker, its superintendent. The business, which began very modestly in a small shop near the Sidney Manufacturing company of today, soon burst its bounds and erected a factory on the north side of Poplar street, between the Big Four railroad tracks and West avenue, where it has continued its phenomenal expansion until there is not another foot of space to be had without removing to some other site.

            The lines of manufacture include several distinct patterns of road scraper as the leader, while a large wheelbarrow department is another feature, and the department of wood-working employs expert attention. The plant being typical of all, and, indeed, having somewhat outgrown them in size, a brief exposition of its features will serve to elucidate the work of the entire group.

            Wheelbarrow bodies are made of metal (in this case sheet iron) in one or more shapes, the sheets being stamped in great power presses, and turned out with amazing rapidity. Clipping and edging and riveting-each process has its special machinery which works (page 480) like magic, to the lay eye. Rolled sheet steel from the rolling mills further south in the Miami valley, is the basis of scraper manufacture, machines of a "guillotine" description clipping the sheets into the desired shapes for the different scrapers as neatly and as precisely as a cooky cutter in a bakery. Patterns are so designed and the steel sheets so dimensioned as to leave fragments from which auxiliary parts can be cut. The residue consists of mere slivers of steel, which are returned to the smelters, and the whole process is conducted upon a most efficient plan of economical practice. The heaviest road scraper, known as the "wheeler" requires the strongest wooden running gear possible, and some wood is used in a number of the machines manufactured. The lightest scraper manufactured is the "Mormon" (so called because designed especially for the Utah trade), a hand scraper consisting of a narrow, strong blade of steel, and the rest of the implement of wood, with a few metal braces.

            The power used in the Sidney company's plant is generated by natural gas or oil engines, and electric current,-the latter especially in the heavier riveting work. A gentle air pressure of thirty tons to the unit is utilized in the lighter riveting, and has the advantage of being less deafening to the operator-or spectator-although equally apt to produce a blood blister if put to test. The woodworking department covers the entire manufacture of the wheels required for the heavy road scrapers ; shafts, seats and running gear; plow beams (for the Toy Plow Works), handles, et cetera-every wooden part used in any of the various machines manufactured except a certain very heavy handle for which the wood cannot be obtained here, nor the machinery accommodated. The paint and stencil department is complete and separate. During the war the scrapers, large and small, were in great demand by the government, being used in the preparation of all the immense aviation fields and the cantonments, as high as 100 heavy "wheelers" being produced in a week, when needed, and 250 of the. "regular" pattern ; while the strong iron wheelbarrows made a large percentage of the cargo of every vessel of the emergency feet. This plant which, like all of Sidney's industries, was patriotically placed at the disposal of the government for the duration of the war, was, at the signing of the armistice, making rapid strides toward conversion to the manufacture of chassis for army kitchens. The sudden turn of affairs made this work, so far as carried forward, a total loss, but it has now recovered normal poise, and will, with the natural revival of road building and bettering, continue its usual progress. The normal yearly business is not far from a half million dollars. The Sidney Steel Scraper company has a notable record for honorable treatment of its customers large and small, experienced or otherwise. Its trade reaches to all parts of the world although the great west of America is normally its most constant market. The Sidney Production company, which operated for some time in a vacant factory building near the Sidney Scraper Works, was purely a war industry, and while syndicated chiefly from stockholders in the Sidney Steel Scraper company, it was in no other way connected with it. It was established for the specific (page 481) purpose of sub-contracting under the Dayton Products company in the manufacture of shells, the process undertaken at the local plant being the "roughing" of the shell castings, reducing the weight from twenty pounds each to ten pounds each, ready for the finishers. The Sidney plant was one of four, located respectively at Dayton, Springfield, Greenville and Sidney, and the first work was on contracts made by the Dayton company with Russia, later being taken over by the United States government. The industry, of course, came to an end with the signing of the armistice. It is proper to say that while small attention was paid to any phase of this war work except to further the single purpose of rapid construction, patriotic service being held paramount, Sidney interests have no reason to regret this syndicate, nor any of the war specialties that were manufactured in any of the city's plants, for the local investors reaped what they considered a full reward for their service,-which is a tribute to their loyalty as well as to their efficiency.

            Confectioners. Among the rugged industries for which Sidney is noted, it is a little like turning the leaf of a very plain book to find a gay picture on the other side, to realize that by turning "right about, face" from a great steel scraper works on Court street one's vision is confronted by a five-storey brick building erected for no other purpose than the manufacture of dainty confections to tempt the palate.

            Mr. C. F. Hickok, in 1895, was in the retail confectionery business, at the well known northwest corner of the public square. About this time he made some experiments in a small way, and being satisfied with the results, the entire third floor and half of the second floor of the building were leased, and a plant installed for the manufacture of fine confectionery. The dainty excellence of the products created an immediate market, and the industry grew so fast that it was necessary in 1900 to erect the five-story model factory on Poplar street to meet the demands. Here, with fifty thousand square feet of floor space, there is not an inch to spare, and the employees have increased from a dozen to a hundred hands. The Hickok factory is not confined to one variety or line of confections, but carries on a general manufacturing business covering everything in the confectionery category. The top floor is devoted to storage of boxes, fancy and plain, also the larger packages, pails and containers. Coming down to the third floor, the steam cooking kettles, creamers, and marshmallow beaters are encountered, the moulding frames and dusting contrivances, and the conveyors which transport the cream centers to the enrobers, for the chocolate coating. The cooling room and packing department are also on this floor, and a fan suction ventilating system by which the whole building is kept supplied with fresh air.

            The hard candy department is on the second floor. Caramels, wrapped and chocolate coated butter scotch "chips," stick-a most fascinating department !-and broken "Kiddy Mixed," all are fashioned in the different rooms. On the first floor are the stock and shipping rooms and the offices. In the basement, which is mostly above ground, is the refrigerating machinery, the artesian well, the machines for roasting and blanching peanuts, and a department (page 482) where the sugar, syrups, et cetera, are stored. Everywhere is immaculate cleanliness, dainty sights and odors greeting the senses in all the departments.

            The Hickok factory did not enlarge to compete for government orders during the war, as it was already working about to capacity, but it did give government orders the preference, and tons upon tons of Hickok candies went to the boys in khaki.

            The signal success of the Hickok plant brought out the sincerest of compliments, that of following its example and doing likewise.

            The Cherry Cheer company began its career in the basement of the Wilson Carothers home on Walnut avenue, when the two elder sons of the house began the manufacture of the now well-known syrup, in 1907. Cherry Cheer was and is a syrup for soda fountain use, employed not only in soda water, but as "dopes" for ice-cream and sundaes; also for use in punches.

            The success was immediate, and the name "Cherry Cheer" was adopted as a trade mark, to cover not only other soda fountain syrups, but the manufacture of various lines of confectionery. After one year, the infant business was obliged to move to larger quarters, and rented the vacant original building of the Sidney Elevator company, near the Given tannery. This year saw the incorporation of the business into a stock concern,-in which the father, Wilson Carothers, and the remaining brothers, with a few preferred stockholders, became interested,-and the business was again enlarged. A new building was erected in the fall of 1908, and the manufacture of the syrups was carried on there until September, 1916, when the vacant Underwood Whip company buildings were purchased, and new plants installed for the wholesale manufacture of fine chocolates.

            The new situation, which furnishes splendid facilities, is at the corner of Highland avenue and North street. The buildings are so well windowed from all exposures that it is aptly styled "the daylight plant." There is ample space for enlargement of the building when that becomes necessary, and the immense tank for supplying the fire sprinkler system is erected upon part of the grounds, yet another part of which is fenced out for the use of the neighborhood children as a playground.

            A trip through the factory today shows the visitor every step of the processes from the store or stock rooms where the sugar, emollients, chocolate, favors and colorings are stored, and the machinery and conduits by which they are fed into the mixers, boilers, beaters, moulders and coolers, carried to the enrobers and the refrigerating department, thence to the tables and racks where the fancywork is done on the highest priced dainties, some of which are double-dipped. A specialty of the plant is chocolate pieces-the six-cent and penny dainties (Teddy Bears) so popular with children -the same fine grade of chocolate being used in these as in the varieties designed for society use. When the question of cost intervenes, size, not quality, is reduced. American soldiers at home and in Europe, and even in Siberia, became well acquainted with Cherry Cheer candies.

            (page 483) A very interesting department is the box room, where all the paper packing boxes are made, machinery of the most approved efficiency being used in the processes, which are completed by the manipulation of remarkably few pairs of very clever hands. The Cherry Cheer syrups are manufactured quite apart from the confectionery, and the machinery is a unique combination of mixer, cooker, and cooler, into which the carefully chosen materials are introduced from a private room above, and in case of necessity can be converted by magically rapid action into Cherry Cheer syrup at the rate of five hundred gallons, or more, every thirty minutes. A. 5,000 gallon tank is kept filled in reserve. All the water used in the plant is drawn from a deep driven well, and distilled before using, insuring absolute purity.

            As at present organized the company is Wilson Carothers, president; W. R. and J. C. Carothers, managers; Paul A. Carothers, with the plant, and Frank K. Carothers, a director, the preferred stockholders, who are guaranteed 7 per cent interest on stock, annually, being silent.

            The Venus Chocolate company is connected with the Olympia Candy Kitchen, which was opened in 1910. The first factory building of the Venus company was erected on North Main street, opposite the present large building, in 1913. In April 1918, the new building was purchased from the receiver of the Given & Son tannery, and with new equipment of double the former productive capacity, the business was transferred to its present site. Plans for still further enlargement are on foot, which will accommodate new machinery that is expected to eliminate at least fifty per cent of the hand labor now necessary, and permit a great increase in output. Chocolates of every description are manufactured here, and no other candy it attempted. The method and conduct of the establishment are impeccable. White-capped girls chaperoned by experienced women execute the necessary touches daintily with flying fingers, and the most immaculate cleanliness is evident everywhere, both as to quarters, equipment and handling.

            About two tons daily is the output of chocolates at present (1919), and the market extends over four states. The Venus Chocolate company is only partly Sidney capital, the president being Koste Vlahos of Springfield. Stanley Bryan is secretary and manager.

            The Purity Candy Kitchen, which has its retail store in the old building at the corner of Ohio and Poplar streets, where the Hickok company began, is fourth in the field of candy manufacturers. The proprietor, Evans Johnson, a naturalized Greek, has a factory in process of erection, in the rear of his own residence on West Ohio avenue, where the Purity candies will soon be made. At present the manufacture is carried on in the sixth story of the Oldham utilities building on Poplar street, which is too cramped to permit of enlargement, but where, in spite of small quarters, a very dainty line of confectionery is manufactured for the supply of the three stores, in as many neighboring cities, maintained by the Purity company.

            Latest born of all the group of confectionery plants, is the (page 484) Sidney Candy company, its organization and incorporation dating only from January 1919. It is however, quite able -to stand alone already, being strongly constituted, with men of experience and ability to guard its growth. The vacant building on North Main avenue left by the Venus Chocolate company, is the present situation, and while a tremendous demand for fine marshmallows is now occupying the attention of the force, it is the intention eventually to include the entire gamut of confectionery manufacture. The trade mark adopted, "Si-Ca-Co," embodies this idea, as does the name "Sidney Candy company, manufacturing confectioners." E. W. Farrell, formerly prominent in the Cherry Cheer company, is president and manager, and E. A. Shea is secretary and treasurer. A word that may be said of every one of Sidney's manufacturing confectioners is that the materials they use are of the highest grade obtainable, nothing but the cleanest and finest of sugars, the purest of flavors, and the most expensive grade of chocolate and every other ingredient special or ordinary, goes into the candy which Sidney sends out to the world's trade.

            The Cigar Industry. The first factory dates back in 1870, nearly fifty years ago, when Herman Tappe, sr., came to the village from Cincinnati, setting up his small establishment and store on Main avenue north of the public square, drifting about the same neighborhood according to the change in advantages, the latest situation being in the rear of the Cummins block, of which the Citizens' bank occupied the first floor front, and the Tappe family made a home in one of the housekeeping apartments on the second floor. When the building was about to be replaced with the new bank block, it was vacated, and the Tappe factory, which though small had enjoyed a popular vogue among smokers, was removed to a small place on South Ohio avenue, but was never actively in business again, owing to the failing health of the manufacturer, and to his pre-occupation with his musical activities as leader of the famous "Tappe's Band," an organization which gave to Sidney a high class of band music, which has scarcely been equaled since that day. "Music by Tappe's Band" was the climactic item on any public program of the time, and had Mr. Tappe's industry and health been equal to his personal popularity, and his real ability as a musician, more might be written here. He died, leaving Mrs. Tappe to a struggle with circumstance ft to have vanquished a mother less brave: Their group of talented children have, however-, done much to perpetuate the name of Tappe, and to add lustre to it, as well. The cigar industry today is represented in Sidney by the local branch of the Deisel-Wemmer company, which operates in the third and fourth floors of the Woodward building, on the west side of the public square. Over two hundred employees figure on a pay roll which totals about $2700 per week. The working conditions in the local branch are above the average, the building being one of the best in the business district. The A. W. Knauer cigar factory is another quite extensive business, located in the building of the Standard Printing company.

            Brewing. Tradition has a way of reading into history much that does not otherwise appear. There are persons many miles (page 485) removed from the Miami valley, who have not looked across its smiling slopes and winding streams for many a year, who cherish a hazy memory of a river lined with breweries in the days of old. Far be it from the historian to discredit tradition. It is often valuable, if for no other purpose than to call attention to its errors while the opportunity is still open. Doubtless, there were small private establishments in very early times, just as there were stills and gin mills that never were recorded in the town annals, but that these were exaggerated, both as to number and extent, there is no question. Since 1850 there has been no brewing business done in Sidney except that of the Wagner brewery.

            The original plant of the brewery was erected in 1850 by Joseph Wagner. John Wagner, who subsequently became owner, first leased this property from his brother Joseph, in 1859, at which time a Mr. Peck was a partner. Mr. Peck remained a partner for some time. His interest was eventually bought out by Peter Wagner, another brother, John and Peter Wagner remaining partners until 1876, when they divided their joint property, Peter choosing the farm west of the city, and John becoming sole owner of the brewery. The brewery as it stands today, is entirely rebuilt from the original, and is a thoroughly up to date plant and in the best of condition. Recent state and national legislation has brought the manufacture of beer to an end, the brewing really ceasing some months before. The brewery always had a high reputation for strict business integrity, and honesty of product. Following the    example set by many other manufactories of its class, the plant has been converted to the production of a "soft drink," and will hereafter be known as "The Wagner Beverage company." John Wagner, a genial and benevolent personality, died in 1881. The property, undivided, is owned by eight surviving heirs. The Wagner beer was sold by the company or its agents exclusively in Sidney and Clinton township, a fact which contributed to the unanimity of quiet extinction when the end of the saloon era came in May, 1919. Contrary to expectation, the occasion was marked by no wild orgies nor disorder, many of the saloons closing long before the hour set; and if there was any difference between this and other Saturday nights, it consisted of a notable quietness on the streets of the business district.

            Miscellaneous. Yenney and Piper established the business afterward known for many years as the "Yenney Pork House," about 1865. The main building was forty by sixty feet in dimensions, and auxiliary building and sheds augmented the floor space considerably.

            The Yenney plant utilized the mill pond, which lay directly north of it, and twenty-four hundred hogs were slaughtered annually at the shambles. After the abolishment of slaughter housed within the city limits, the packing business was discontinued, and Mr. Yenney opened a broom factory in the building.

            Donaldson and Bole bought out the broom business, but after several years this industry also closed, and the building was sold to the Citizens' Ice company (Oldham Bennett & Co.), who converted it to the storage of ice, as an auxiliary to their artificial ice plant, which stands immediately west. The old Yenney (page 486) building stands adjacent to the Big Four railroad tracks, and west of the Sidney Manufacturing company, East avenue leading between the two buildings.

            O. B. Blake also conducted a slaughter house which formerly stood on the edge of the Miami river at the foot of Poplar street, where all the beef sold in Sidney was once prepared for market. Mr. Blake, who still lives in Sidney, quite hale and hearty at eighty-seven years of age, also kept one of the pioneer meat markets, the little building being torn away to make room for the O. J. Taylor building at the corner of North Main and Poplar streets. The once famous "Mary L." poultry plant in East Sidney now does duty almost equally well for a packing house, at which nearly 4,000 hogs and fully 1,200 head of cattle are slaughtered annually, and where all kinds of sausages are made and refrigerated and bacon and hams cured, by the Bennett-Bulle Packing company. The Sidney Knitting Mills company was incorporated May 24, 1918, with a capital stock of $100,000.00, over half of which is owned in Sidney. The board of directors includes Messrs. I. H. Thedieck, George Benkert, J. F. Phillipi, C. F. Pefer, D. E. Liddy, M. M. Wagner, and Andrew J. Hess, organized as follows: I. H. Thedieck, president; George Benkert, vice-president; C. F. Pefer, secretary, treasurer and general manager; D. E. Liddy, superintendent. The company took the building on Poplar street vacated by the postoffice, and installed plant and offices for permanent occupancy. Business has been good and is growing, and employment for a large number of women and girls is furnished in the machine department, besides the office and motor department force. The manufacture of lime from the deposits of limestone south of Sidney, has been engaged in in past days to a considerable extent.

            The W. A. Hall company, started about 1869, was in operation for many years following, and has been succeeded by others of less permanent character. The Shelby county deposit is said to be productive of excellent lime, but difficult to reduce, and the cement industry has taken the place of lime production for the past several years. The Sidney Cement Stone company, situated on Wilkinson avenue, at the west side of the city, is the larger of the local cement works, and is the present successor of a lime industry of former days.

            Wagner Park Conservatories. Quoting from Country Life, February, 1909, we read : "A private park that is a public benefit. Wagner park, free to the people of Sidney." It was a sign that stood hospitably at the wide open gateway to the private park of B. P. Wagner of Sidney, Ohio, ten years ago, and for some time after, and is still unforgotten, although many of the beauties and advantages the public of Sidney were invited to enjoy have been destroyed since then by the idle hands of Sidney's thoughtless and unappreciative youth. However, the drive still winds inward from the suburban road now known as Park street, "inviting the wayfarer to leave the glaring open and traverse the sun-flecked shadows of its winding length," and the oaks, maples, elms and beeches cast deeper shadows year by year. If the artificial fairyland of the island of "Nippon" has been wrecked by careless boys, the tiny lakelet and (page 487) its tiny island are attractive enough in their wild state, and everywhere open vistas of beauty that seem planted by the casual hand of nature rather than by the subtlety of landscape art. Indeed the observer would not be mistaken in thinking most of the effect a mere development of nature. Nowhere has any violence been done to the native contour of the park, but the suggestion for each step of the development has been drawn from the land itself. The low spot with a tendency to become marsh, is a sunken garden. Lilies of the valley revel in a little nook just out of sight from the drive, where they seem to have grown wild. One knows they are there from the delicious scent that is wafted through the shrubbery. A wayward little brook creeps through the park, winding so as to confront the rambler oftener than one brook is naturally expected to do; and here and there, as if in some tropic land, a clump of rare iris drinks the water at its brink. Only in the arboretum is the arrangement of anything growing strictly formal. Even among tree culture, the formal idea of a nursery is avoided as much as possible. Rare varieties of landscape flowers are planted to follow the sweep of a low knoll, and stretch in long curving lines that trail out of sight behind the changing shrubbery and trees. Masses of peony bloom in every tint known to the plant,-and some tints known only to the connoisseur in floriculture,-spread themselves before the delighted eye, and long waving ribbons of blood red oriental poppies flaunt their glory in the June sunshine. If one stays to investigate, there is scarcely a variety of flower, tree or shrub known to northern climate, which is not growing within the confines of the big park and nurseries, or in the conservatories.

            "And how did these all come to be here?"

            About 1899 Mr. B. P. Wagner began testing plants and shrubbery for the beautification of his own home, using the unimproved park land northwest of the city for the experiments. Sparing no pains or space, more plants than possibly could be put to use by all his friends and neighbors were developed; and that no beautiful things should go to waste, the surplus was planted wherever a spot seemed to invite a shrub or tree or bulb,-and the park began to grow of itself, becoming, almost while its author dreamed, the inspiration for a great and original industry. The immense nursery business that has come out of the soil to add laurels to Sidney's wreath of fame, was placed under the care and intelligent direction of scientific gardeners, and the experimental nursery and greenhouses of Mr. Wagner speedily became a widely known and patronized source of ornamental shrubbery and landscape plants of every variety, suited to the climatic conditions of all parts of the country. The employers, from highest to humblest are all systematically trained into intelligent understanding of the work in all its departments, and the whole has become not only a place for the culture of things of outdoor beauty, but has been placed upon the highest plane of professional artistry by the establishment of the Landscape Gardening Department.

            In the residential looking office building is maintained the studio where are worked out the landscape problems sent in from (page 488) all over the United States, by University-trained landscape artists; and a corps of landscape engineers is kept in the field by the company, visiting all parts of the country to study situations of especial difficulty, and to plan their transformation into scenes of beauty, their specifications being sent to the home office for development. The planning of new and beautiful suburbs, turning old farms and waste places embraced by expanding cities into valuable additions, is a special line of endeavor in the Wagner Park Conservatories work ; and the result of landscape art, in turning the rude and mediocre into localities of subtle charm has many an example, but none more to the point in this sketch than the pretty suburb of "Bon Air," and the neighboring Country Club and golf links, in which natural situations, once neglected and objectionable, have been transformed into pictures of idyllic beauty. Past the golf links a little brook twists at will through its green basin, and crossing the roadway under a culvert, is caught by a tiny dam on the other side, where it spreads out in a placid pool, then, slipping over the stones of the little weir, meanders away out of sight through a low green meadow dotted with casual shrubbery. The hills, which were formerly a part of the old William Johnston farm, have been utilized as building sites for homes, and a touch of individuality pertains to each, the drives being so placed as to provide the most desirable outlook from the residences which are already beginning to build upon them, the earliest of which are the homes of Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Whipp, Mr. and Mrs. T. D. Van Etten and Mr. and Mrs. E. D. Farrell. "Wagner Club," situated about a mile west of Sidney, is another beauty spot attributable to the conservatories.

            And no one who walks about the streets of Sidney can fail to note the prevalence and profusion of beautiful shrubbery of countless variety which graces every lawn and makes beautiful the simplest cottage ; and the sprinkling of rare varieties of shade trees that relieve the monotony of the maples ; all of which change and improvement in this very beautiful little city is the direct result of the Wagner Park Conservatories and its influence upon the tastes of Sidney citizens. Thus a work of positive uplift to the community has followed the development of this unique industry. The original acreage of the park has been augmented, and the arboretum accommodates thousands upon thousands of young trees and shrubs, interspersed with great beds of bulb plants, wherein he who cannot please his taste must be difficult to satisfy. During the season, the iris display alone is worth the whole. But so it seems as each flower or shrub comes into its brief kingship in the realm of summer.

            Immense orders are shipped from the conservatories during the planting seasons, by freight and express, and no train ever leaves Sidney without bearing a large quota of carefully packed plants from the nurseries.

            The company was incorporated in August, 1911, with the following personnel: B. P. Wagner, W. H. Wagner, M. M. Wagner, L. R. Wagner, J. F. Wagner ; H. L. Brown, manager ; A. M. Brown, superintendent of landscape gardening.


(page 489)


The Churches of Sidney


            Necessarily primitive as was the beginning of civilized life in the early days of the county seat, the settlers brought with them what was better than goods and chattels-their religious principles and practices. Scarcely had the little community begun to gather when they also began to concentrate into groups and devise ways and means of holding religious services.

            The first move toward organization was made by a small company of Presbyterians, who met under the spreading branches of a great tree which stood by the riverside, not far from the foot of North street. This little band may not have been permanent in organization, but it was persistent in spirit, and in 1825, with the Rev. Joseph Stephenson to aid them, eight members gathered in the old courthouse in the month of September, and formed the first religious body of Sidney, an organization which has stood the wear and tear of nearly a century. The eight members were Dr. and Mrs. William Fielding, Mr. and Mrs. John Fergus, Mr. and Mrs. William McClintock, James Forsythe and Sarah Graham. Dr. Fielding and Mr. Forsythe were the first ruling elders of the church. Mrs. Fielding was the longest survivor of the eight, attaining the age of ninety odd years. Rev. Stephenson preached for the first few years at regular intervals, dividing his time between Sidney, Bellefontaine and other pioneer centers. Rev. Sayres Gayley followed him. The congregation continued to meet in the old courthouse until 1833, when they were able to erect their first church edifice, a modest frame chapel costing $900 and located on the Charles Starrett lot at the corner of North and Miami streets. In the meantime the little group had doubled in numbers, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Cummins, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel McCullough, Mr. and Mrs. Allen Wells and Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Wilson having united.

            Rev. Samuel Cleland came about this time, and remained five years, during which period both he and Mrs. Cleland were prominent among Sidney's early school teachers. Revs. J. T. Hendricks, Greer, Hare and Bonar filled the pastorate successively until 1842, when the Rev. W. B. Spence was called from Trot to occupy the pulpit. Twenty-two years of happy association followed, before Rev. Spence's retirement to a suburban home near Sidney; and after a short pastorate by Rev. Daniel Bridge, Rev. Robert McCaslin came, in 1866, to begin a service which lasted nearly thirty-three years, and only closed because of advancing age and feebleness. Dr. McCaslin, who still lives in Sidney, the venerated pastor             emeritus of his congregation, is of Scotch-Irish ancestry, the family originating in "old Donegal," Ireland. He was a life-long friend and ministerial associate of the late Dr. Kalb, of Bellefontaine, Ohio. Dr. McCaslin recently celebrated his eighty-third birthday, with a number of octogenarian friends, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. J. L. Dickensheets, in South Ohio avenue. Since the retirement of Dr. McCaslin the church has been ministered to by Rev. James A. Patterson for four years, Rev. Leroy Coffman for six years, Rev. John Charlton for ten years, and since 1918 by Rev. William Blake Love. The first chapel was replaced in 1846 by a brick church of (page 490) good proportions which stood on the original lot until 1883, when it was torn down to make room for the present edifice. A roomy and comfortable manse occupies a location immediately north of the church.

            The Methodist Episcopal church was the second to form an organization, the nucleus of which was a group of adherents who gathered at the home of Joel Frankeburger in 1825 to listen to preaching by Rev. Levi White. Mr. and Mrs. Frankeburger, Mr. and Mrs. George Poole, Mr. and Mrs. John Bryan, "Mother" McVay and "Father" Defreeze, formed a class of eight, who met in the winter at the Frankeburger home, and in summer met under a big elm tree on the river bank, where they held revival meetings and received many accessions *to the class. In 1829 they purchased for sixteen dollars a church lot at the southeast angle of Miami and North streets, but did not build upon it until 1831, when a tiny frame chapel was erected by the labor of their hands, the lumber and materials being donated, so that the building cost nothing at all. In 1838 the growing congregation erected a good plain brick         church in which they worshiped until 1872. Needing a larger lot, they then sold the original site to the Baptists, and located at the corner of Poplar street and Miami avenue, building a large church which answered the requirements until 1914, when they were persuaded by circumstances to undertake a radical step in Sidney church history, and at a cost of over $60,000 the church property has been transformed into a complete "Community" or "Institutional" church, which, in lieu of any Social Centre or Y. M. C. A., has become a vast instrument of good to the young people of Sidney. The church itself seats eight hundred people and is equipped with the finest pipe organ in the city. Connecting with the auditorium by ample passages, are a fine gymnasium, with bowling alley, shower baths, and athletic room, presided over by a thorough instructor ; banquet room and modern kitchen department ; a model kindergarten room, with teaching by Miss Pfeferle, church secretary, during the summer months ; the capacious Bible school departments, senior and junior; and the parsonage, which occupies the corner, the whole property covering one-fourth of a city block. Furnishings are complete for all requirements, with pianos in every department; and the Bible school has five hundred pupils enrolled. The church membership is about eleven hundred. The advantages of the church plant are open to people of every creed without prejudice or discrimination. Rev. Frank Munger is the present pastor. The United Presbyterians organized in 1829, under Rev. John Reynolds, -a little congregation of twelve members, including Robert W. Stephenson and Samuel Gam?1e, who were the first ruling elders, and Mrs. Abigail, who died in 1879, the last survivor of the original members. Pastors came and went frequently for several years, but Rev. Samuel Sturgeon remained for three years, the congregation having increased to seventy persons in 1840. Rev. C. T. McCaughan came to the church in 1841, and during a pastorate of sixteen years enlarged the congregation by nearly one hundred and fifty per cent. The old .courthouse was the first place of worship of the United Presbyterians, who in 1835 erected a little frame (page 491) chapel on the site now occupied by St. John's Evangelical Lutheran church on Water street. In 1854, having become numerically strong, the Court street site was purchased and a large church built which stood until 1892, when it was sold for business purposes, and the church retired to a quieter location on North Main avenue, where they have a pretty modern church ; and though the period of growth has passed, the congregation. still numbers some of Sidney's best families. Rev. Samuel Moore is the present pastor. St. John's Evangelical Lutheran church dates from 1840, when the Rev. George Klapp organized the small membership of thirty or less communicants, with John Jacob, elder, and Jacob Pfeiffer, deacon. The church had no permanent home until 1854, when they purchased the Water street site vacated by the United Presbyterians, and in this they worshiped for thirty-four years. Rev. A. H. Minneman, who came to the pastorate in 1885, remained twenty years, the substantial church still in use being erected under his pastorate in 1888. Rev. Poppen succeeded to the pulpit in 1895, since which a parsonage has been added to the church property, and a fine organ installed in the church, which has now a congregation of four hundred and fifty members.

            Up to the late forties the adherents of the Roman Catholic faith were not numerous, although they had formed themselves into a society which met in private dwelling houses and various public halls, receiving churchly ministrations from Revs. Thomas Sheehan and John Quinlan, who visited them at intervals. In 1848, a small frame building, which had already done duty as a cooperage, was purchased by the society, and by agreement of Charles Starrett this little "church" was set upon the corner now occupied by the new Armory building, at South and West streets. The lot was merely loaned by Mr. Starrett to any homeless congregation, until they were able to buy elsewhere. About 1855, the poor little church was destroyed one night, by some unknown miscreant or idle fanatic, the deed being accomplished by means of powder and stone,-the powder, a small kegful, believed to have been stolen from the Toy & Edgar blacksmithy on West avenue, a short distance away. No one was apprehended, and the deed went unpunished. The congregation were accommodated in several different halls about the village until a new church had been built, of brick, plain but commodious, at the comer of South Main and Water streets. Mathias and Peter Wagner and John Smith were the trustees. The edifice faced the east, and the rear was partitioned of for use as a school for the children of the parish, which remained a mission until 1862, at which time the first resident priest, Rev. Florentine D'Arcy came to the charge. He was followed by Revs. William D'Arcy, William O'Rourke, John D. Kress, William Sidley and Henry Rowecamp, who occupied until the arrival of Rev. Francis Quatman in March, 1875. In 1876 a large parochial school was built at the west end of the church lot, facing Water street, and additional land at the north of the lot on Main avenue was purchased for the erection of a home for the, Sisters of Charity who were put in charge of the school. In 1890 the old church was torn down and the present beautiful church of the Holy (page 492) Angels built on the same corner, but fronting south. It is one of the largest, and has the most beautiful interior in the city. A new home for the Sisters has been built on the corner south of the church and the first home accommodated to the requirements of a rectory, where Father Augustine Fortman has presided since the death of Father Quatman in 1899. Father Quatman enjoyed a high degree- of love and veneration in Sidney regardless of creeds, and his successor, now twenty years in the field, is also held in high regard. The church is in prosperous condition with 1,500 members, and at present is engaged in extending its high school work, the staunch old residence on South Main avenue, built by George Hemm in 1875, having been purchased for remodeling into a school.

            About 1850 or earlier a settlement of Dunkards (German Baptists) located a few miles east of Sidney, and later built a little church on the bank of Mosquito creek, where they worshiped until 1895.

            At this time they came to Sidney and purchased the building erected by the German Methodists many years before, on the corner of South and Ohio avenues, that body having disbanded, or become absorbed by the Methodist Episcopal congregation. The little congregation of twenty Dunkards, grew to sixty within four years, and in 1905, under Rev. S. Z. Smith, the mission board sold the old church and erected a new house of worship on Grove street, where, as "The Church of the Brethren" they have a membership of about one hundred and twenty-five. Elders Keiser, Longenecker and Fitzwater preceded Rev. Smith. The old Dunkard site on Ohio avenue was originally the site of the first Frazier home in Sidney, and the old church has been remodeled by Mr. DeWeese into a really beautiful home.  

            The "regular" Baptists were the next in order to organize among the present churches of Sidney, a missionary committee of the Union Baptist association coming from Dayton in 1869, to hold prayer meetings at the homes of resident Baptists. Later, services were held at the hall in the old DeWeese building. The organization of the church was effected in January, 1870, at the home of Mrs. Mary Whitman, with seven members, W. M. and Mary Whitaker, John Grey, Anna Perrin, A. S. Moore and John and Callie Holverstolt. Rev. A. Snyder was the first pastor, and the old Methodist Episcopal church property was purchased in 1872 under Rev. Shepard, the fifteen members obligating themselves to pay $1,700. A new church was built in 1884, under the ministry of Rev. J. R. Downer, which burned in the winter of 1904, but was rebuilt by the congregation without delay. A parsonage has been added to the church property standing on North street, at the rear of the church. Three hundred and fifty members are now enrolled and the pastor is Rev. William Pier.

            In the fifties a society was organized of the "Christian Connection" or "New Lights" denomination, and a church built, which is still standing, remodeled into a tenement, at the corner of Miami and North Lane. This congregation was never large, but the society was the independent owner of the church property. When the first attempt was made to organize the Church o Christ, many years ago, the old "New Lights" edifice was used by the two (page 493) congregations on alternate Sundays. The Church of Christ was obliged to disband on account of numerical weakness, and the New Lights also discontinued services, and the property was sold to Donaldson and Bole for warehouse purposes (the broom factory) the money being still held in trust for re-organization at some future day.

            The Church of Christ is again represented among Sidney churches having re-organized in 1910, when they began a corporate existence in the assembly room of the courthouse. Rev. C. J. Sebastian was the first minister, serving from 1911 to 1915. The new church building was dedicated in September, 1914. It stands on Miami avenue, between East Court and South streets. During the three years preceding its erection, the congregation had used the little chapel remodeled by the Evangelicals from the old hose house of the fire department. Rev. W. S. Collins is at present minister of the church.

            The United Brethren organized a church in Sidney in September, 1894, under Rev. E. E. Swords, a missionary, the society of nine members using the old Dunkard church for their meetings.

            The society from 1895 to 1898 was in the successive charge of Revs. Reed, Waldo and Lower, whose idea of a memorial church in honor of the Shelby county missionary, Ella Schenck, who lost her life under tragic circumstances in Africa, was carried out under the pastorate of Rev. W. T. Roberts, his successor, in 1899. The congregation has grown with unusual rapidity and now numbers four hundred members, 210 of whom came into the church under Rev. L. S. Woodruff. Rev. Louis Moore is the present pastor.

            The Christian Science Society of Sidney began in a small circle of people who became interested in 1906, and formed a reading circle. The first public service was held in Sexauer's hall, June 22, 1913. Eighteen persons were in attendance. Services were regular after that date, and in 1914 the hall was leased, also an adjoining room, which is maintained as a reading room, open Wednesdays and Saturdays. The society was regularly organized September, 1915, with twenty charter members. Wednesday evening meetings are held, and a lecture on Christian Science given publicly every year. There is steady growth, and a building fund is being accumulated. The society is a branch of the Mother Church at Boston. Mrs. Frances M. Carey is the First Reader.

            Many years ago the Mount Vernon Baptist church (African) was organized and worshipped in a little chapel built on the Starrett lot-where had stood the little Catholic church of the fifties. The site being desired for the new armory, the city of Sidney purchased the title from the Starrett estate, and the Mount Vernon Baptists moved to the northwestern part of Sidney where they have erected a neat church of cement block at the corner of Park and Linden streets. They have a congregation of sixty-five members, and their present pastor is Rev. Hathcock.

            St. Paul's Evangelical (German) church dates from 1870, when they were organized by Rev. Hermann. For the first sixteen years their services were held in the old New Lights church at the corner of Miami and North Lane, when the old hose house corner at Miami (page 494) and Water streets was secured and fitted up as a church which served them until 1906, when their present pretty church at the corner of South and Main avenues was erected under the pastorate of Rev. Theodore P.-Frohne. The church was dedicated in 1908, and the organ, just completed at this time, is in part the gift of Andrew Carnegie. The stained glass windows are of exceptional beauty, nearly all being the gifts of members. Rev. R. Wobus, the present pastor, succeeded Rev. Frohne in 1910.

            The date of the first effort at organizing the Episcopal church in Sidney is uncertain. Mrs. Thomas Blake, of English birth and an adherent of the church, with Mrs. Wilkens, also an Episcopalian, homesick for the mother church began a practice of reading the service of the church together, with-the hope of assembling a parish. The Starrett church lot at the corner of North Lane and Miami avenue was petitioned-for, and a house, which by agreement was to become eventually the rectory of a future church, was built on the corner by Mrs. Wilkens, who occupied it until her death. Occasional services were read here, but the parish never materialized for the building of a chapel, and the property might have reverted to the Starrett estate except for the prompt action of a few of the faithful. During the year 1895 Archdeacon Brown visited Sidney, and gathering the four communicants of the church then known to reside here, Mesdames Sarah Stuber, J. W. Cloninger, W. S. Ley and B. M. Donaldson, a series of services was inaugurated at the assembly room of the courthouse, with Rev. Barkdull in charge. This was the beginning of St. Mark's Parish (mission). The first confirmation service was held, by courtesy, in the United Presbyterian church ; and then, by suggestion of Mrs. Donaldson, the old New Lights church was secured, renovated, redecorated and furnished as a mission, with Rev. T. R. Hazzard in charge. In 1900 the parish undertook the building of their own church on the Starrett lot, south of the rectory. The plans for the church were drawn by Rev. Hazzard, following a little English church which he remembered. It is in Gothic style, with beamed nave of Flemish oak, the whole in conformity with ecclesiastical standards, and impressive, though small. Rev. Hazzard did a large part of the manual labor himself, to conserve the limited funds available, and the church was dedicated clear of debt. Called to New York, Rev. Hazzard was succeeded by the Revs. Linric, Stalker, McCalla, Haight, Banks, and Seitz, sharing the ministry of several of these with Holy Trinity church in Bellefontaine. The present rector is Rev. Kirk O'Ferrall, who devotes Sunday evenings to Sidney, his home parish being in Lima, Ohio.

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