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Memoirs of the Miami Valley - Volume Two
Banking, Dayton Banks and the Liberty Loans, The Press of Dayton, The Schools of Dayton



            So rapid was the immigration into the beautiful Miami valley during the early years of the eighteenth century that the impulse given to trade soon necessitated the establishment of banks, for notes and specie were taking the place of skins and farm products as mediums of exchange.

            Under the name of the "Dayton Manufacturing company," the first bank in the settlement of Dayton was incorporated November (page 128) 11, 1813, by Messrs. Henry Brown, J. G. Burns, J. H. Crane, John Ewing, Philip Gunckel, Joseph Peirce, H. G. Phillips, William M. Smith, and Isaac Spinning, but no further action was taken until the following year, when a board of directors was elected consisting of Isaac G. Burnett, John Compton, Joseph H. Crane, William Eaker, John Ewing, Maddox Fisher, Chas. Russell Greene, David Griffin, George Groves, Fielding Gosney, D. C. Lindsay, Joseph Peirce, David Reid, N. S. Schenck, Benjamin Van Cleve, and John H. Williams ; Messrs. H. G. Phillips and George S. Houston were the choice of the directors for the respective offices of president and cashier of the new fiscal institution, with salaries fixed at the munificent sums of $150 and $400. The directors of this bank were men who started many of the successful commercial enterprises of the county seat of Montgomery county, and their business sagacity and energy, in numerous cases, have been handed down to their descendants who today are strongly identified, not only with the wide business activities of the Dayton of the twentieth century, but also with its progress along all lines of civic development.

            With a capital stock of $61,055, on the 18th of August, 1814, the Dayton Manufacturing company began its financial dealings with the people of Dayton and Montgomery county, in a stone house erected by it on a lot on the east side of North Main street, the location and building costing $2,800. The house stood for many years, an evidence of the commercial enterprise that was eventually to widen and strengthen until Dayton should take rank with the leading, commercially alert, cities of the middle west.

            Ten months after the Dayton Manufacturing company had opened its doors for business, it issued its first public statement, and it is interesting to read that its assets footed up a sum of $123,505.21; its individual deposits amounting to $19,171.51. Its   first large loan was a patriotic one of $11,120 to the national government for aid in the prosecution of the war with England. Like numerous other fiscal institutions in the early period of our history as a republic and a state, the Dayton Manufacturing company did not escape the nefarious skill of the counterfeiter's pen, and many of the small bills issued by it were fraudulently raised to notes of larger denomination. In the year 1831, the bank took a new charter under the name of the Dayton bank, and for twelve years longer continued to hold the confidence of the people of Dayton and Montgomery county; but the hostile attitude of 'President Andrew Jackson to the United States bank, and the refusal of Ohio's legislative solons to renew its character, led to the closing of its doors in the early winter of the year of 1843.

            Two things in the history of the first bank of Dayton are worthy of particular note. In the summer of the year 1837 it stood alone among all the banks then established in the United States, in its refusal to obey the treasury order of President Jackson ; and it was also one of three banks that, during that period of financial stress, continued to pay specie to its patrons. And, in addition, it has the honorable record of never having lost a dollar to either a depositor or note-holder.

            (page 129) The Winters National bank, located in its handsome rooms at the corner of Second and Main streets in the city of Dayton, proudly and it seems justly lays claim to being the "lineal descendant" of the old Dayton bank. There is no more prominent figure in Dayton's early financial history than that of Mr. Valentine Winters. A Pennsylvanian by birth, he was a child of only two years of age when, in the year 1809, his parents crossed the Alleghenies to found a home in the fertile, beautiful lands of the Miami valley. His first work was employment in a brickyard at Germantown, from which place he came to Dayton, taking a place as clerk in the dry goods store of Mr. Andrew Irwin, later serving in the same capacity with the mercantile firm of Harshman & Rench, where his ability won quick recognition and he was taken. into partnership. In later years Mr. Winters was a foremost figure not only in the banking circles of Dayton, but was also actively interested as organizer of the Ohio Valley bank in Cincinnati, and for nine years held the office of president of the Preble County State bank, and also found time to lend a hand in the organization of railroads not only in Ohio, but with Messrs. E. F. Drake and Jonathan Harshman built the first railroad in Minnesota, a short line connecting the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. A most interesting fact is associated with the establishment of the second Dayton bank, and which the Winters National bank asserts is trustworthy proof of what might be called direct ancestry.

            In 1843, the year preceding the closing of the first, original Dayton bank, it paid over to Mr. Jonathan Harshman the sum of $45,000, which amount was in lieu of his bank stock and deposits. The payment being made in silver, it necessitated the employment of a carrier, and in the darkness of the night this large amount of currency was removed on a dray by Messrs. Valentine Winters and Abraham Overlease to the safety of a vault under a room later occupied by Jerry Wollaston's cigar store, in an old building that stood where the present Callahan bank building is now located. Here, in             the very heart of the little city, it lay undisturbed until the year 1845, when a new organization, under the old name of the Dayton bank, with Mr. Jonathan-Harshman as president and Mr. Valentine Winters as cashier, announced its readiness and ability to conduct financial transactions with the community at large. The $45,000 of silver currency, which had remained so long secreted in the darkness of the vault, was used as a part of the capital stock of the new bank, which did its business in the little room destined in later years to be a cigar store. This bank took its charter under the independent law of Ohio.

            The death of Mr. Jonathan Harshman, sr., president of the Dayton bank, in the year 1850, brought about the closing of its doors in 1852. Its affairs passed into the care of the New Exchange bank, incorporated the same year by Messrs. Valentine Winters, R. R. Dickey, Jonathan Harshman and James R. Young, under the name of Harshman, Winters & Co., its location being at the northeast corner of Third and Main streets ; after several years of successful financiering, Messrs. Young and Dickey withdrew from the partnership, and the management of the bank passed into the hands of (page 130) Mr. Winters and his son, Jonathan H. Winters, under the firm name of V. Winters & Son.

            After a record of a quarter of a century of successful public service, this bank was reorganized as the Winters National bank, with Jonathan H. Winters as president and J. C. Reber, cashier.

            The present condition of the Winters National bank is a splendid testimonial to its integrity. as a trustworthy factor in the commercial activities of Dayton and Montgomery county, but equally well to the wondrous growth and increase of the business and efficiency which has added so materially, not only to the wealth and prosperity of both city and county, but likewise to that of the whole Miami valley and state. In the year 1888, the combined deposits of all the Dayton banks amounted only to $3,000,000. The deposits in the Winters National bank on the last day of December, 1918, amounted to $4,601,005.77. In the short space of nine months, September 12, 1919, the deposits aggregated $4,963,189.78. The total resources, on the same date, being $9,159,705.78.

            The present management of the Winters National bank is in the hands of Mr. Valentine Winters, president ; Messrs. Lee Warren, James and C. C. Bosler, vice-presidents ; Mr. Russell H. Tompert, cashier, and Mr. Harry O. Wachter, assistant cashier. Boards of directors, Messrs. Lee Warren James, Howard F. Marston, Frank Hill Smith, S. Rufus Jones, Frank B. Currigan, Robert R. Dickey, Joseph Herzstam, Ezra F. Kimmel and Valentine Winters. Names foremost in the early history of the commercial and financial activities of Dayton and Montgomery county are linked with the establishment of the Dayton National bank when, on the 21st day of May, in the year 1845, it was first organized as the Dayton branch of the State Bank of Ohio, with a capital stock of $300,000.

            Strange pictures come before the mental vision as one reads the life-story of the men to whom both city and county are indebted for their foundation of business integrity and achievement. On the first board of directors are found men who, today, are recognized as leaders, whose clear vision foresaw the wondrous potentialities of the beautiful Miami valley and, undeterred by their primitive environment of log cabins, stump-dotted streets, and deprivation of the thousand and one things now considered as essential to the comfort of modern life, projected and built not only their own financial success, but also "blazed a trail" of honest endeavor and compensating attainment for all following in their footsteps.

            Of this early board of directors, perchance, the most prominent was Mr. Peter Odlin. who held the presidency of the bank from its organization as a branch of the Ohio State bank in 1845, and after its re-organization as the Dayton National bank, until his death in the year 1872. A truly representative man was this same Peter Odlin: A lawyer of ability, as is seen in his respective partnerships with the Hon. Robert C. Schenck and John G. Lowe. Interested in politics, for not only did he sit as Montgomery county's choice in the Ohio state legislature, but was a delegate to the national convention at Philadelphia which gave the presidential nomination to General Taylor, and his name found place on the electoral ticket for John C. (page 131) Fremont. Eager for the development of Montgomery county and the whole Miami valley, Mr. Odlin embraced every opportunity to advocate the building of good roads, and was especially active in the construction of the Mad River & Lake Erie railroad, the first line to reach Dayton.

            The first public statement of the Dayton branch of the State bank, published in August, 1845, announced its assets as amounting to $83,542.98. The state of Ohio has been given the honor of leading in the organization of National banks. The National Banking law was enacted by congress in the spring of 1863, and in the middle of the ensuing June the First National bank of Dayton opened its doors to its patrons, and a week later the Second National bank was ready for business. Before the close of the year 1864, the Dayton branch of the State Bank of Ohio had swung into line under the name of the Dayton National bank. Its existence during its connection with the Ohio State bank was of singular credit and praiseworthy integrity. Never during the twenty years it so ably served the community did it suspend payment for a day, promptly paid its dividends, and had the gratification of dividing a handsome surplus before beginning its new experience as a National fiscal institution. For nearly half a century the Dayton National bank transacted business at the southeast corner of Jefferson and Third streets, but in the spring of the year 1906 moved into its present handsome and conveniently arranged offices in its own building, located at 19 East Third street, designed by Mr. Robert E. Dexter, a leading architect of Dayton.

            With a capital of $300,000 and surplus and profits amounting to $180,000, the Dayton National bank is pushing steadily forward, supported by the confidence of the community which it so ably serves. Its present officers are Mr. S. W. Davies, president; Mr. E. D. Grimes, vice-president; Mr. R. S. Wilcock, cashier, and Messrs. H. C. Hull and W. E. Enyeart, assistant cashiers. The following gentlemen comprise its board of directors : S. W. Davies, W. H. Simms, E. D. Grimes, C. A. Craighead, H. R. Simonds, Thos. Elder and A. M. Kittredge.

            In the short space of thirty years, the American National bank of Dayton has developed into one of the strongest and most reliable fiscal organizations in the upper Miami valley. Its incorporation papers bear date of March 29, 1889, and its three decades of experience have entrenched it deeply in the confidence of its patrons. The last financial statement of the bank, published June 30, 1919, shows assets aggregating $1,764,992.01. The officers and directors of the institution are men "whose word is as good as their bond," who manage and direct the affairs of the bank in strict conformity with unswerving business rectitude, thus retaining the confidence of their patrons and adding to their splendid financial credit. The officers of the American National bank at the present time are Mr. J. Edward Sauer, president; Mr. O. M. Poock, vice-president; Mr. F. W. Hecht, cashier, and Mr. R. E. Davis, assistant cashier. Assisting in the official control as members of the board of directors are Messrs. Fred Cappel, H. L. Ferneding, E. A. Leonard, L. S. Reibold and C. E. Underwood.

            (page 132) The activities of the Third -National bank of Dayton began with the demise of the Second National bank of the city, which was established June 22, 1863, in a room at 28 North Jefferson street, where, for six years, it daily added to its reputation for sound business methods and financial integrity. Its capital stock was $100,000, and its officers and directors men connected with many of the thriving commercial interests of the growing town. Its first president and cashier were, respectively, Messrs. Jonathan Harshman and D. C. Rench; the former, son of the man who, as farmer, miller, distiller and merchant, soon became one of the wealthiest men in the history of Montgomery county, and in the middle of the century was strongly identified with the banking interests of Dayton. Mr. D. C. Rench was of a "well-to-do" family, his father at one time being a partner in the mercantile business with Mr. Jonathan Harshman, sr., the firm also controlling a number of boats on the canal route between Cincinnati and Dayton.

            The first board of directors of the Second National bank were men of staunch business probity and actively engaged in forwarding the commercial enterprises of Dayton and Montgomery county. Mr. William P. Huffman, whose grandfather built the first stone house in the town, which stood on the site now occupied by the Beckel house on the corner of Third and Jefferson streets ; T. S. Babbitt, L. R. Pfoutz, James Perrine, one of the city's most successful merchants and still held in remembrance by Dayton's oldest citizens for his "high integrity, truthfulness and honesty;" Robert Chambers, George W. Kneisley, N. B. Darst, Jonathan Harshman and D. C. Rench.

            An interesting incident connected with the history of the Third National bank during its existence under the name of the Second National bank is associated with the Civil war. It was at the time of the John Morgan raid, when all of southern Ohio was terrified at the daring of the doughty invader. Two things were badly wanted by this buccaneer southerner, money and horses, and in order to disappoint him in his first desire, should his boldness bring him to Dayton, the cashier of the bank carried its funds to a bank in Toledo. On the 27th day of April; 1882, the bank was re-organized as the Third National bank of Dayton, many of those connected with its former life as the Second National bank still remaining at the head of the new organization. Mr. W. P. Huffman was honored with the office of president by the directors, and Mr. Charles E. Drury elected cashier.

            The late theory advanced by Dr. Osler that men were unfit for business activity after they had touched the sixtieth boundary line of human existence, was disproved in the election of the third president of the bank in the year 1909, when Mr. Rufus J. King was intrusted with the duties involved in that high office, although the summers and winters of ninety years had already been counted by him. Living up to its motto, "Courtesy with service," the Third National bank of Dayton is today one of the strongest fiscal institutions of the upper Miami valley. Its resources, according to its financial statement, published in the month of May, 1919, amounted to $3,450,171.92. Its officers are Mr. Chas. J. Moore, president; (page 133) Mr. J. S. McIntire, vice-president; Mr. J. F. Mueller, cashier; Mr. W. C. Gerber, assistant cashier; Mr. J. A. Wessalosky, assistant cashier.

            The Third National bank ere long will meet its friends and patrons in one of the handsomest, most modern buildings in the city of Dayton, having purchased property on east Main street, between Second and Third streets, for which it paid $325,000. The location being 195 feet in depth, with a frontage of 116 feet, permits the erection of a building elegant in exterior and furnishing ample room for all fiscal business, and also for the modern office structure that will be erected in connection with the new bank.

            The fiscal institution known in the business activities of Dayton and Montgomery county as the Fourth National bank, was incorporated January 12, 1888, and first opened its doors to its patrons on the northeast corner of Jefferson and Third streets.

            The present offices of the bank are on the first floor of the handsome new building recently erected on North Main street by the Dayton Savings and Trust company, and no bank in the city has more elegantly equipped or conveniently arranged offices for transaction of business. The officers of the bank today are Mr. F. A. Funkhouser, president ; Mr. W. F. Hockett, vice-president ; Mr. G. A. Funkhouser, jr., cashier, and Mr. A. H. Callahan, assistant cashier.

            With its resources of $2,211,671.88, the First Savings and Banking company of Dayton transacts its business at 25-27 South Main street of that city. Its officers are Mr. Obed W. Irvin, president, and Mr. Francis W. Gruen, cashier, who are also members of the board of directors.

            In the year 1870, the increasing financial interests of Dayton and the fast growing prosperity of the entire county, was sufficient guarantee to a number of Dayton's moneyed men, to warrant the establishment of another bank, with the result that on February 15, 1871, the Merchants' National bank announced to the public that it stood ready to serve their interests. The officers and directors of the new bank were men of wealth and possessed the confidence of the people of the upper Miami valley. Mr. John Powell was the first president and Mr. A. S. Estabrook cashier of the new corporation. For two years Mr. Powell served as presiding officer, but in 1873 was succeeded by Mr. D. E. Mead, who held the position until his death in the fall of the year 1891, and thirty-four years was the long period of Mr. Estabrook's faithful and efficient connection with the bank in the capacity of cashier. Mr. Charles W. Slagle, the present president of the Merchants' National bank, first entered its service as cashier in the spring of the year 1906, but his thorough comprehension of monetary affairs brought promotion to the responsible duties connected with the highest office of the organization. Mr. Slagle is ably assisted in the control of the bank by Mr. E. S. Reynolds, vice-president; Mr. Owen Britton, cashier, and Mr. A. C. Wolfe, assistant cashier. The authorized capital of the bank is $200,000; its surplus $100,000.

            Steady and very sure has been the growth of the business of the East Dayton Savings and Banking company since its opening (page 134) day, November 1, 1912, with a paid-in capital of $60,000. In the short space of seven years, to September 12, 1919, its total resources have reached the high-water mark of $900,000, with surplus and undivided profits amounting to $30,000.

            The officers in charge of the bank at the time of its incorporation were Mr. J. J. Laymon, president; Mr. William J. Focke, vice-president, and Mr. W. E. McGervey, cashier. The election of new officers in September, 1919, placed in the president's chair Mr. W. E. McGervey, who since the inception of the bank has been its most efficient and faithful cashier. It was a promotion that will insure even larger service of the bank to its patrons. Associated with Mr. McGervey in an official capacity are Mr. William J. Focke, vice-president; Mr. L. B. McAdoo, cashier; and Mr. H. S. Jack, assistant     cashier.

            Located at the corner of Third and Williams street in the city of Dayton, the Farmers' and Merchants' bank of Dayton conducts a steadily increasing business, as is seen in their last published report on June 30, 1919. Its resources amount to $943,455.79. The sum total of its deposits, $853,699.33, expresses the public trust in its financial integrity. The present officers of the bank are the Hon. John W. Kreitzer, president ; Mr. W. O. Horrell, vice-president ; Mr. C. S. Billman, cashier; and Miss Ida M. Ruse, assistant cashier. The Dayton Savings and Trust company, located in its splendid new building at 25 North Main street in the city of Dayton, perchance leads the building and loan associations of the city in financial standing, as the last published statement, June 30, 1919, gives the total assets of the company at $14,853,097.80. Its total deposits at that time were $13,747,537.18. The company was organized by Messrs. A. J. Conover and Grafton C. Kennedy in 1903, and the first of the ensuing year began its monetary transactions in a room at 108 South Main street with Mr. A. J. Conover as president and Mr. William R. Craven, secretary and cashier. The present official roster of the company is as follows : Mr. W. R. Craven, president; Mr. Adam Lessner, vice-president ; Mr. H. C. Kiefaber, vice-president; Mr. W. F. Hockett, vice-president; Mr. B. B. Brady, vice-president and secretary; Mr. H. B. Baichly, treasurer Mr. A. S. Weusthof, assistant treasurer ; and Mr. R. M. Gifford, assistant treasurer.

            The City National bank of Dayton, Ohio, might, perchance, be termed a composite institution, as it was established upon the disorganization of several banks preceding it. The First National bank of Dayton was incorporated June 22, 1863. Mr. Simon Gebhart was elected president, and G. B. Harman intrusted with the duties of cashier. Seven years later the bank surrendered its charter, and continued business as a private bank under the direction of Messrs. Simon Gebhart, G. B. Harman and W. B. Gebhart, and was known in financial circles as the Gebhart, Harman & Co.

            In January, 1883, Messrs. Simon Gebhart, Walter Brown Gebhart and Gabriel B. Harman determined to re-organize under national control, and with articles of association signed by fifty-three share-holders, approved a month later by the comptroller of the currency, the City National bank of Dayton began its financial (page 135) activities in February, based upon a paid-in capital of $200,000. Messrs. Simon Gebhart and G. B. Harman were elected respectively president and cashier. Mr. W. P. Callahan and Mr. William Huffman were subsequently added to the list of directors, the former occupying the president's chair upon the resignation of Mr. Gebhart. Mr. Harman was connected with the bank as cashier until his death in the year 1894.

            The present officials of the City National bank are Mr. H. H. Darst, president; Messrs. Walter G. Davidson and R. C. McConnaughey, vice-presidents; and Mr. H. E. Whalen, cashier. In August, 1911, as an auxiliary to the City National bank, was organized the City Trust and Savings bank, with the same officers and directors, with the exception that the combined offices of secretary and treasurer have been held by Mr. W. W. Bishop since the incorporation of the bank. Mr. Bishop is assisted in his duties by Mr. W. L. Scharrer. Both banks are connected in their activities, occupying the entire ground floors of the Callahan bank building and the City National bank building at the northeast corner of Third and Main streets.

            At its present location, northeast corner of Richard street and Wayne avenue, on the first day of December, 1909, the Market Savings bank of Dayton was ready to meet its friends and patrons. With a capital of $50,000, the decade that embraces the activities of the bank has been a period of continual good luck, or, more accurately speaking, a term of years that shows wise management on the part of the institution and expressed confidence of the people of Dayton and Montgomery county. The last statement of the condition of the Market Savings bank of Dayton, published September 12, 1919, gives its total resources at $1,801,014.78; its savings deposits amount to $889,800.78.

            The present officials of the bank are Mr. T. H. Lienesch, president; Messrs. J. C. Dressler and W. M. Adelberger, vice-presidents; Mr. W. H. J. Behm, cashier, and Mr. Jess W. Nesmith, assistant cashier. The splendid condition of the commercial activities of the city of Dayton and Montgomery county can be read in the bank clearings from July 16. 1919, to the sixteenth day of the ensuing, month, amounting to $21,621,12; as compared with the same period in 1918, when the total clearings were $17,295,106, an increase of $4,326,021, equal to 25 per cent.

            A large number of banks in a town is proof positive of its sound financial condition, and the steadily increasing commercial activities of Dayton was plainly indicated when, in May, 1912, a new fiscal institution, known as the West Dayton Commercial and Savings bank, was incorporated. The board elected as offers, Mr. F. J. Hoersting, president; Mr. M. J. Beeghly, vice-president; Mr. 0. E. Bowman, secretary, and Mr. Geo. F. Kem, cashier; and the same official force directs the management of the bank at the present time. The splendid financial condition of The West Dayton Commercial and Savings bank is apparent in its published statement on September 12, 1919. Its total resources were given as $635,158.41. The confidence of its patrons was read in the total deposits, which amounted to $596,697.38. (page 136)


Dayton Banks and the Liberty Loans


            The patriotic upholding of the National Government by the people of Montgomery county during the recent World War, was plainly shown by the magnificent subscriptions and sales of Liberty bonds made by the banks of Dayton. A condensed statement is as follows :


            American National bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $100,800; subscriptions, $77,600. Third Liberty loan, quota, $157,950; subscriptions, $341,950. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $249,850; subscriptions, $360,200. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $192,400; subscriptions, $297,000.

            City National bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $328,350; subscriptions, $616, 750.  Third Liberty loan, quota, $485,900, subscriptions, $726,150. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $937,250; subscriptions, $1,119,850. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $817,750; subscriptions, $819,250.

            Dayton National bank, first Liberty loan, allotment, $148,150; subscriptions, $173,150. Second Liberty loan, quota, $191,700; subscriptions. $283,000. Third Liberty loan, quota, $233,050; subscriptions, $352.000. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $418,700; subscriptions, $462,150. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $354,800; subscriptions, $368,250.

            Dayton Savings and Trust company, second Liberty loan, quota, $804,850; subscriptions, $980,500. Third Liberty loan, quota, $930.850: subscriptions, $1,263,900; Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $1,821,000: subscriptions, $2,069,100. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $1,991,050: subscriptions, $1,822,450.

            East Dayton Savings and Banking company, second Liberty loan. quota, $61,650; subscriptions , $98,250. Third Liberty loan, quota, $74,950; subscriptions, $104,800. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, 147,600; subscriptions, $157,600. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $119,600; subscriptions, $92,800.

            Farmers and Merchants bank, second Liberty loan, quota, and $45,450; . subscriptions, $60,000. Third Liberty loan, quota, $45,350; subscriptions, $190,000. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $142,200; subscriptions, $204,650. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $142,750; subscriptions, $168,400.

            First Savings and Banking company, second Liberty loan, quota, $146,850; subscriptions, $100,000. Third Liberty loan, quota, $146,950; subscriptions, $175,000. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $350,600; subscriptions, $350,000. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $299,950; subscriptions, $195,000.

            Market Savings bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $93,450; subscriptions, $58,550. Third Liberty loan, quota, $104,800; subscriptions, $127,000. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $220,600; (page 137) subscriptions, $150,600. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $217,550; subscriptions, $118,000.

            Merchants National bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $155,250; subscriptions, $206,650; Third Liberty loan, quota, $187,500; subscriptions, $348,300. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $346,050; subscriptions, $498,850. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $284,700; subscriptions, $403,400.

            Third National bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $221,300; subscriptions, $455,450. Third Liberty loan, quota, $218,250; subscriptions, $406,000. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $469,800; subscriptions, $546,500. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $497,400; subscriptions, $455,650.

            West Dayton Commercial and Savings bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $36,750; subscriptions, $21,000. Third Liberty loan, quota, $37,850; subscriptions, $40,000. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $88,300; subscriptions, $52,000. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $72,350; subscriptions, $33,000.

            Winters National bank, second Liberty loan, quota, $196,200; subscriptions, $573,250. Third Liberty loan, quota, $201,050; subscriptions, $423,700. Fourth Liberty loan, quota, $398,500; subscriptions, $1,159,950. Victory Liberty loan, quota, $700,900; subscriptions, $1,249,200.


            Building and Loan Associations. It has been authoritatively asserted that the city of Dayton leads all the cities of our great Republic in the popularity and success of its Building and Loan associations. This statement is a most surprising one when the size and population of Dayton is compared with many of the municipal centers that are scattered between ocean to ocean in our vast national territory ; and yet, on the other hand, when one is cognizant of the number of associations in this thriving city of the Miami valley, and the vast amount of capital which they represent, there is less unwillingness to accept the statement as made. In the death of Mr. A. A. Winters, who at the time was filling the very responsible office of General Manager of the Mutual Home and Savings association of the city, Dayton lost a man to whom, not only the city but the state as well, ascribes ideas and methods which tended so largely to the greater success and growth of the business to its investors, that as a visible evidence of appreciation, the State Building Association League which convened at Dayton shortly after his death, erected a stone fountain to his memory in Cooper, now Library, park.

            Under the name of the Dayton Building association the first organization of the kind took form in the city over half a century ago, March 23, was the date of its birth, in the basement of the

            German Reformed church, located at the corer of Cass and Clay streets. No matter how much stock was held by a member, he was only entitled to one vote, and another curious provision of its constitution was, to the effect, that no matter when a payment was made, it had to count back to the date of the organization. The life of this association embraced sixteen brief years, and the dividends declared at the time of dissolution, gave fifty-four (page 138) cents per share to each member, over and above his original investment.

            One year from the day of the organization of the Dayton Building association the Concordia Building association was formally organized, but like its predecessor, its existence was short, as in April of the year of 1875, it merged its membership into the Germania Building association which had received its charter in the spring of 1873.

            At present there are fifteen Building and Loan associations in Dayton : the Fidelity Building, Central Building, American Loan and Savings, Washington Building, Buckeye Building and Loan, Gem City Building and Loan, Homestead Loan and Savings, Permanent Building and Savings, Montgomery County Building and Loan, Mutual Home and Savings, Ohio Savings and Loan, Franklin Savings and Loan, Miami Loan and Building, Union Building and Loan, and the West Side Building and Loan associations.


The Press of Dayton


            In terms of world history a century does not seem such a very long period of time, but in relation to the history of Dayton's press it is sufficiently long to have obscured the earliest newspaper in the mists of antiquity. All that is known of Dayton's first paper is the year in which it both came into existence and died-1806-and the name of its owner and publisher, Noah Crane of Lebanon.

            The name of the paper along with the few copies which were published has vanished.

            The Repertory, first issued in September, 1808, lived long enough to gain a place as the real forerunner of Dayton's present press, although its brief existence covering fifteen months was interrupted for five months during which time it changed hands. It was a weekly paper publishing chiefly foreign news, which not only lacked the appeal of local items,-but was months old before it appeared in the paper. The Ohio Centinel followed The Repertory, making its appearance in 1810. Ohio at that time had ten newspapers, and The Centinel was one of the ten, circulating as far north and west as Detroit and Chicago. Its existence was terminated by the War of 1812 which drew both the office staff and the patrons into the army. Next on the stage appears The Ohio Watchman, 1816, which through numerous changes of name and ownership, existed until 1826. Subscribers paid for the paper in such commodities as wheat, wood, whiskey, chickens, cotton, rags, feathers, and sugar. Previous to 1826 a second paper made its appearance, The Miami Republican and Dayton Advertiser, which in 1826, along with The Watchman, was bought by William Campbell of Pennsylvania who merged the two papers into The Ohio National Journal and Dayton Advertiser. At the same time Mr. Campbell sold the press from the offices of the Watchman and some materials from the offices of the Republican to R. J. Skinner, who with this outfit began the publication of the Miami Herald and Dayton Republican Gazette. From these two rival papers finally came the present journal and News, respectively, so that by a rather (page 139) circuitous route both papers today can claim descent from Dayton's first known paper, The Repertory.

            Each of Dayton's daily newspapers passed through many vicissitudes before becoming established in the present form. The Ohio National Journal and Montgomery and Dayton Advertiser of 1826 became in the next year The Dayton Journal and Advertiser. From 1828 to 1834 the paper passed through the hands of such men as Peter P. Lowe, John W. Van Cleve, Richard N. Comly. In 1834, William F. Comly and Richard N. Comly became the proprietors and the paper, a four-page, seven column sheet, became the largest in Ohio. After several subsequent changes in ownership, the arrest of Charles L. Vallandigham brought about the destruction of the Journal plant in May, 1863. The destruction was promptly followed by the raising of six thousand dollars by Daytonians, and the Journal began anew under the editorship of Major William D. Bickham. He had been selected by President Lincoln to compel Vallandigham to withdraw from Dayton, and after a single inquiry as to the safety of his children in Dayton, Major Bickham undertook his task. "Absolute fearlessness was the order of the day. An editor said what he thought and said it hard if he risked all he owned in the saying, and if it hurt where it hit, so much the worse for those who stood in the way. During the Civil war when party feeling ran high, an editor was not sure when he started for his office in the morning if he would reach there alive." Such an editor was W. D. Bickham. He owned the journal for thirty-one years, until the time of his death in 1894. In 1904 it became the property of a stock company. At the present time it is owned by The News Publishing company, and is under the managing editorship of Clarence Greene.

            The Herald, a daily evening paper, now ' owned by the News Publishing company, had as its predecessor The Dayton Evening Record, which was first issued in 1881, with Ferdinand Wendell as owner. It is said that this paper was the first in Dayton to issue an "extra" edition. "Mr. Wendell was a keen- newspaper man and took advantage of every opportunity to push the paper to the front when Guiteau was to be executed in Washington for the murder of Garfield, he went personally to Washington, secured cuts of the scaffold and surroundings, which were all set up ready to `shoot' with the story of the execution as soon as the word from Washington was received. On this occasion, newsboys selling on the street were used for the first time. The extra was in the hands of the public a few minutes after the hanging and Mr. Wendell was complimented for the first big Dayton `scoop.' 

            The Herald, first published on Fourth street was compelled, on account of growth, to move to the southeast corner of -Second and Jefferson streets, where the floor space of the offices and the equipment underwent considerable expansion. Mr. H. H. Weakly bought the paper and under his ownership growth continued until a further move was made necessary and the Herald expanded into its quarters on the southwest corner of Second and Jefferson streets: At the time of Mr. Weakly's death in 1906, Charles J. Geyer became manager of the Herald.

            (page 140) As has been said before, the Dayton Daily News, as well as the Journal, claims descent from the Repertory. The Miami Herald and Dayton Republican Gazette, first published in 1826, became the property of E. Lindsey in 1829, under the name of The Dayton Republican. In 1834, this paper ceased to be published and was succeeded by The Democratic Herald, which in turn gave place to The Western Empire. In 1863, the paper was suppressed and the editor, William T. Logan, was arrested for objecting to the arrest of C. L. Vallandigham. A new paper under the same name was soon started, however, and continued until 1867 at which time it became the Daily Ledger. Still later, under the ownership of John G. Doren, it became the Herald and Empire, and still later, in 1876 the Dayton Democrat. Years later this paper passed into the hands of Charles Simms and F. T. Huffman, also owners of the Evening Monitor, and the new owners began to publish the Morning Times and the Evening News. In 1898, the Dayton News company purchased these papers and still later Mr. James M. Cox became the sole owner of the stock of the Dayton News company. Since that time Mr. Cox has twice been governor of the State of Ohio. The Dayton Daily News is now housed in a beautiful up-to-date building on the northwest corner of Fourth and Ludlow streets. Another paper, long since passed into oblivion, is worthy of mention because of one particular episode in its career. It existed for only ten years, but during the last year of its publication it was owned and published by William S. Howells, father of William

Dean Howells, who came up from Hamilton where he had been managing a paper. William Dean Howells both did the typesetting and took the paper to subscribers. Even his efforts could not make the paper a success, and in 1850 it was discontinued.

            In addition to the News, Herald, and journal, there are numerous other publications in Dayton today. Among the class and trade papers are the Miami Valley Socialist, a weekly, owned by Local Dayton, Socialist party, and the Labor Review, a conservative weekly controlled by members of organized labor. It is not the official organ but the mouthpiece of the labor unions, and is devoted to the interests of business as well as labor. in addition to the foregoing are the Railroad News Weekly, published by the Railroad News company, and Better Roads and Highways, published by a company of that name and published in the interest indicated by its name.

            The foreign press is represented only by a German paper, Gross Daytoner Zeitung, owned by Paul Gruner. Formerly it was a daily publication, but has recently been issued weekly instead. Although there is a large Hungarian population in Dayton, no success has attended the various attempts to publish a Hungarian paper. There is a large group of religious publications, prominent among which are the Religious Telescope, the Herald of Gospel Liberty, and the Watchword. The Religious Telescope, published by the United Brethren company, was started in 1853, and has the distinction of being one of the oldest religious papers in the country.

            The Herald of Gospel Liberty. is the official organ of the Christian church, and the Watchword is the young people's paper of the (page 141) United Brethren church. In addition to these papers there are twenty-five other religious publications.

            One of the most interesting chapters in the journalistic history of Dayton is comprised within the days immediately following the great flood of March, 1913. As everyone who experienced that eventful week will remember, the waters which inundated the city were no quiet back waters but a raging torrent that swept over the levees from all directions and advanced through the streets like towering walls. There was no time to save anything, and consequently the newspaper offices were completely submerged and the presses flooded. But newspaper men are not so easily discouraged as to let a flood stop publication. In the offices of the Daily News one handroller proof press had been salvaged and was carried to one of the upper floors above the reach of the waters. The roof of the building turned out to be an excellent vantage point from which to gather news, and the material thus secured was set up by hand and issued on galley-proof paper.

            The Herald and the journal had to resort to different methods. An arrangement was made with the Richmond (Ind.) Palladium whereby a Dayton paper could be printed in its offices, and a representative, dispatched at once to Richmond, received news items over the wire from Dayton. The paper published in this way was then sent to Dayton.

            At the same time, the National Cash Register company threw open its general offices to all newspaper people. Mr. John H. Patterson secured a Western Union wire for the use of the journalists, and for three months from ten to seventy-five newspaper men gathered every day to collect news. in a very real sense the National Cash Register plant became the newspaper headquarters for the city of Dayton, for which Mr. John H. Patterson provisioned all visiting men and women for the period of their stay. The upper floors of the building were filled with beds, the dining room was open to every one, and everything that a hotel could supply to its guests, including a barber shop and bootblack stand, was put at the disposal of the representatives of the great papers of the United States quartered in the building.

            The spirit of readiness to meet an emergency and of ingenuity and perseverance is characteristic of the press of Dayton.

            Dayton possesses one real historical curiosity in the way of a newspaper whose yellow-brown pages may still be consulted in the Dayton Public library. It was only published for six months but in that time did yeoman political service. It was called The Log Cabin and was put out to favor the candidacy of William Henry Harrison for the presidency in the campaign of 1840. That campaign was notable among all others. Public feeling ran high at all times, but at that particular era it boiled. Martin Van Buren, the opposition candidate, who had won over Harrison in the campaign of 1836, had come under the charge of un-Democratic extravagance in his term of office. Republicanism versus Democracy in those days meant luxury versus economy-"highbrow" against the plain people-making an issue of class distinctions which was sure to rouse all the inherent antagonisms of human (page 142) nature. Van Buren's adherents unfortunately gave a handle to their opponents which the last were not slow to make use of. The Baltimore Republican, attacking the plain habits of Harrison, said of him editorially : "Give him a barrel of hard cider and settle a pension of $2,000 on him and our word for it he would sit the remainder of his days contentedly in a log cabin." This was enough and plenty and was just what the Democrats wanted. A good slogan is half the battle and when the Log Cabin Candidate was announced the phrase caught the popular taste and spread like wild-fire. The Log Cabin campaign was the hottest and the livest that the United States had ever seen. Dayton was the center of the biggest rally of the fall of 1840. John Van Cleve announced a newspaper on which to build the success of the Democrats. It was. called The Log Cabin and had a rough wood-cut of a cabin and a barrel of cider on the front page. It came out in the spring and continued publication until after election in the fall, printing campaign songs, speeches, calls for "cabin raisings" and all the news of the political field. Here is a typical announcement printed in the June issue, 1840:

            "To the Log Cabin Boys of Greene, Montgomery, Miami, Champaign, Logan, Union and Franklin counties :


            "Be it known that your Log Cabin brethren of Clark county propose to raise `Old Tip,' a new cabin in the Springfield `diggins,' on Thursday, the 18th of June, and, as you are the chaps that know the right way to carry up the corers, just come over and give us a lift. The Harrison papers in the counties above named will please give this notice an insertion.

            "(Signed)           THE COMMITTEE.


            "William Henry Harrison and Thomas Corwin will be on the ground to assist in the raising."


            Montgomery county planned great things as its contribution to the campaign, but what they were was not divulged until the paper came out on July 25. It contained this astonishing invitation. It must be remembered that Dayton was at that time but a small town, scarcely more than a village. We have no exact census, but we know that there were only seven hundred houses in town. So the audacity of this invitation "To the People of the United States" may be appreciated.



            "For President-WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. "For Vice-President-JOHN TYLER.

            "For Governor of Ohio-THOMAS CORWIN, the Wagon Boy.

            To the PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES, generally, and more particularly to those of the WEST and most particularly to all in the MIAMI VALLEY: You are invited by your fellow citizens of Montgomery county, Ohio, to convene with them in a GRAND COUNCIL at Dayton on the anniversary of our gallant (page 143) Perry's Victory on September 10, 1840, to deliberate on the best means of reviving our NATIONAL PROSPERITY and a saving from destruction and decay our CIVIL LIBERTIES.

            "COME ONE, COME ALL !"


            How the invitation was accepted by no less than one hundred thousand guests, how Dayton took care of them by private hospitality, is not a part of this story. But the -newspaper story of the campaign rally, the procession and the speeches is. The September 18th issue contains it and the description passes the point of merely local interest and becomes a part of the national history of journalism.

            It describes the procession four miles in length which went west on the Springfield pike to meet Harrison and Corwin, the guests of honor. The names in the local and state committees include those who appear elsewhere as making the history of that day. The procession consisted of militia, cavalry, decorated wagons carrying girls in white, a series of floats which must have been remarkable without making any allowances for the simplicity of those days. A crowd of fervent campaigners had rolled a ball as big as a two-story house all the way from the top of the Allegheny mountains, Pennsylvania, to the Miami valley and announced that it portrayed the states rolling up for Harrison. One large wagon carried the ubiquitous log cabin and barrel of hard cider. Another carried a cage with a live wolf in it, typifying the hypocritical designs of the opposing party. The bands, banners, speeches, fireworks, are all described by a well-wielded pen, probably that of Van Cleve himself, and never did reporter have a better subject. In spite of the passing of nearly eighty years and a bath of food mud into the bargain, the pages of the few remaining numbers of the Log Cabin may still be easily read and form an interesting chapter in the history of journalism in the Miami valley.

            Dayton has possessed at least two outstanding figures in journalism. One half’s already been referred to, but he deserves much more than a mere reference. William D. Bickham was selected by President Lincoln to keep public opinion inflamed against Vallandigham, who was at the time bitterly opposed to the war and voiced his opposition eloquently. He was felt to be a dangerous figure in politics, inasmuch as difficulty in recruiting was being strongly felt by the government. If Vallandigham could be got rid of indirectly it was better for all concerned. As it happened the indirection did not succeed. Vallandigham stayed and had to be taken away by force. Which led to the riots which burned the journal office, and is another story.

            Bickham's task was a dangerous one, but he loved the game of politics and in it nothing pleased him more than a fight. A fight it was from start to finish and Bickham kept it up with fearless demeanor and a caustic pen. In those days newspaper publishing was a one-man affair. It was that man who controlled everything, said what he pleased and stood by his convictions. There was no absent owner to dictate a policy, there was no business office to check up on editorials which might injure generous advertisers-in short, it (page 144) was both a profession, a vocation and a thrillingly interesting game.

            Bickham played it to the limit.

            One advantage our papers now possess which they owe directly to Major Bickham, is the Associated Press Service. Just after the war of the Rebellion the eastern papers had facilities for news service which ours in the west entirely lacked. They held a monopoly of control excessively irksome to a man like Bickham, who disliked to take what was left over in the important matter of news. So he, with seven other editors in the western states, made a united fight for news service which ended successfully in establishing what was then known as the Western Associated Press Service which brought the news of the day directly to our doors. The other outstanding figure was John G. Doren. He stood in Democratic political circles as the head of an unsuccessful party. That he took a paper that was moribund, in a district that was overwhelmingly Republican, made the first grow and prosper and turned the second into one overwhelmingly Democratic establishes without further question his force of character and vigor of action. He came to Dayton in 1869 unheralded and unknown and entered into that conflict so much more bitter than the actual war, into which the throes of the Rebellion had thrown the country-the era of reconstruction. He was assailed by ridicule, prejudice, unfair competition, and the opening warfare between capital and labor. He kept right on, weathered all the storms, pleased nobody but a few kindred souls, held to the highest ideals, fighting heatedly against intrenched wrong, never faltered, took the part of the under dog and got no credit (then), and laid down his work without knowing that many of the wise but unpopular projects which he furthered finally came into their own. It is something for the traditions of Dayton newspaperdom to have had such a figure in its ranks as John G. Doren.

            Not quite so pronounced a nature but a strength always was William F. Comly, editor of the Journal from 1834 to 1862. It was really he who set the paper on its feet as the dominant organ of the Republican party in the southern district of Ohio. He was a journalist by instinct and by training, knew "the ropes," gave the people of this valley a paper that ranked with the best in the same degree of population in the east and left his mark on the business world of Dayton that is not by any means yet forgotten. In conclusion there is this to be said severally and collectively for the newspapers of Dayton that whatever else they may have lacked it has not been public spirit and that when any measure was up for the benefit of the community they have dropped partisan issues, forgotten professional rivalry and given of their printed space unstintedly and generously. Not one public need has ever gone to them in vain. To look back on the projects which have been pushed into notice, favored in every way by both the journal, the Herald and the News, would be to glimpse a whole history of our civic advances in the last half century. During the war every patriotic activity was given full space to make its needs felt and it is difficult to see how the reconstruction of Dayton after the food, the great conservancy plan, the Red Cross activities, both hospitals, (page 145) the Associated charities, city welfare, not to mention hundreds of other necessities, would have accomplished what they did if it had not been for the whole-souled support of the newspapers of Dayton.

                                                                                        The Schools of Dayton.


            To Mr. Benjamin Van Cleve, so closely identified with the early history of Dayton in many ways, must be given the honor of being the first person to instruct the "young idea how to shoot" in the primitive days of Dayton's history. The place of his labors was the little log blockhouse that stood on North Main street, where the Soldiers' monument now stands, as if keeping guard over the stream of humanity that daily flows by its base. A cabin on Main street was Dayton's second temple of learning, where Messrs. Cornelius Westfall of Kentucky and Chauncey Whiting of Pennsylvania, successively, in 1804 and '05, assisted the children of the early settlers in the vanquishment of the three "Rs."

            In the year 1807, however, the village aspired to the dignity of possessing an academy, and through the generosity of Mr. Daniel Cooper (one of the most honored names in Dayton's early local annals), who contributed the ground for the desired edifice, a two-story brick building was erected at the corner of St. Clair and Third streets. Mr. Cooper's interest was further evinced by the gift of a bell which, from the little belfry, daily summoned the village children to their school tasks. The names of the incorporators of this academy are worthy of record ; - Daniel C. Cooper, John Folkerth, James Hanna, William McClure, David Reid, George F. Tennery, Benjamin Van Cleve and James Welsh. Twelve years later the Lancastrian system of education was adopted by the directors and another brick building erected adjoining the academy on the north. The principle of the new system was self-government and no examinations.

            For many years, the academy was the only boy's school in Dayton. In 1833, the building was sold and a new structure erected on the southwest corner of Wilkinson and Fourth streets, but in the year 1850 this building passed into the ownership of the Board of Education. But the memories of the old academy are very dear to many of Dayton's oldest citizens, for with it are associated much of their boyhood's life.

            Judge George B. Holt of Dayton, was a member of the Ohio State legislature that] in the year 1825, passed the first act establishing the free school system ; an enactment which, in a great degree, enfolded the future potentialities of progress of the state. At that time the passing of the act meant but little to the majority of the settlers, for the tax levy was only one mill on the dollar, and ninety-nine per cent of the scattered population possessed nothing but rudely cleared farms, and land was cheap. But the legislators had the future of unborn generations in mind, and were planning for their moral and mental advancement. Four years after the passing of the bill, the total amount apportioned for school purposes to Dayton. township (which included all land lying between the Miamis through the center of Miami and Washington (page 146) townships to the Indian boundary line, likewise a generous slice of Hamilton county), was but one hundred and thirty-three dollars ; and in the year 1833, eighteen hundred and sixty-five dollars covered the school fund for Montgomery county.

            As the population of the state steadily increased, the interest of the people in a free school system daily grew stronger. In mid summer of the year 1836, a great convention was held in Dayton for the promulgation of the free school idea. Delegates from other towns were present, as well as visitors from New Jersey and Michigan. Messrs. E. E. Barney, R. C. Carter, George B. Holt, R. C. Schenck and Milo G. Williams formed the "committee of arrangements." The Dayton journal was the organ of publicity, and warmly espoused the cause for which the convention had*been called. But little, beyond upholding the benefits to be derived from a free school system, could be dole, for the amount appropriated from the public treasury was, as yet, too small to allow the erection of public school buildings and providing for school necessities. Private schools antedated the adoption of the free or public school system in Dayton. There is record of Mr. Edmund Harrison erecting a building for educational purposes, which he termed an "Inductive academy." Three years later, in 1832, the young ladies of the village were instructed in a school of which Miss Maria Harrison, daughter of Mr. Edmund Harrison, was principal, while in the previous year, Mr. J. S. S. Smith, destined to be one of Dayton's most distinguished members of the bar, father of Messrs. J. McLain and S. B. Smith, inaugurated a school on Main street. Local annals tell of a manual-labor school with an academic department, opened by Messrs. David Pruden and Milo G. Williams at the corner of Warren and Jefferson streets, which was so well conducted that its attendance numbered pupils from a distance, some coming as far as from Cincinnati. But, unfortunately, it did not prove a financial success.

            The early journals contained numerous advertisements of writing and singing schools ; fine penmanship being considered an accomplishment in our grandparent's day, and the "singing-schools" forming a feature or primitive social life. The first teachers in the Dayton schools, whether connected with academical, private or free instruction, are worthy of note in every history written of the educational development of the city. Many were men of marvelous attainment, when their limited privileges as to books and literary environment are remembered. Francis Glass, in whom the privations of pioneer life could not destroy an ardor for the classics ; William Smith, Gideon McMillen, the latter gladly teaching poor children without compensation; James H. Mitchell, Milo G. Williams, E. E. Barney-the list is a long one. It is probable that the name of Mr. Barney is more closely connected with the story of the development of Dayton along commercial interests, than any other whose name is identified with the history of the schools of early Dayton. In partnership with Mr. Ebenezer Thresher, the two men started the car works, which in time became one of the largest of Dayton's commercial activities. Mr. Barney was also connected with the banking interests of the city, and held the presidency of the (page 147)Cooper Hydraulic company. His business ability and integrity eventually placed him among Dayton's wealthiest citizens. There is but little authentic history respecting the first public schools of Dayton. The first school directors, who were appointed at public meetings, kept no records, but the school district of the city was not formally organized until the year of 1831, and for seven ensuing years the school term only included a few months of each year, rented rooms were occupied, and the state fund increased by each pupil paying $1 per quarter for tuition.

            However, it is known that the first "free school" in Dayton was opened in December, 1831, in a room located on Jefferson street, between First and Water streets, under the tutelage of Mr. Sylvanus Hall, and in a short time, the number of pupils seeking admittance warranted the opening of three more schools in different sections of the growing village. The earliest school directors were Messrs. Luther Bruen, Thomas Brown, William H. Brown, William Hart, Ralph P. Lowe, J. H. Mitchell, David Osborne, Simon Snyder, James Slaight, Henry Van Tuyl, and Nathaniel Wilson. Under the city charter of 1841, provision was made for the working together of the council and a school manager from each ward, for the welfare of the public school system.

            The appointment in 1837 by the legislature of Mr. Samuel Lewis, as state superintendent, proved most fortunate in every way ; for, recognizing the importance of his work, he devoted himself to it with ardor, making addresses in every part of the state. The law authorizing a special tax for the erection of school buildings was passed in the year 1838, and at a public meeting held in Dayton the same year, Mr. Lewis so impressed the citizens with the duty of favoring the free school system that it was decided by them to build two schoolhouses in different parts of the city, one to stand on the west side of Perry street, between First and Second streets, and the other located on Brown street, south of Sixth street. It would have been a strange thing if there had not been found objectors, principally among the wealthier class, but public opinion overruled all opposition, and the public schools yearly became more strongly intrenched in the favor of the people at large. All manner of methods were resorted to in winning public appreciation of the "free system." Processions of children singing patriotic airs, headed by brass bands and escorted by militia, paraded the streets on holiday occasions, and the bright young faces and childish voices, expressing as they did, the potentialities of the future, won many votes in favor of a system that promised a strong educational foundation for their dawning citizenship.

            The new schoolhouses were ready for occupancy in September, 1839, under the respective principalship of Messrs. D. L. Elder and Collins Wight, who were employed at a yearly salary of $500 each; the school year included three terms of twelve weeks each. Both principals were assisted by a teaching force of three women and one man.

            The first board of managers of the Dayton public schools, after the uniting of the city council and board of directors in the supervision of the schools, consisted of the following gentlemen, all (page 148) especially qualified for the position by efficiency and genuine interest in

            the responsibility devolving upon them. The first ward was represented by Mr. Ebenezer Fowler; second ward, Mr. Robert W. Steele; third ward, Mr. Simon Snyder; fourth ward, Mr. E. W. Davies; fifth ward, Mr. William J. McKinney.

            Four "free schools" were now in operation, two in the new school buildings and two in rented rooms, but the funds were so short that the teaching term was abridged, instructors, however, being permitted to use the rooms for private schools.

            The text books used were regarded as standards for many years, consisting of McGufey's Readers, Picket's Spelling Book, Parley's Book of History, Colburn's and Emerson's Arithmetic, Mitchell's Geography and Smith's Grammar. By order of the school board the daily school exercises were opened by the reading of a portion of scripture. In 1844 the German language was made a part of the school curriculum, and the following year night schools, where the ordinary English branches were taught, were opened for those unable to take advantage of day instruction.

            Unjust discrimination in the matter of providing education for the children of colored citizens of the city had led to no provision for their mental training until the year 1849, when legislative enactment permitted the establishment of separate school districts for them, whose directors were to be the choice of the colored taxpayers ; the support of these schools rested solely upon the colored residents. But the justice of the state quickly awoke to the unfairness of discrimination on account of the color of its taxpayers, and in the year 1853 both white and colored schools were placed on the same basis.

            The study of music was introduced into the Dayton schools in 1849, under the direction of Mr. James Turpin, "whose name" says a local historian, "stood for music in Dayton." Until the year 1847, the instruction in the public schools had been confined principally to the rudimentary branches, and there was an increasing demand for an introduction of the higher branches into the school prescribed course of study. In 1847 the Dayton board of education procured legislative authority to establish a high school, but three years passed before decisive action was taken to that effect. High Schools. On the 5th day of April, 1850, Mr. Henry L. Brown, for many years a member of the city board of education, offered the following resolution, which was received with unqualified approval: "Resolved, That this board do now establish the Central high school of Dayton, in which shall be taught the higher branches of an English education, and the German and French languages, besides thoroughly reviewing the studies pursued in the district schools." Ten days later, the first high school of the city was formally opened in the old First District school building, located on Second street, but in the fall of the same year was removed to the academy building at the corer of Wilkinson and Fourth streets. In the summer of 1857 the academy property passed into the ownership of the board of education, and the same year a high school building was erected on the , site. Until the year 1894 the Central high school building, as it was known was connected with the youth (page 149) of hundreds of men and women who are Dayton's representative citizens. Perchance, of all the many pleasant memories connected with the old building, the most tender are those associated with the years when Capt. Charles B. Stivers held the principalship from 1872 to 1895. What Mr. David A. Sinclair was later to be to the Young Men's Christian Association of Dayton, Capt. Stivers was to the school which he served with so much love and loyalty. Seldom has a community had the privilege of possessing two such rare lives consecrated to faithful public welfare.

            It is doubtful if anywhere in the middle west there can be found a handsomer educational structure than that which stands on the southeast corner of Main street and Monument avenue in the "Gem City" of the Miami valley, known far and wide as Steele high school, bearing the honored name of one who, perhaps, gave more time, strength and interest to the educational development of Montgomery county than any other citizen within its boundaries. The last annual report of the board of education, 1917-1918, gives the estimated value of the land, buildings and equipment of Steele high school at $597,766.50. Including the seven basement rooms, the building contains seventy rooms, steam heated and finely ventilated by the Sturtevant system, with a complement of all sanitary requirements. During the year a force of fifty-six instructors were in charge of a daily average attendance of nearly eight hundred and fifty scholars. The enrollment of this school on the first day of the school year, 1919, was one thousand and ten pupils. The Dayton high schools have adopted every suggestion or idea that tended to the greater efficiency of either teacher or pupil. In the fall of 1895 the single daily session was instituted ; an art department and music course, in time, became valuable additions as practical studies. The formation of the Decorative Art association in the Steele high school resulted in. tasteful interior decoration of the corridors and rooms, and in the installing of a magnificent bronze lion on the Steele campus, the work of a New York artist. Drawing is now one of the principal branches taught throughout the schools of the city. Its value to the student when the business world is entered, cannot be over-estimated. Manufacturers are more than glad to reconsider the fresh ideas of the employe who comes with imaginative brain and skillful hand, trained for years in the environment of the schoolroom, with artistic suggestions for the decoration of cartons and boxes, in catchy designs for the annually issued circulars, even in fresh creative patterns for the goods themselves. The teaching of music in the Dayton schools is no longer the simple learning of some pretty melodies and the art of "singing by note." Music, as taught in the past in the schools of the country, was chiefly introduced as relaxation from the monotonous routine of study and recitations, but has been promoted from mere recreation to the place it justly holds as a science, almost divine in its possibilities and influence. Instructors in the Dayton schools pay special attention to quality of tone, and the concert recently given by the Teachers' club of the city was most pleasing to the large audience present. A national week of song was observed by the Dayton schools in 1918, the effect of which was to deepen the love (page 150)of country and inculcate true patriotism in the hearts of both teachers and pupils. ' In the month of May following, a splendid chorus of seven' hundred voices from the grade schools gave four highly enjoyable concerts in Memorial hall under the direction of Prof. 0. E. Wright, supervisor of music ; the chorus was ably assisted by the Public School orchestra, an organization of one hundred and thirty-five instruments from Parker high school and the grade schools, led by Prof. Conrad Yahreis. This orchestra is made up of pupils selected from the twenty-two orchestras in the - grade schools.

            Named in honor of one of Dayton's best loved and appreciated high school instructors, the Stivers' Manual Training high school is one of the city's best assets for sterling commercial activity and sound citizenship. Prior to the 90's, the subject of manual training had been seriously considered by the friends of the public schools of Dayton. In 1894, under the authorization of the board of education, a committee visited the manual training schools in eastern cities, and so favorable was the report submitted by it that in January, 1896, the first manual training school of Dayton was formally opened in the assembly hall of the Central district, under the supervision of Mr. E. H. Wood, a mechanical engineer. The attendance being optional, pupils failed to grasp the privileges of the training afforded them, and were so irregularly found in their classes that attendance was finally made compulsory by the board of education.

            As the school grew in numbers and greater equipment was required, several changes in location were made, and finally it was borne home to the directors that a building adequate to the needs of the work was imperative. The need was met. And in the year 1914, the Stivers Manual Training high school, erected and equipped at a cost of nearly one-half million dollars, located on East Fifth street, between Eagle and High streets, welcomed the boys and girls of the city to the splendid privileges for which it stood. The school will bear favorable comparison with any educational structure in the length and breadth of the Miami valley. With a frontage of over four hundred feet, its depth is almost one hundred and sixty feet. In the large, well-lighted basement are found the boiler and fuel rooms, ventilating and heating apparatus, forge, moulding, turning and cabinet shops, the necessary machinery resting upon individual ground foundations, thus greatly lessening the noise and vibrations of the structure-. Class, study and domestic science rooms, with an auditorium seating eight hundred persons, take up the first floor. The floor above is fitted with laboratories, work rooms, lecture rooms, class rooms, and on the third floor class rooms and the free hand and mechanical drawing department occupy the space. A portion of the fourth floor is devoted to a blue printing room and work in botany, the latter room having a glass roof and all requisites for obtaining an intelligent comprehension of the study.

            Located throughout the building are the most modern toilet rooms, lunch rooms, shower baths, swimming pool, gymnasium, lecture halls and offices. The average daily attendance of pupils at (page 151) Stivers Manual Training high school during the school year of 1917-18 was 718.5, under the care of forty-seven teachers. The enrollment for the school year, beginning September, 1919, numbered 1,265 pupils.

            The Parker high. school, located on the southwest corner of First and St. Clair streets, was originally a grade school building, but in the year 1911 was taken as a freshman high school to relieve the over-crowded condition of Steele and Stivers. The total value of its location, buildings and equipment is estimated at $169,102.63. Parker high school is not behind either Steele or Stivers in its curriculum of study ; Spanish was added to the prescribed course the past year, and its manual training department is well equipped. The number of teachers during the school year of 1917-1918 was twenty-eight ; the average attendance of pupils 891.1. The enrollment at Parker high school in September, 1919, was 936 pupils. The Dayton Normal school has entered upon its fiftieth year of educational service to the teachers of Montgomery county. About seventy per cent of the instructors in the public schools of the county have been graduated from the Dayton Normal school. For many years the school possessed no certain "abiding place," but is now located in a wing of the Edwin Joel Brown school, located at the corner of Parkwood drive and Willowood avenue (Fairview). What are generally known as "Grade schools" in a majority of cities, in Dayton were originally called "District schools," the name arising from the section of the city in which they were located, as First, Second, etc., but in the last few years the "number" has been dropped in favor of the name of an eminent author, or a citizen of Dayton whom the school desired to especially honor. There are twenty-eight of these grade schools, located as follows : Allen school, located corner of Alaska street and Warner avenue, Miss M. Lula Carson, principal ; Allen Sub., located corer Leo and Troy streets ; Edwin J. Brown school, located corer Parkwood drive and Willowood avenue, Miss Margaret W. Edwards, principal ; Central school, located corner Fourth and Wilkinson streets, Miss Bessie M. Hale, principal ; Cleveland school, located Pursell avenue, opposite Argyle street, Ohmer park ; Emerson school, located south side of Burs avenue, between Wayne and Morton avenues, ivir. William Prinz, principal ; Edison school, located corer Broadway and Edison street, Mr. L. R. Riedel, principal ; Franklin school, located corner Fifth and Findlay streets, Mr. J. R. Fenstermaker, principal ; Garfield school, located corner Fifth and Barnett streets, Miss Florence S. Waymire, principal ; Huffman school, corner Huffman avenue and Fourth street, Mr. Jas. M. Craven, principal ; Hawthorne school, located east side of McDaniel street, between Babbitt street and Herman avenue, Miss Carrie B. Hilker, principal ; Irving school, located corner Cincinnati-and Albany streets, Mr. C. C. Davidson, principal ; Jackson school, located corner Third and Northampton avenue, Mr. Thomas E. Wetzel, principal ; Jefferson school, located intersection Euclid, Cambridge and Yale avenues, Miss Elizabeth K. Brown, principal ; Harrison school, located corner Germantown street and McArthur avenue, Mr. Geo. A. Wogaman, principal ; Lincoln school, located corner Dover and Bidleman streets, Mr. G. A. (page 152) Lange, principal ; Longfellow school, located corner Salem and Superior avenues, Miss Elisabeth R. Kemper, principal ; McKinley school, located Haynes street, between Pritz and Highland avenues, Miss Teresa M. Corcoran, principal ; Patterson school, located corner Wyoming and Alberta streets, Miss Leota E. Clark, principal ; Sub Patterson school, located Lowes and Alberta streets ; Ruskin school, located east side of Henry street, between Richard street and Xenia avenue, Miss Minnie M. Munday, principal ; Schiller school, located corner Dover and Bidleman streets ; Willard school, located corner Summit and Germantown streets, Miss Ellen Tomlinson, principal ; Webster school, located corner Maryland avenue and Keifer street, Miss Florence Odlin, principal ; Washington school, located corner jersey and Sowers streets, Miss Nan B. Hale, principal; Weaver school, located corner Orchard and Howell streets, Mrs. Elizabeth R. McClure, principal; Sub-Weaver school, located corner Third and College streets; Van Cleve school, located corner Forest avenue and Helena street, Miss Louisa C. Gillespie, principal. The attention given to music and art in the public schools of Dayton has already been alluded to. Perhaps what might be called the heavier branches of education are treated with even greater seriousness. The art of reading is no longer simply one of the "three R's," but is made the foundation of earnest thought upon the part of the pupil; he is questioned by the teacher upon the subject matter to be read at the beginning of the recitation, and lessons in geography, history, science, etc., are to be often read in class, for the manner in which they are read will be good proof of the understanding that the pupil may have acquired of the text. The superintendent of the schools is thoroughly aware that the love of good literature may be attained by a child at a very early age, if the reading lesson in the first grades will be regarded by the teacher as a means of imparting knowledge, as well as of pronouncing words and paying attention to punctuation marks.

            In recognition of the importance and value of physical training, the public schools of Dayton are not in the rear of any educational institution in the middle west. The instruction along this line has been two-fold in its aim. First, educational: By daily exercise the pupil is led to realize the value of perfect health, expressed through a strong body and active mind, and is also "aroused to an appreciation of the beauty and grace in rhythmic movement," with mastery of the will "so as to control the many involuntary movements of the body." Second, hygienic : "In developing muscular strength, assisting the organic processes of circulation, improvement of the vital organs, and training and disciplining the motor nerves." Consequently, besides the regular gymnastic drills, voluntary after-school play is a strong feature of pleasure in the school life of the children of Dayton. Specially appointed directors oversee and share the games of the children.

            The recent world war brought home to the teaching force of the Dayton public schools the imperative need of inculcating love of country in the hearts of their pupils. And splendidly was it done. The war itself gave ample scope for comparison between a nation whose claim to greatness lay in its militarism and one whose (page 153) foundation was the grand old Declaration of Independence promulgated in 1776. Pupils were taught that love and veneration for "Old Glory" meant love and veneration for the cardinal principles and virtues for which it floated.

            Both teachers and pupils were zealous assistants in Red Cross work whether the call was the securing of new subscriptions, a drive for collecting clothing, or making new garments for unfortunate children in the devastated countries. Girls in the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth grades delighted in planning, making and trimming pretty garments for the orphans of Belgium and France, and at the close of the school year two thousand one hundred and twenty neatly made garments placed in the hands of the Red Cross, attested the sympathy and patriotism of the young girls of the Dayton public schools.

            The patriotic ardor of the teachers, students and graduates of the Dayton public schools was nobly evinced when nine of the instructors and five hundred of the "boys," some of whom had won their diplomas, while others were still in the ranks of high school students, gallantly responded to the call for military service. Not all of them came back. Stanley Augspurger, Claude Brannum, Bernard Freeman, Alvin Haas, Thomas Hawthorne, Homer Michael, Guinn Mattern, Earl Steinmand and George Sinks, in making the supreme sacrifice, won the glorious plaudit, "Duty here and glory there."

            One of the most humane and praiseworthy activities of the public school system of Dayton has been its outlook for the welfare and future usefulness of children seemingly handicapped by natural or accidental disability from ever entering a business life. In September, 1917, a room well-lighted and ventilated, was taken in the Jefferson school and equipped with Moulthrop chairs, tables and a couch. After thorough examination by the school physician, in order to guard against the possibility of a child having a contagious disease, the children were conveyed to and fro from the school in auto buses, and no pen can describe what these glimpses of busy outdoor life were to the little shut-ins, carrying their noonday lunch with them. The luncheon was made a feast by the addition, free of charge, of hot soup or cocoa. Thirty-four children were enrolled for the year, and so great their enjoyment of the new life, that detainment at home or hospital on account of illness was a cause of unhappiness to them. Record of their academic work compared favorably with that of pupils in the regular grades. Discrimination was shown in the industrial work given them, in being selected with regard not only to the aptitude of the pupil, but to the practical use that could be made of it in coming years. The School for the Deaf, opened January 3, 1899, under state provision, is also a branch of important welfare work connected with the public schools of Dayton.

            The progressive spirit of modernity is perceptible in the prevocational schools that are now a strong feature of the public schools in the city of Dayton. In the school attended by boys, different trades are taught, such as wood turning and cabinet work, forging, machine shop practice and mechanical drawing; half of the time of (page 154) the pupils is given to industrial work, the other half to academic studies. The school does not measure up to the requirements of a trade school proper, for many of the boys do not remain long enough to be thoroughly versed in the demands of the chosen craft. The superintendent, in his last able report, wisely suggests that the school "be transformed into a trade school with a definite course for definite trade." The boys' school is located at the Stivers building, and consequently the lads have the privileges of, the musicals, lectures and gymnasium.

            The Girls' Pre-Vocational school has met with enthusiastic support from the pupils attending. Many of the girls were permitted in the afternoons and Saturdays to put their lessons into practical use by regular office work, and also testing their power of salesmanship in leading stores, for which they received compensation from their employers. The fundamental principles of their business training lies in a regular course of spelling, geography, English topics, shorthand and typewriting; there are also lessons in sewing.

            The value of summer or vacation schools was fully exemplified in the summer of 1918, in the enrollment of six hundred and thirty boys and girls who attended the six weeks' course of elementary work at the Central school, while fifty-five took advantage of the high school subjects that were taught, at the same time, at Steele high school. It is estimated by school authorities that fully five hundred pupils would have been compelled to stay another year in the same grade if they had not been permitted to make up "lost time" or "poor grades" in the vacation schools.

            Too much can not be said in praise of the night schools now incorporated into the public school system of the city of Dayton. There is no educational factor in the development of the commercial and social life of the city that tends to greater and wider power. It has truly "become a vital part of the civic and industrial life of Dayton."

            The popularity of the schools is shown in the enrollment for the school year of 1917-18, which reached two thousand and thirteen, not including an additional list of one hundred and seventy-two in special classes organized for drafted men. At the suggestion of the government, drafted men were taught auto repair, auto truck driving, mechanical drawing, wireless telegraphy, practical electricity, and machine shop work. Under the Smith-Hughes act the Dayton board of education was compensated for the salaries of teachers employed to teach soldiers' classes.

            About one hundred teachers have been appointed by the board of education to have charge of the night school classes for the year of 1919-20. Perhaps more than in any other department of educational work, the instructors in night schools can realize that their efforts are in the line of making true Americans out of alien material. For a large per cent of their pupils are of foreign birth, many of whom are unfamiliar with the English language, and it follows as a natural sequence, strangers to American ideals and the foundation and nature of our American government. But no American child exceeds them in desire to learn.

            (page 155) In common with all advanced schools throughout the country at large, the schools of Dayton pay marked attention to the health of the children attending them. Recently, special attention has been paid to mouth hygiene, for medical science claims it to be the most

important in the whole range of hygiene. School nurses give prophylactic treatments to children of the first three grades needing them, these treatments consisting of the brushing of the teeth and removing all extraneous objects in the mouth. Twice during the school year the teeth of every child in the city schools are carefully examined by qualified dentists, and where imperfection is found, a report is sent to the parents of the child ; if the latter are unable to meet the bill for the needed work, it is done by the school dentist, free of charge.

            The eyes of the children are carefully tested, and weakness or imperfect vision announced to the parents, who can take the child to the free clinics connected with the city hospitals for school children, if unable to afford the expense of special treatment from an oculist. Medical science has discovered that many children, who apparently appear dull of comprehension in the classroom, and suffer from headaches, timidity or nervousness, become normal in health and attain high grades in their recitations after corrective treatment has been given to the eyes.

            The matter of pure ventilation in the school room is given a prominent place in the safeguards with which Dayton instructors endeavor to conserve the health of their pupils. In accordance with the order of Dr. L. F. Bucher, director of hygiene and medical inspector of the schools, a "fresh air period" has been instituted in every schoolroom in the city. Out of every half hour during the day, two minutes are taken when by open windows the children practice deep breathing exercises and go through simple calisthenics. In every way possible, Dayton is looking after the physical welfare of its youth. Vaccination is imperative, the weight of the children looked after monthly and a close record kept, for weight is regarded as a proof or indication of health ; a child weighing below normal is given special examination, and a plan is now in process of formulation by Dr. Bucher for the upbuilding of the strength and body of children whose weight continues to keep below normal standards. Examination of school children for contagious diseases and provision for vaccination has been under the direction of the Dayton Health commission, all other examinations being in the hands of school physicians; but if the requirements of the Hughes health law are met by the school authorities, all physical examinations henceforth will come under the supervision of the health commission.

            The present superintendent of instruction over the Dayton schools is Mr. Frank W. Miller, whose interest and time are devoted without stint to the task of raising and keeping the schools to their highest efficiency. He welcomes every and all things which seem to promise richer opportunity for the moral and intellectual advancement of the children under his control, never forgetting that on their young shoulders will soon rest the responsibilities of American citizenship. Mr. Miller is closely and earnestly supported in his work (page 156) by the principals, supervisors and teachers of the schools, and the board of education indorse all efforts made for keeping up the high standards for which the public schools of Dayton are noted. Over the twelve manual training- centers, respectively connected with the schools of Allen, Brown, Cleveland, Emerson, Garfield, Jefferson, Ludlow, McKinley, Parker, Steele, Stivers, and Whittier, Mr. J. I. Lambert is director, while Miss Katherine May Hardy supervises the Domestic Science departments in thirteen school buildings. The night schools are looked after by Mr. I. E. Libecap. Including substitute teachers, the list of instructors employed in the Dayton public schools contains over six hundred names. The present board of education consists of Messrs. R. E. Alexander, E. H. Herr, Gordon M. Hiles, Wm. M. Hunter, Henry H. Lotz, Wm. K. Marshall, Milton H. Mathews, Oliver Poock, Geo. H. Schmidt, C. J. Schmidt, Frank Tejan, O. S. Walker, John H. Weglage and Mrs. Anna W. Roussel.

            The offices of president, vice-president, clerk and superintendent of instruction are filled respectively by Messrs. Geo. H. Schmidt, J. H. Weglage, C. J. Schmidt and Frank W. Miller. All matters necessitating legal advice are referred to Messrs. W. S. McConnaughey, John C. Shea and Jay Leach, prominent attorneys of the city of Dayton.

            The total assets of the Dayton public schools, embracing value of land, buildings, equipment, estimated inventory of supplies, sinking fund investments, and cash in depositories, amount to $4,201,909.61.

            Parochial Schools of Dayton. Few cities in the middle west surpass, if indeed they equal, the city of Dayton in the number of its Catholic schools, which are sedulously looked after by the clergy, sisterhoods and brotherhoods of the church. The enrollment of the pupils runs into thousands. The studies of these several schools generally carry the pupil as far as the eighth grade when, if desiring to enter academic or high school work, Notre Dame academy or St. Mary's institute or the local high schools offer splendid opportunities for a broader, more extended education.

            The first Catholic school in Dayton was Emanuel school, established in the year 1837, five years after the organization of Emanuel church, the first Catholic religious organization of the city. Its enrollment for the school year of 1918-1919 was four hundred and six pupils. The Rev. Joseph S. Sieber, Ph.D., pastor of the church, is likewise director of the school. The pupils are under the care and instruction of four sisters of Notre Dame and the same number of brothers of Mary. The school is located on the north side of Franklin street, between Ludlow and Perry streets. In the year 1846, St. Joseph's parochial school, located on the north side of Second street, between Madison and Sears streets, was instituted. It is under the superintendency of the Rev. Joseph P. Ward, pastor of St. Joseph's church, and eight sisters of charity were the instructors of the two hundred and seventy-eight pupils enrolled during the school year of 1918-1919.

            For a period of seventy years the Sisters of Notre Dame have most ably conducted a select school for girls, known in educational circles as Notre Dame academy. This excellent school was (page 157) established in the year 1849 by four sisters of the order, and the Dayton school proved the second instituted by the sisterhood in the United States. The original school was organized in a little two-story building that stood on the site now occupied by the handsome brick edifice, at the southwest corner of Franklin and Ludlow streets, which was ready for occupancy in the year 1886.

            The curriculum of study followed in Notre Dame academy fills twelve school years. The course is divided into primary, intermediate and academic, each division requiring four years for completion.

            The academic course is preparatory to a college entrance. The enrollment of Notre Dame academy for the school year 1918-1919 was two hundred and twenty-eight pupils under the instruction of seventeen teachers. Sister Anna Teresa is at the head of the school.

            Holy Trinity Parochial school, for girls and boys, was established by the Rev. Joseph F. Goetz in the year 1862, and for some time was under his superintendence. Its present director is the rector of Holy Trinity parish, the Rev. J. Henry Schengber. The number of children attending Holy Trinity school during the school year of 1918-1919 was five hundred and thirty-seven ; the girls being under the instruction of six sisters of Notre Dame, four brothers of the Society of Mary guiding the lads along the pathways of knowledge. Holy Trinity school is located on the east side of Bainbridge street, between Bacon and Fifth streets.

            The excavation for the parochial school of St. Anthony's parish, located corner of Creighton avenue and St. Charles street, was begun September, 1914, one year after the acceptance of the rectorship of the new congregation by the Rev. Francis J. Kuenle. The cornerstone of the new schoolhouse was laid in the month of April, 1915, by the Rev. Dean William D. Hickey, and on the 13th day of the ensuing September the school was formally opened by the Sisters of St. Francis. Ten sisters of the order had charge of the three hundred and sixty-two children enrolled during the school year of 1918-1919.

            Holy Name Magyar school, located at 412 North Dale avenue, is comparatively a new building, being erected in the year 1914 at the cost of $28,000. The organization of the school took place five years prior to the present building on North Dale avenue, in the basement under Holy Name church, with an enrollment of eighty-two pupils. The new school is a handsome modern building, fireproof and well ventilated, and the list of pupils attending during the school year of 1918-1919 numbered two hundred and twenty-five children. The pastor of Holy Name church, the Rev. Charles Polichek, is superintendent of the school, and Sister Leocadia, of the Order of the Precious Blood, is assisted in her work of instruction by four teachers.

            Under the shadow of the Holy Family church, that stands on the west side of Monmouth, between May and Fifth streets, is its parochial school, which was organized in the month of September, 1905. The pastor of the church, the Rev. J. F. Downey, is also superintendent of the school. The reverend father is assisted in the work of teaching by eight Sisters of the Order of Notre Dame.

            (page 158) Four hundred pupils were enrolled during the school year of 1918-1919. 

            St. Mary's institute, which is governed by the Society of St. Mary, ranks as one of the leading Catholic schools in the middle west. The location of the school is both attractive and commanding.

            On a high elevation in South park, a little community in itself with its numerous buildings; from the campus the visitor enjoys a magnificent view of the upper Miami valley.

            The organization of this school was somewhat out of the ordinary trend of events. The providential coming of the Rev. Leo Meyer of Cincinnati to Dayton in the year of 1849, to assist the Rev. Father Juncker, at that time pastor of Emanuel church, in caring for his flock during the cholera epidemic, is, perhaps, responsible for the location of the school in the vicinity of Dayton. The thought occurred to Father Meyer that the farm of Mr. John Stuart, containing nearly one hundred acres and lying on the outskirts of Dayton, would be an ideal site for a college of the society of which he was a devoted disciple. The ensuing March, the land was purchased by the Brothers of Mary for $12,000, and the society at once started a school, at the same time carrying on the work of the farm. The place for a long time was known as "Nazareth," but as the school grew in numbers and popularity, fine buildings were added, and in 1878 the college was incorporated under the name of St. Mary's institute, and four years later authority to confer collegiate degrees was granted it by the state legislature. Besides a full academic course, boys desiring to enter commercial life have the benefit of a complete business training.

            In connection with the institute is the Convent Normal school, where teachers are prepared for work, not only in America but in foreign lands. Nearly four hundred teachers are necessary for the work of instruction given in both schools.

            The presidents of St. Mary's institute since its organization have been the Reverends Maximin Zehler, Damian Litz, John B. Stinzi, Maximin Zehler, Francis Feith, George Meyer, John Harks, Joseph Weckesser, Charles Eichner, Louis A. Tragesser and Bernard P. O'Reilly, Father O'Reilly, who was appointed to fill the president's chair in 1908, is still the official head of the school.

            The churches of Corpus Christi, Holy Angels, Holy Rosary, Sacred Heart, St. Adelbert's (Polish), St. Agnes and St. Mary's conduct parochial schools in their parishes.

            The only Protestant parochial school in the city of Dayton is the one connected with the Lutheran congregation that worships in St. Paul's church, standing at the southwest corner of Wayne avenue and Marshall street, the school being located at the northwest corner of the same thoroughfares. For half a century St. Paul's parochial school has been instructing the youth of the church, not only in fundamentals of an English education, but in also what might be called a religious course of study, comprising the church catechism, church history and Bible truths instruction being in the German language. The English secular branches include those taught in the public schools of the city, using the same text books.

            (page 159) Many of the children who, today, are pupils in the large, beautiful building that stands almost in the shadow of the church, probably smile as they hear their parents tell of the first years of the school, so long ago, when lessons were recited in a small one-room house that stood on a lot opposite the church. For it was there, in that humble environment, that the foundations of the present flourishing educational institution were established. The present building ranks among the most modern schools of the. city in appearance and equipment. The average enrollment of attendance balances between one hundred and fifty and two hundred. Private School. Dayton has been especially fortunate in the high standards of its private schools. As stated elsewhere, the establishment of Cooper Female seminary was an event in the educational development of the city, and its close in the year 1886 was greatly deplored, but before the New Year ushered in the dawn of 1887, another private school, specifically intended for the preparation of young women for college, was opened by Miss Anna L. J. Arnold on West Second street. The curriculum of the school included three separate courses of study, classical, literary and scientific. For nine years the school did excellent work, and it was with regret that the friends of Miss Arnold witnessed the closing of its doors in 1895. But happily, for the youth of Dayton, Miss Leila Ada Thomas of Dayton, whose scholarly attainments eminently qualified her for the work, was prevailed upon to open a similar school in the building vacated by Miss Arnold on West Second street. Of a family distinguished for wide erudition and culture, thoroughly equipped by an education at leading schools, both at home and abroad, Miss Thomas took hold of the work with characteristic earnestness and understanding, that brought success from the day of its opening to the close of the school.

            Full preparation for a collegiate course was the ultimate object of the instruction given at Miss Thomas' school, the foundation for which was started in the kindergarten, which was most ably looked after by Miss Sarah Walker, who was regarded as one of the best teachers in that branch of early education ever connected with a Dayton school, while the pupils of the primary grade were instructed by Miss Mary McCartney of Cambridge, Ohio ; the children in the intermediate department being under the care of Miss Thelker. Miss Daisy Bell, a recent graduate from Otterbein university, untangled all mathematical. intricacies, and M. Michelon, considered the best teacher of French ever in the city of Dayton, was in charge of that branch of instruction. Miss Thomas, who is still recognized as an authority in English history and literature and Latin, kept them as her department of instruction, beginning the teaching of the first-named branches in the third grade. After six years' occupancy of the building on West Second street, the upper grades of the school were taken to Wilkinson street, but a year later the school was closed. During its brief but eminently successful life, six young ladies received diplomas testifying to work well done : Misses Bertha Canby, Margaret King, Mary May Thomas, Nellie Griffin, Edith Cummin and Helen Kittredge.

            (page 160) The resignation of Miss_ Thomas did not close the door upon the appreciation of the Dayton public as to her efficiency as an instructor, and as a private tutor she has smoothed the difficulties out of the path of many lads and lassies preparing for a college course.

            She. is now prominently and successfully engaged with large Current Event classes, to the great pleasure and edification of her pupils.

            Following the closing of the private school of which Miss Thomas was principal, a day and boarding school for girls was opened by the Misses Howe and Marot, in the handsome Stilwell residence, located at the corer of First street and Robert boulevard, and the scope of its curriculum of study brought a large patronage. But it closed its doors in the summer of 1913. Mention is also merited by the kindergarten and primary school, under the management of Misses Margaret Stewart and Georgia Parrott from 1897 to 1905. A primary school, similar in character, is now most efficiently conducted by Mrs. Ella Link in the Bimm building. The Moraine Park School. The most notable example in the Miami valley of the practical application of modern methods of education is seen in the Moraine Park school, which, in its short existence, has amply justified the hopes of its promoters. Briefly, its organization and situation is as follows : Started by a group of fathers who felt that the present system of public education left something to be desired and who would try a new one, it was begun in June, 1917, in a glass forcing-house in the Moraine park district, four miles south of Dayton, with an enrollment of sixty boys and girls. The pupils range from the kindergarten age to those ready for admission to college.

             The guiding minds of this most unusual school were George B. Smith, Arthur E. Morgan, F. O. Clements, Colonel E. A. Deeds, Charles F. Kettering, Charles H. Paul, Fred H. Rike, Adam Schantz and Orville Wright. It was the consensus of opinion on the part of these directors that a school should epitomize the conditions found in real life, and that instead of imparting a mass of theoretical instruction on purely academic subjects it should seek to prepare the student for the problems he would meet in the outside world. Another theory was that the best way to learn is to "learn by doing," and not to read from a book how it ought to be done. The printed page is indeed a tool, and a valuable tool, but not more so than other tools and not comparable to individual experiment ; that education is to be secured from innumerable subject matter all available at first hand, and that the direct and practical use of all this material will educate in the fullest meaning of the word.

            Therefore the visitor is not surprised to find that the "curriculum" at Moraine Park school is really a sector of the life of the times. Part of the time at their desks, part at play, part at the work bench, they are engaged in business enterprises, in self-government, in community plans and projects. They are encouraged to depend upon themselves, to begin new and untried undertakings, to finish them up thoroughly and then to pass on to something else. As the head master, Mr. Frank D. Slutz, expresses it : "It is the purpose of the school to enable pupils to learn how to associate with people, how to (page 161) express themselves clearly and accurately, how to earn, spend and save money properly; how to make useful products out of raw materials; how to appreciate the spiritual, the intangible values in life, how to know and love the world of nature, its laws, its life, how to play enthusiastically, regularly and fairly, how to choose chums, friends and mates."

            Following this fine plan to its ultimate end means occupying the young minds with things never heard of before in a schoolroom. The first is self-government, the personnel consisting of a mayor and three commissioners elected by the school ; a community manager appointed by the commission who in turn appoints the heads of departments. Imitating the organization of the city of Dayton in its far famed "Dayton plan" (for whose formation and maintenance the fathers of these boys were chiefly instrumental), there is a department of public safety, whose business it is to enforce all laws and ordinances passed by the commission ; the department of welfare, which has control of all matters relating to sanitation and health ; the department of recreation, which plans for excursions through factories and "hikes" in the country and makes out schedules for games with outside teams ; the department of finance, which collects taxes from each individual as levied by the commission and acts as treasurer of all public funds ; the department of law, whose duty is to take charge of the community court, the director of this department being the judge. The department of law tries cases, draws up the various legal blanks for the community and includes, besides, a patent office where the ideas of the students may be patented. If a boy originates any idea which will be of benefit to the school he may sell it to this department. There is also a junior government which is a sort of police system meant to keep order, to keep the halls clean and quiet.

            Since the object of the school is to prepare pupils for the great world outside, it is most natural that there should be a practical store which is run by the boys and keeps supplies of stationery, candy and athletic equipment, operates a cash register and is conducted like any branch of business ; a bank which makes collections, accepts savings deposits, carries checking accounts and is organized for the profit of the stockholders. The counters and furniture of the bank were all made by the officers of the institution in the wood-working shop.

            The Library is copied after the most advanced public libraries and has a librarian and three assistants who list and give out the books, clip and file articles from the magazines. In connection with this department is a Museum to which are brought and classified the fossils, minerals, insects and rare bits of workmanship which can be used in any way in the various classes.

            The Print Shop turns out most satisfactory work in its leaflets, announcements, examination papers and the monthly organ. The Photograph Shop maintains a complete pictorial record of the school and the official photographer develops pictures taken by the students and prints them for a nominal fee. The Repair Squad repairs all broken articles around the school. A small electrical experimentation laboratory is carried on to enable the students to try out their (page 162) original ideas. In the Manual Training shop the boys turn out tool boxes, cupboards, tables, candlesticks, lockers, book-cases, bird houses, swings, camp-stools, water-wheels and various other things. There is a typewriter shop where the machines are kept in repair. The boys take turns being private secretary to each other and gaining much valuable secretarial experience thereby.

            The equipment of the school deserves special though brief mention. The motto of the school is "See through things and see things through." To make this practical the school must be well equipped. Owing to the declaration of war and the consequent conservancy of building material the use of a large greenhouse was offered by one of the board of directors. It proved to be an admirable schoolhouse. With a tight floor, a glass roof, a modern heating plant and the construction of individual study halls the boys found themselves both happy and comfortable. This main building contains a manual training room, a chemical laboratory, and a photograph room all equipped with the necessary tools and chemicals. At the west end are the stage, gymnasium, indoor gardens storage room, electrical room and dressing rooms. The gymnasium is equipped with all mechanical apparatus, the stage has indoor and outdoor scenes and an excellent pianola with a fine assortment of records. The school part proper contains offices, recitation room, lunch room and primary department. Along one side of the lunch room are sinks in which they may wash their own dishes. The recreation room contains a wading pool and a sand pit.

            The class work which concerns itself with books is unusually interesting at the Moraine Park school on account of the coordinating of the lessons of the day with problems of the day. Constant reference to the outside world makes the lessons real to the pupils. The same subjects are not taught every day, but on alternate days, giving a welcome change from the ordinary monotonous plan. Languages-English, German, and French-are taught, biology and chemistry, ancient and American history, comparison of ancient Germany with the Prussianized Germany of today; mathematics made interesting by actual work in a field or with store accounts ; manual training and the ability to work with hands as well as mind. There are no artificial problems offered, everything has actual touch with life issues.

            They have an interesting system of records and reports at the Moraine Park school. No percentage of grading is followed. In the report to parents upon the progress made by the pupils, points of excellence or weakness are indicated under the following heads : Congregating (his manner of mixing with his fellows) ; language, or self expression ; acquiring possessions (which is getting a living and taking care of property) ; cosmologizing (interpreting the world as the pupil sees it) ; creating or bringing things to pass ; manconserving or doing for others ; pairing or choosing friends ; playing, or relaxing oneself.

            In return the parent is asked to report to the school what improvement he has seen in his boy along any of these lines and suggestions for the good of the school are requested. There is of course (page 163) a careful physical examination taken twice a year and kept on record.

            The one most remarkable thing about this school which is to be noted is, that it is not a rich man's son's school. Any boy whatever, who manifests unusual capacity, is invited to join the school. If he "makes good" he has his place there, whatever the family circumstances ; if he fails to come up to requirements he is not admitted, even if his father be several times a millionaire. This is not a manifestation of generosity on the part of the directors of the school but a recognition of the fact that many fine workers whose contribution to human life might be without estimation, never get beyond the primary grades on account of being forced to aid in the support of a family and are thus lost to the world. Thus what might be called an exclusive private school (since the enrollment is limited) becomes, under this wise and impartial method, more public than the freest public school and an exponent of the democratic principle at its best.

            The interest of the city press in the public schools of the city is shown by the scholarships offered to students by the Dayton Daily News, October, 1919. The paper recognizes the fact that the expense attending a collegiate education, often debars an ambitious boy or girl from continuing greatly desired studies. Six scholarships are offered as follows: To a pupil making the best record at Steele high school, during the school year of 1919-20, a four-year scholarship at either Miami university at Oxford, or the Ohio State university at Columbus, the choice lying with the winner. All expenses such as room, board and laundry, will be met by the paper for the first year. The same offer is made to the pupils at Stivers high school, also the successful pupil attending St. Mary's high school will be given a four-years' scholarship, with paid expenses. Three one-year scholarships at the school of the Dayton Museum of Art will be competed for by students qualifying in competitive exhibition at the museum and then present the best records in their work. A $100 Liberty bond will be placed in the hand of the foreign-born resident who becomes most proficient in speaking and writing the English language at the Dayton night schools during the winter of 1919-20; while the foreigner making the second best record will be enriched with a $50 liberty bond. Cooper Female Seminary. It is safe to say, that no spot of ground in the city of Dayton is so rich in endearing memories to many people as the southwest corner of First and Wilkinson streets. Today the exterior of the building is shabby, weather-worn, plain almost to severity, the pristine plainness of the architecture of three-quarters of a century ago ; but to the eyes of scores of gray-haired matrons, who look upon it through the golden mist of happy memories, it is a temple of beauty, a beauty born of the gladness of youth, the laughter of care-free hearts, and the radiance of hopes undimmed by fear.

            It was truly a red-letter day in the story of the educational development of the village of Dayton, when the doors of the Cooper Female seminary were opened for the first time to the daughters of its residents. For over thirty years a boys' school, the memorable (page 164) Dayton academy, had given the youth of Dayton higher and more liberal branches of education than could be obtained, perchance, by their sisters in the public' schools of the period. And, it must be confessed, an unworthy prejudice still existed in the minds of some of the wealthier people of the community,. against the co-education of boys and girls in a "free school." But in the year 1844, the generosity of Mrs. Letitia Backus, widow of Mr. David Zeigler Cooper (son and heir of Mr. Daniel C. Cooper, to whose liberality, integrity, and progressive spirit the city of Dayton will ever be on the debit side), found expression in a transference, through her trustees, of the ground upon which the building, to be known as "Cooper Female seminary," was to be erected. The deed of conveyance stated that the school was to stand for the "Higher Christian education of young women," the ground to be used for "no other purpose." The school was fortunate in its initiative to be under the principalship of Mr. E. E. Barney, who, as head of the Dayton academy from 1834 to 1839, had already won an enviable reputation for scholarship and as an instructor in the Miami valley. A native .of the state of New York, the son of pioneer parents who gladly made sacrifices and endured privations in order that their children might enjoy every educational advantage that came within their limitations. It was a proud day for the self-denying father and. mother when their eldest child, Eliam E. Barney, in the early summer of 1831, completed his education at Union college in the growing city of Schenectady, for which he had prepared himself at Lowville academy.

            The early annals of American history show that the teaching profession was followed by about nine men out of every ten upon their first entrance upon active life, no matter what their later avocation might prove to be, either professional or commercial. Mr. Barney was no exception, and in 1834 he accepted the position of principal in the Dayton academy. A wiser choice could not have been made by the school directors. It was said of. him by a near relative "that in his youth Mr. Barney was remarkable for three dominant characteristics, industry, order and thoughtfulness." What better traits could be found for an instructor of youth, or as a foundation for later, business success?

            Mr. Barney associated with him in his new field of labor his brother Elijah G. Barney, his sister Mrs. Harriet Barney Stevens, and her husband, Mr. A. E. Stevens, and never was work entered upon with more enthusiasm or greater desire to achieve sterling results. Their ambition brought the merited reward of high reputation to the school, and the first list of nine pupils rapidly grew to an enrollment of eighty-five, not only the daughters of Dayton citizens being registered as students, but also girls from different parts of the state. In his ideas concerning the profession of teaching, Mr. Barney was half a century ahead of his time. Through his endeavors the school was supplied with maps, a library and chemical apparatus. A nine-inch telescope, the first ever possessed by a girls' school in the middle west, rendered the study of astronomy doubly fascinating; class rambles in fields and forests made geology and botany living studies, while history and literature proved not a (page 165) collection of names, dates and cold events, but, under his magnetic words, became actual men and women, whose lives were either worthy of imitation or commendation, or held evils to be shunned. In 1848, the diplomas were handed the first little class of graduates from the schools, two of whom became leaders in Dayton's best social circles-Miss Mary C. Roberts, of Preble county, who in 1855 married Mr. Isaac Van Ausdal, and Miss Sarah Schenck, daughter of Lieut. Commander James F. Schenck, who, in a few years after her graduation, became the wife of Mr. Joseph Graham Crane. Having started the Cooper Female seminary on its prosperous way, Mr. Barney resigned the profession of teaching to enter upon a commercial life, and was succeeded in the principalship by Miss Margaret Coxe, who had been at the head of a large school in Cincinnati. Miss Coxe was admirably qualified by natural endowments to follow Mr. Barney. With charming, cultivated, polished and dignified personality, her intellectual gifts and attainments eminently fitted her for the responsible duties awaiting her; in addition, the family connections of Miss Coxe brought her a warm welcome to Dayton's most refined society, as one sister was the wife of Bishop Mcllvaine, of the Protestant Episcopal church, and another married to Dr. Budroe, of the University of Virginia.

            Cooper Female seminary grew still more prosperous under the government of Miss Coxe, for her fame as an educator had spread far beyond the Miami valley, and pupils were enrolled from all parts of the state. But few of those who studied under her guidance are left to tell of those days so bright with the joyousness of girlhood. Dr. J. C. Fisher succeeded Miss Coxe as principal until the year 1857, when the Rev. Conrad of Pittsburg was appointed president of the school, and his brother, the Rev. Frederick Conrad, at that time filling the pulpit of the Main street Lutheran church, vice-president. These gentlemen were fortunate in securing Miss Agnes Beecher (granddaughter of the famous Lyman Beecher and niece of the equally renowned Henry Ward Beecher) as principal. Teachers of fine local reputation were engaged; among them M. Bartholemy, many years Dayton's best instructor in French; Miss Clara Soule, daughter of the celebrated portrait painter, being placed in charge or the art department. in 1856, Miss Beecher was succeeded as principal, by her sister, Miss Roxanna Beecher.

            In the spring of 1861, the seminary passed into the control of the Rev. John Galloway, of Springfield, Ohio, who had scarcely formulated plans for the greater prosperity of the school, when his death occurred. His wife, Mrs. Belinda Galloway, despite the remonstrances of friends, who thought her health unequal to the burden of responsibility that would naturally rest upon her, decided to carry on the school. Her success was almost phenomenal. Teachers selected were widely known for thorough scholarship. Languages were taught by Mrs. Hibben, who so carefully directed the education of her little son that the future brought him the presidency of Princeton college, and in the recent world war President Hibben won national plaudits by his military organization of the college for war activities, and patriotic war articles. Miss Mary May Thomas, daughter of the Rev. T. E. Thomas, for many years (page 166) regarded as one of the most eloquent and convincing ministers of the Presbyterian church in the Miami valley, Miss Sama Wright, the Misses Meacham, and Mrs. E. A. Parrott were among the instructors. The refined, gentle womanhood of Mrs. Galloway was no small asset in influencing to high ideals of life, the girls placed under her care, and she is still spoken of by gray-haired matrons, once her pupils (but who are now sending their own daughters to institutions of learning), with affectionate veneration. As one has written, "Those who had the advantage of her training are grateful for the stress laid upon gentle manners and serious academic work." Three classes were graduated from the seminary under the principalship of Mrs. Bartlett, who succeeded Mrs. Galloway in the year 1871, and who carefully upheld the high standards of scholarship established by her predecessors.

            Of Mrs. Bartlett's successor in 1873, Prof. James M. Robert, an admirer succinctly said, "Prof. Robert was almost a faculty in himself." Of unquestioned scholarship, in tune with all modern methods of instruction, a music and art lover, always presenting the highest ideals of life and purpose to his pupils, Cooper Female seminary, under his administration, became "a center of high thinking and lofty ideals." The influence of Prof. Robert was not confined to his work as an instructor of Dayton's young womanhood, but was expressed and felt along all lines of civic development. To Prof. Robert is due the reclaiming of much of the waste land in the river bottom for building purposes, and he not only suggested a titanic plan for the work, but met out of his own pocket nearly all the expense connected with the undertaking, without realizing any financial benefit himself from the project, and it is eminently fitting that the attractive river way should throughout all future years be known as "Robert boulevard."

            For fourteen years, Prof. Robert kept Cooper Female seminary in the van of educational institutions of the Miami valley, but with his resignation in 1886, the doors were closed, never again to open as a school. The youth of the city were attracted to educational institutions outside of home limitation, and the high schools of the city were strong in scholarly training and wide branches of study. But the influence of Cooper Female seminary did not end with the closing of its doors as an activity in the educational development of Dayton. It lives with almost perennial power in the cultured and busy, useful lives of many who, under the wise teaching and leadership of past instructors (whose names today are but dear memories), are daily striving to put in practice for the good and happiness of others, the precepts of gentle, cultured womanhood inculcated so long ago. Many of those graduated from its halls have attained more than local fame, either in literary or philanthropic lines. As a writer, an enthusiast for all reforms tending to the larger, more liberal life for women, Miss Mary Davies Steele won almost national renown. The daughter of Mr. Robert W. Steele, one of the first trustees of the school, an invalid for many years, she lives forceful "in works that follow." Two books, regarded as invaluable for information concerning early Dayton history, came from the pen of Miss Steele, and the success of the Dayton public library is largely (page 167) due to the unflagging zeal and interest of Miss Steele and her father.

            In philanthropic work Mrs. H. G. Carrell (Julia Shaw) is a recognized leader; her bountiful wealth responds to many worthy calls, and Miami hospital stands indebted to her generosity for valuable additions to its department of surgery.

            Beautiful for its service of love to others is the life of Mrs. G. Harries Gorman (Anna Barney, granddaughter of the first principal of Cooper Female seminary). Her numerous philanthropies cannot be enumerated ; the list is too long. A fresh-air farm, community house, which is truly a center for industrial activities for many who, without its privileges, could not command a livelihood, are among the splendid things that Mrs. Gorman is constantly doing for the happiness and betterment of lives less favored than her own. In Mrs. Harry E. Talbott (Kittie Houk), the young people of Dayton have a friend who is constantly on the lookout for the increase of their pleasure and welfare.

            To return to those whom Dayton honors for their interest in the literary and intellectual development of their home city, Mrs. Frank Conover (Charlotte Reeve), as a lecturer and writer is well known in leading literary circles, both in the east and west. Her current events classes, held every winter, do much towards the stimulating of interest in the world's progress and the reading of standard literature. Two others are in the list of recognition, Miss Electra Doren and Miss Lillian D. Wald, the latter having attained an international reputation as a worker in uplift lines, while Miss Doren for forty years has been connected with public library interests, not only those of the city of Dayton but with the work generally. Her early years were devoted to the study of library work, both at home and abroad; for two years she was connected as lecturer with the Carnegie school at Pittsburg. In 1895, while librarian in the Dayton public library, she organized the system of school library work for the benefit of the children of her home city, and is still at the head of the library force, who are in charge of the splendid collection of books in the spacious library in Cooper park.

            Truly, the omission of Cooper Female seminary as a factor in the intellectual development of Dayton, would be comparable to the old simile of the play of Hamlet with the prince of Denmark left out.

            Central Theological Seminary. In the month of February, 1907, the Ursinus School of Theology, founded in 1871, and the Heidelberg Theological seminary, founded twenty-one years earlier, decided to unite, and the result of the union was the Central Theological seminary, first opened in Tiffin, Ohio, but in the summer of 1908 removed to its present beautiful location at 1300 Huffman avenue, Dayton, Ohio.

            The articles of consolidation gave free play, by which both uniting schools preserve their individuality, and maintain the same relation to Ursinus college "as was sustained by the Ursinus School of Theology while located in Pennsylvania." The doctrinal basis of the instruction given in the new school is the Heidelberg catechism, "interpreted in its plain historic sense," and its aim is to (page 168) inculcate in its students true spiritual power to be expressed in living, teaching and preaching evangelical tenets. Instructors gladly welcome advanced views on scriptural interpretation, providing that the new ideas bear the seal of authenticity. The location of the Central Theological Seminary is ideal in every respect. More than eight acres of land are inclosed in the college campus, and the visitor is lost in admiration over the magnificent forest trees that have escaped the woodman's ax, and which stand as protecting sentries among the ornamental trees that have been added to increase the beauty of the grounds. Looking westward, a splendid view of the busy city meets the sky line, and the faint stir of industrial life that is sometimes borne upon the air is a very perceptible reminder that things material border closely upon things termed spiritual.

            The seminary building, of light gray pressed brick with stone trimmings, is exceedingly attractive on the exterior, and its interior no less pleasing in its truly modern appointments. With electricity as the illuminating agency and a fine steam heating system, and every window commanding a beautiful outlook, both recitation rooms and the dormitory apartments are cheerful and inviting in every particular. Other dormitory buildings are likewise handsome in exterior, and truly up-to-date in all requirements. The faculty and students are justly proud of their library, which numbers about ten thousand volumes, among which are not only religious tomes, but much of the world's best literature, and valuable works on philosophy and philology ; adjacent to the library, tables in a reading room are covered with the best current periodicals of the day.

            Bonebrake Theological Seminary. Just a little over a half century has passed since the leaders of the United Brethren church, assembled in general conference, May, 1869, at Lebanon, Pennsylvania, urged and put into effect the establishment of a biblical and theological school, to be conducted under the support of that denomination. The bishops were authorized to appoint a board of education to look after the work, find a location, raise all necessary funds, and initiate all proper measures for the speedy establishment of the institution. In July of the following year the board met and, after earnest deliberation, selected Dayton, Ohio, as a desirable location for the new school, which was to go on the records of the United Brethren church as Union Biblical seminary. The first session of the school was opened October 11, 1871, in the United Brethren church, located at Summit street, Dayton. The beginning was-small, both as to the course of prescribed study and as to faculty ; the former consisting of but one course, which included Greek and Hebrew, and the instructors numbering two. For eight years students and professors met in the church on Summit street, but in the year 1879, the growing attendance at the institution warranted the erection of a three-story brick building at the corner of Euclid avenue and First street, on ground donated by the Rev. John Kemp.

            In the first of the year 1909, a handsome gift of lands, estimated in value about $80,000, came to the school from Mr. John M. (page 169) Bonebrake of Veedersburg, Indiana, in affectionate memory and honor of six brothers by the same name, uncles of the donor, whose lives had been spent in useful ministry in the United Brethren church; in appreciation of the gift, the official authority of the school dropped the name of Union Biblical seminary in favor of Bonebrake Theological seminary, under which it is now known.

            The seminary has taken a step in advance of many theological schools of other denominations, in admitting women to many of its classes ; women who desire to devote their lives either as assistants of ministers in broad church work, or city welfare work, and this deaconess training group comprises two years of study at the school. The young man desiring to enter the ministry of the United Brethren church, finds four groups of study, commonly called courses, exclusive of the deaconess course, awaiting his choice. Business Colleges. One of the earliest colleges in the Miami valley for training in commercial life was established in the city of Dayton, in the year.1860, by Mr. E. D. Babbitt, a man equipped by both education and progressive ideals for the work. It is not strange that conservative business men were inclined to regard the school as an innovation upon time-established precedent, which required only a good selling "manner" and a knowledge of "fggers" to make for success. But Mr. Babbitt was not to be laughed out of his new and eminently practical methods for developing larger success in ways truly scientific, and the school gradually increased in number of pupils.

            Five years after the founding of the school, Mr. Babbitt, feeling that financial interests compelled his undivided time to be devoted to the successful System of Penmanship, of which he was the author, withdrew from the management of the Dayton school, leaving it under the entire control of Mr. A. D. Wilt, who had been associated with him since the year 1862. As a former resident of Dayton, Mr. Wilt is highly honored by all who knew him, whether in the commercial, social or educational relation, in all of which he was prominent. He was a charter member of the Saturday club, organized ire January, 1870, by seventeen of the leading physicians, attorneys, teachers, and business men of the city, who gathered together fortnightly for the very enjoyable purpose of discussing good literature.

            As a matter of literary history, associated with the story of Dayton's development, the names of this club are worthy of remembrance: Messrs. R. I. Cummin, Dr. William Judkins Conklin, Samuel Davies, Mr. Henry Jewett, B. C. Noyes, Eugene Parrott, John H. Patterson, Dr. J. C. Reeve, William Smith, Capt. C. B. Stivers, John H. Thomas, Elihu Thompson, Alfred A. Thomas, McLain Smith, Morgan Wood, Samuel Smith, and A. D. Wilt. For nearly thirty years this small but brilliant coterie met without a break or an addition to their circle.

            The Miami Commercial school went forward by leaps and bounds under Mr. Wilt's wise and efficient superintendence. The fame of the institution spread far and wide, and pupils came from all parts of the country to acquire a thorough business training, and Mr. Wilt was ranked with the leading instructors of the United States. The increasing fame and success of the Miami Commercial (page 170) school emboldened Mr. H. L. Jacobs to establish in 1897 another school devoted to commercialism in Dayton, which, like the Miami school, was prosperous from the start. In about. seven years it passed into the management of Mr. W. E. Harbottle and both institutions grew in the favor of the public at large.

            In the year 1916, a consolidation of the two schools was effected, and Mr. Wilts, feeling that an educational service of over half a century entitled his future years to leisure, withdrew from the school, leaving Mr. Harbottle in full control. But. Mr. Harbottle has proved more than adequate for the responsibility resting upon him, for yearly the Miami-Jacobs Business college has. added to its fame as an up-to-date business institution. The school enrollment from July 1, 1918, to July 1, 1919, was over twelve hundred, and up to October 1, 1919, the new school year numbers five hundred pupils.

            The college is situated in the very heart of the business center of Dayton, and occupies three floors in the Steely building, which is modern in every sense of the word. It is located on the corner of Ludlow and Second streets. There are both day and night sessions, the latter being held two nights of the week for accommodation of students employed during the day. Mr. Harbottle is still at the head of the school, which has earned the just reputation of ranking second to no other business college in the middle west. Conducted on a smaller scale than the Miami-Jacobs Business college of Dayton, but of equal efficiency in all branches taught, the Greater Dayton Business college has won the patronage and favor of the commercial activities of both city and county. In the month of February, 1916, about the time of the consolidation of the Miami Commercial college with the Jacobs Business school, the Misses Ella M. Steely and Bertha P. Longstreth, who for many years had been in charge of the stenographic department of the Miami Commercial college, decided to venture out on the same lines of business for themselves. Securing a pleasant, central location on the third floor of the Young Women's League building, located at 24 West Fourth street, in a short time the Greater Dayton Shorthand school was recognized as one of the valuable educational business assets of the city. Miss Steely did not long share in the appreciation of the work partly established by her ability and efforts, and after her illness and death Miss Longstreth associated with her in a business partnership, Miss Mellie Galloway, formerly in charge of the night class of the Miami Commercial college. Miss Galloway is an expert as a touch operator on the typewriter, and also teaches bookkeeping under the direction of Mr. E. G. Pickering, who has a wide reputation as an expert accountant in auditing, and is often called upon by large business firms to handle and regulate their accounts. Both Miss Galloway and Miss Longstreth are grounded in the science of stenography, and the accuracy of their pupils is ample evidence of the thoroughness of the instruction given. Miss Longstreth has prepared a text book of shorthand, based on the Pitman system, which has been most favorably received. The book is called "Miami Pitmanic Shorthand Instructor," and is used in the Greater Dayton Shorthand school.

            (page 171) Beside instruction in stenography, touch-typewriting and bookkeeping, pupils are carefully taught correct spelling, business English, and office practice. The aim of the school is to prepare its pupils for employment as shorthand teachers, private secretaries, court reporters, civil service stenographers and business stenographers, and most pleasing is the appreciation shown by employers of the work of the students sent them by the Greater Dayton Shorthand school. The number of pupils enrolled during the past year was about one hundred and twenty-five, to whom the instructors give most thorough and individual attention.

            Vocational or Continuation Schools in Dayton. Stimulated by the necessity for skilled workers in a manufacturing center like Dayton, and spurred by the fact that so many boys left school to go to work before their education was completed, some public spirited citizens of Dayton organized, in 1913, a co-operative mechanical educational system which by its practical value has attracted the attention of the Federal Board of Vocational Education.

            The plan had its origin in the minds of J. H. Patterson, E. A. Deeds, manufacturers, and E. J. Brown, superintendent of schools. The plan is briefly this:

            In order to enter the co-operative school a boy must have completed two years of high school work and have reached his sixteenth year. Through an extension of the school year from ten to twelve months, and of the school day from 9 to 11 forty-five minute periods, the boy who does satisfactory work, is enabled to complete his academic work, supplemented with shop correlation, in the same length of time as though he had remained in the regular course. By working a week and going to school a week alternately during the last two years of school life he may graduate with. his class. When a boy desires to enter a co-operative school the principal assists him to find a place in one of the factories of the city which has entered into the co-operative plan. He receives a two-months' preliminary trial during the summer vacation and then, having exhibited a satisfactory capacity for a trade, he is permitted to enter the co-operative school in September. In every case the decision as to what boys are to be permitted to enroll, the amount of time they are expected to spend in the shop and the wages they are to receive, are settled at a conference between the factory representative and the school principal. If several from the same room enter the co-operative school they are paired of so that when one boy is in the shop the other is in the schoolroom.

            Of course the end in view for the manufacturer is to increase his output. If at the end of two years a manufacturer finds himself with two or three employees well along in the course of training instead of having to break in several new operatives, the advantage is obvious. But the great advantage to both employer and employee is that the school trained boy is more alert and goes ahead faster than the boy who is stunted from having been deprived at an early age of all mental training. The inquisitive attitude, without which no person ever advances, is kept alive and intentionally encouraged both in the shop and the school. Stagnation is thus rendered improbable. A boy between 16 and 18 who has not finished his high (page 172) school is not afraid to ask questions, is not afraid to expose his ignorance and consequently keeps on learning all the time. Experience thus far has proved that the boys in the co-operative course not only advance more rapidly in the industry which they have selected but, astonishing as it may seem, in their school studies as well. The close connection between theory and practice which is accomplished by the co-operative scheme, is undoubtedly responsible for this remarkable result. The pupils exhibit greater originality, initiative, adaptability and resourcefulness than their fellows who remain either exclusively in the school or exclusively in the shop.

            The course of study, which is subject to change from year to year, is determined by an advisory committee consisting of the superintendent of schools and five manufacturers. This course, it must be understood, fully meets the college entrance requirements for an accredited high school. At the end of the co-operative high school course the boy either enters college or completes his apprenticeship in the factory. A large percentage of the boys who have availed themselves of this system enter the University of Cincinnati, still on the co-operative basis, and continue to work at the factory where they worked during their high school course. If the boy does not go to college the factory sends him to the Trade Extension school one-half day per week during the last two years of his apprenticeship.

            The special advantages of the co-operative system have been summed up by a prominent manufacturer of Dayton in this way: It makes school work more interesting, increases the ability of the population in general, keeps the boys in school until they graduate, enables a boy to partly support himself while completing his education, betters the citizenship of our city, and is of great value to the smaller industries which are unable to maintain training schools of their own.

            This same manufacturer also said : "No city problem is of more importance than the high standard of our school system. Whatever you desire in your city, put into your schools. * * * It is absolutely necessary to the industrial future of our city that we train our citizenship in a more practical and efficient manner. We cannot educate for work without working."

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