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Memoirs of the Miami Valley - Volume Two
The Story of Lebanon, First Warren County Hero, Commercial Activities of Franklin

The Story of Lebanon.


            (page 366) The history of all early settlements in the middle west are alike in many things, but there are so many points of dissimilarity that each one forms a varied and interesting chapter in state history. The fame of the little log cabin colony called Lebanon had already reached the larger outside world, for Jeremiah Morrow. had sat in the great council of the republic, and Francis Dunlevy elected judge of the First judicial circuit by the legislature, before the little scattering bunch of primitive dwellings was enrolled in the annals of the Miami valleys as a fully fledged municipality, which was done by enactment of the Ohio state legislature on January 9, 1810. The little settlement had for five years been in possession of a postoffice, a year later than the establishment of a mail-center at Waynesville, and was also the county "seat of justice," being so declared by a special act of the legislature on February 11, 1805. This legislative enactment was the cause of much rivalry and ugly feeling flora while in the county. Franklin, Deerfield, and Waynesville all contested for the honor that would make the town chosen the county-seat, and if the age of the settlement desiring it had been a point considered, Deerfield would have been chosen, but the fact that Lebanon was the most centrally located of all the contesting towns brought it the desired site.

            A church, schoolhouse and jail, in time of erection in a community, seem to go hand in hand, as there is always need for the trio. Necessity compelled the use of a prison before the incorporation of the town, and in the year 1804, at the first meeting of the county commissioners of Warren county, the erection of a temporary jail was decided upon, and on the last day of November, 1804, John Tharp, contractor, handed over, as complete, a hewed log building, two stories high, that stood on the northwest corner of Lebanon's public square, which was the first jail, the first county building of Warren county. In course of time, this primitive jail gave place to other larger and more secure buildings, the second prison being a stone house built on the southwestern lot of the public square ; it was but one story in height and cost $990. This was in use for twenty years, but when the prisoners began to escape by digging under the foundations, it was deemed time for the erection of another jail.

            The third prison was completed in 1828 at a cost of $4,000. Daniel Bone was the contractor. It was built on the lot now occupied by the courthouse. To intimidate the prisoners from attempting to escape, each cell was lined with heavy logs over which was nailed two-inch planks; for the most guilty of those confined in the dark cells, a small underground dungeon contributed its horrors to the place. Sixteen years later the present prison was built. The (page 367) walls are of cut stone surrounded by an outer wall of brick, and has six cells.

            Courthouse. It was in February, 1805, that the "seat of justice" for Warren county was established at Lebanon. The next step in order was the building of a courthouse. So anxious were the citizens of Lebanon and vicinity to secure the seat of justice, that the original owners of the town site had promised that if the town was favored by the legislature they would surrender the ownership of each alternate lot in the original plat to the county to aid in the erection of county buildings, and the legislature authorized the acceptation of all subscriptions, for that purpose, whether in the shape of property, labor or money by the county commissioners. In the March following the act establishing the seat of justice, the following named persons appeared before the board of county commissioners and handed to them personal notes on different individuals, as follows : Ichabod Corwin, $425.75; Silas Hurin, $292.55; Ephraim Hathaway, $457.00. Five lots were afterward sold and the proceeds added to the value of the notes, bringing the entire donation up to $1,241.80. In comparison with the commodious interior of the magnificent courthouses of the twentieth century, the size of the first temple of justice in Warren county appears very small, almost insignificant; but in the opening years of the preceding century the building probably was considered most imposing, being the first brick edifice in Warren county. As to space, it covered thirty-six. feet square of territory and was two stories in height, the first elevation measuring twelve feet, the second ten feet. The windows were sixteen in number, eight in each story, the frames of which were black walnut; the panes of glass in each window of the lower story numbered twenty-four, those in the second story being less in each window by four panes. The architecture of the interior was supplemented by a "summer," which was a beam supported by posts, extending through the house. Both the lower and upper stories were heated by fireplaces. In January, 1806, the contractor, Samuel McCray, handed the building over to the county commissioners as completed, for which he was paid $1,450, the contract price. For thirty years this plain brick building, one of the first brick edifices in the Miami valley, was the place of resort to the citizens of Warren county for the adjustment of all wrongs over which the law had suzerainty. It stood where the Lebanon opera house is now located. But in the early thirties the commissioners judged that the walls of the building needed strengthening, but found that they would not stand repairing, and decided upon the erection of a new one, the voters of Warren county assenting, placing it in the eastern part of Lebanon on ground donated for that purpose. In the year 1835 the structure was ready for occupancy, and had cost the county $25,000. But so proud were the people of Warren county of this splendid temple of justice, which stood comparison with any courthouse in the state, that there was but little grumbling done by the taxpayers. It is still today the courthouse used by Warren county. In the year 1880 some necessary repairs were made, but it stands gray and hoary, its walls bringing, with the impressiveness of silence, memories of the men who eloquently pleaded for justice, or against it, in (page 368) the cause of clients to whom, perchance, the, decision of judge or verdict of jury meant life itself.

            But the first courthouse was not torn down. Both utility and sentiment played a part in its preservation. The forms of the illustrious men whose intellect and earnest purpose placed the little town of Lebanon on historic ground, not simply locally, but even nationally, had gone in and out of its doors, and still seemed to make their influence felt. Men had not forgotten that in those rooms lighted by the funny little panes of glass, Gov. Thomas Corwin and Chief Justice John McLean had made their maiden speeches at the bar. In the sacred office of legal arbitrators, under Ohio's first constitution, had sat Francis Dunlevy, Joshua Collett and George J. Smith as president judges, and, still desiring to keep it in the public service, it was adopted as a town hall. And truly did it still help in the intellectual uplift of the village. The Mechanics' institute held in those historic rooms the weekly meetings that did so much for the advancement of scientific knowledge in the community ; there the people enjoyed Lebanon's first library and reading room. In the year 1844 a third story was added by the Masons of the county and, for many years, was their regular place of assembly. But the fire alarm of the village, on the morning of September 1, 1874, summoned the citizens to the most calamitous fire in the history of the village. Not only was this venerated "house of illustrious memories" consumed by the wrath of the flames, but the Ross hotel, Congregational church and other buildings were destroyed. But the conflagration did not leave the people of Lebanon without a town hall. The town council of the village was progressive in its plans for the public welfare, and in the year 1855 it was resolved by that honorable body of citizens that a market house, with which suitable quarters for the fire department should be connected, was necessary for the convenience of the citizens of Lebanon. To resolve was to act, and so speedily was the building of the structure accomplished that a part of the Christmas eve festivities of the winter of 1856 consisted of a festival given under the auspices of the Franklin Independent fire company in the second story of the new market house, which was Lebanon's second "town hall." But the name "town hail" did not carry any special significance, and a few weeks later the stockholders met and bestowed upon the room the name of the nation's first president, and it stands among the earlier memories of the pretty village, as Washington hall. In Washington hall have been held some of the most exciting and momentous assemblies ever recorded in Warren county annals. There in April, 1861, was held the enthusiastic meeting that pledged the allegiance of Warren county to the Union, and gatherings scarce less important, all testifying to the patriotism of the grand old county and the dependence to be placed on the loyalty of its stalwart citizenship.

            But as the population and prosperity of Lebanon increased, the public spirit kept even pace with progressiveness along all lines, and a more modern place of amusement was demanded by the citizens of the town, and in September, 1878, a beautiful opera house, built at an expense of nearly $40,000, was formally dedicated. It is a (page 369) handsome structure both as to exterior and interior, with a seating capacity of 1,200 persons and a stage large enough to attract the best class of histrionic entertainments.

            Mechanics' Institute. One of the earliest activities in promoting the intellectual and scientific standards of the people of the village was the organization of the Lebanon Mechanics' institute in 1834. Its object was the "diffusion of useful knowledge," and it counted in its list of members the most enterprising, ambitious and intelligent young men in Lebanon. A more than average library was gathered on its shelves in the old courthouse. The weekly program comprehended talks on valuable subjects by eminent men of different professions and vocations in life, which were always discussed by the members of the institute at the close of the lecture. It is conceded that the organization was a leading factor in keeping the village alive to the influence and necessity of intellectual culture, and doubtless the reputation that Lebanon at present maintains for its high mental cultivation was largely founded upon the intellectual work of the Lebanon Mechanics' institute. The library of the institute has now a nook of its own in the Carnegie library, which was opened January 1, 1908.

            Lebanon Schools. Interested as were the early settlers of Warren county in the education of their children, the lads and lassies for many years pursued their studies in schoolhouses built of logs covered with clapboards. Not until the fall of 1838 did the citizens of Lebanon vote for a public schoolhouse, the construction of which was agreed could cost as much as $4,000, but years passed and no schoolhouse was forthcoming. In the fall of 1847 the matter was more strongly agitated, and in September a public meeting was called and a resolution passed to levy a tax of $7,000, and in the year 1851 the admiring children of the village carried their slates, geographies and apples into the first public school house of Lebanon. It was built of brick, two stories in height, and contained five rooms, and was located on the present public school grounds. Mr. Josiah Hurty, for many years later a well-known teacher in educational circles of the middle west, was the first public school superintendent in Lebanon_ The village was so unfortunate as to lose the building by fire eleven years later. but within almost twelve months a new building stood on the same site, to which an addition of two rooms was made in the year 1880. But Lebanon soon realized that more commodious and more modern school buildings were needed for its young people if the town was to keep step with the advancement that was being made by cities almost within gunshot of its town clocks. So, though the building was in excellent condition, the citizens of Lebanon voted for a tax of $40,000, and in the year 1893 the town proudly gazed upon a building whose completion and furnishing cost them $46,000, but which was regarded as money well expended, for they had the proud satisfaction of knowing that their village possessed the finest schoolhouse in the county. The town soon realized the necessity of providing a high school building for the more advanced classes. It was to cost $60,000, and a special election was held in October, 1916, to ascertain the will of the people of the town and township concerning it. A ballot of (page 370) 711 votes was cast, with a majority in favor of the erection of a building, but war conditions deferred its erection, and rooms in the old Lebanon academy, which was built in 1844, were appropriated for the use of high school pupils.

            Lebanon Normal School. It can be truthfully said that no school in the middle west-possibly greater extent of territory might be included-ever exerted so wide an influence in the cause of education, as the normal school at Lebanon, opened by Prof. Alfred Holbrook and wife in the year 1855. Normal schools were scattered over the country since the opening of the first school of the kind in Massachusetts in the year 1839, some being organized under the name of "seminary."

            The founder of the Lebanon school was born in Connecticut in the year 1816. His father had achieved a reputation in the eastern part of the country as the founder of the lecture system of popular instruction and teachers' institutes, and he also carried on in Boston, between his lecture periods, a manufactory of school apparatus. Young Alfred's school days were almost entirely included in the first twelve years of his life, as he was then made to go and work in his father's manufactory, but his father, ambitious for his son's intellectual culture, occupied the lad's unemployed hours with hard study,-which naturally broke down the boy's health and he returned to his home in Derby, Connecticut. Inheriting from his father a desire to impart instruction, Alfred at the age of seventeen years embarked upon his life profession of teaching. But for a while his course was changed, and determining to become an engineer, he went to New York and, for a time, engaged in the manufacture of surveyor's instruments. A desire to go to college was frustrated by his father's refusing to grant his permission, although a college man himself, for the reason that colleges were promoters of bad methods and morals. The young man came to Ohio to begin his surveying experience, but his ill health prevented the carrying on of the work, and he accepted a place as teacher at Berea, a village not far from Cleveland. The school in which he was engaged became the nucleus of the famous Baldwin university, for many years one of the largest and most favorably known schools in northern Ohio. While here he had the happy fortune to marry Miss Melissa Pearson, whose intellectual endowments and culture were of great assistance to him in his life-work of teaching. As the years came, Prof. Holbrook was connected with several large schools in northern Ohio, but in the year 1855 was asked to take the superintendency of the Southwestern Normal school about to be established at Lebanon, Ohio.

            The establishment of the normal school at Lebanon is not only an interesting incident in the history of Warren county, but in that of the state as well, and was the result of a conference of a small number of the leading instructors of southwestern Ohio, who felt the need of such a school in this part of the state. The conference decided to call a general convention, and in obedience to the summons, between three and four hundred teachers assembled at Miami university at Oxford, Ohio, and effected an organization, to be known as the Southwestern Normal School association for the purpose of (page 371) establishing and maintaining a state normal school until such time as the state would make it one of its own institutions. After much debate as to the location of the school, Lebanon was chosen as the most desirable place. The trustees of the association immediately got in touch with the right men in Lebanon, who at once perceived the immense advantage such an institution would be, both intellectually and financially, to the village, and the trustees of the Lebanon academy were persuaded to make over the academy erected in the year 1845, and grounds to the trustees of the proposed normal school, and also agreed to furnish at least eighty pupils every year for four years towards the support of the institution. But where could be found an instructor both intellectually and executively able to fill the demands of leadership? The success of Prof. Holbrook as an instructor had reached the Miami valleys, and he was urged to resign the superintendency of the public schools at Salem, Ohio, and assume the directorship of the new venture instituted at Lebanon. Acceptation with him meant action, and he hurried to the village and at once began to pull wires for the success of the school, which he had immediately described as possessing great potentialities in many directions. On November 24, 1855, ninety-five pupils registered as students of the new Southwestern Normal school ; ninety of these enrolled were from the homes of Lebanon, the remainder from outside localities, one of whom was William H. Venable, the distinguished poet and teacher. Little did the residents of Lebanon know the benefit in every way that this school was to bring to their village. It placed the little town among the leading intellectual centers not only of the state, but the school eventually gained a national reputation for progressiveness in every department for the guidance and development of those placed in the responsible, and even sacred, office of instructing the young. The teaching corps for the first year was small, consisting of Prof. Holbrook, his wife and three assistants, but so thorough was the instruction imparted, so fully did it meet the requirements of the pupils, that the attendance yearly increased, and in the year 1881, its high-water period of success, the enrollment was 1,850. Nearly every state and territory in the Union was represented upon the school register.

            The name of the school underwent several changes. From "State Normal school" it was altered to the "Southwestern Normal school," and becoming more ambitious, in the year 1870, it was transmuted into the "National Normal school," and eleven years later ascended into the "National Normal university," but the organization of numerous schools of the same type throughout the state seemed to rob the school of its particular prestige or individuality, and in the year 1907, the word "normal" was entirely eliminated and the name "Lebanon university" adopted. But to the gray-haired men and women who, so many years ago, saw the bright stars of future success gleaming through the many discouragements of their school-life, and as memory brings back the pleasant friendships formed, and even more tender association, it is still the "dear old Normal."

            (page 372) Perchance, what might be called a mistake was made in the early nineties, when, owing to financial difficulties, the school was reorganized, and its business affairs placed under a board of control, for Prof. Holbrook had, for so many years, held the management of the school along all its lines, that he grew restive under the changed conditions, and in the year 1897 submitted his resignation, which was accepted, and in the following year took the position of chancellor of the Southern Normal university, located at Huntington, Tennessee, which, he said, he should endeavor to bring up to even a greater efficiency than the school at Lebanon, with which he had been connected as manager and leader for over forty years. It is comparatively easy to speak of a man as being "wonderful." It is better to know wherein his success consisted, and thus be truly able to appreciate and, if possible, to emulate the qualities that rendered him distinguished, especially when those qualifications went to the betterment of the community in which he lived. And this may be truly said of the life and work of Prof. Alfred Holbrook, during his educational labors in the little town of Lebanon. His utter contempt of all obstacles in his work won the respect and confidence of all associated with him. At the opening of the school, the public school teachers of the Miami valley, as a rule, were opposed to the institution, on the ground that the influx of teachers from other neighborhoods would tend to lower the wages of the Miami valley instructors. Prof. Holbrook knew that it was not a matter of numbers or wages, but of efficiency, and the teachers who, in time were graduated from the Holbrook Normal school, quickly found that the diplomas received by them from this institution were "open sesame" to better situations and more lucrative salaries. The high ideals in work and character held up by Prof. Holbrook constantly before his pupils made stronger men and women of them for battling for success in their life-work, and many of the fathers and mothers of the present generation are in the wise and loving counsel given by them to their children, simply reflecting the wisdom and able counsel given them, so long before, at the Holbrook school in Lebanon.

            When he accepted the control of the Lebanon school, Prof. Holbrook had six young children who grew up an honor, both to their parents and the community. When they reached manhood and womanhood they became able assistants to their father in his work. Josiah Holbrook, the present recorder of Warren county and a resident of Lebanon, is a son of the eminent founder of the Lebanon Normal university. Of this able county officer, it may truly be said that he is "a worthy son of a worthy father." He was seventeen years of age when, as a member of company F, 12th Ohio Volunteer infantry, under the captaincy of Rigdon Williams, for over three years he followed the fag of his country in the Civil war, returning, after his discharge, to his father's school to complete his studies, receiving his diploma in the year 1865. Choosing his father's profession as his own, Mr. Holbrook for some years was at the head of the public schools in Montgomery, Alabama, and later organized and was president of the Holbrook Normal college at Knoxville, Tennessee, for three -years. In the year 1876 he was (page 373) united in marriage to Miss Laura Mason, daughter of one of the leading physicians of Harveysburg, a young woman known throughout the Miami valley for her beauty of face and refined, cultured, womanly qualities.

            After they have crossed the threescore line of human existence, there are but few men courageous enough to enter as a competitor the arena of politics. For over a year and a half Josiah Holbrook filled the office of clerk of the trustees of public affairs, and is now completing his fourth term as recorder of Warren county.

            The many cares devolving upon Prof. Alfred Holbrook in the responsible work that crowded his days, did not keep him from using his pen to extend his influence. Two books of value to every teacher are his "School Management," and "Normal Methods"; the latter has been translated into the Japanese language, and is much prized by the teachers of that far-off island. Two works on the English language, "English Grammar" and "Training Lessons," have been of practical use in the educational world.

            After several years' residence in the South, Prof. Holbrook returned to Lebanon, and passed his last days among his friends, who realized that, through his efforts, their home town had become widely known as a college center, and that, in a certain sense, he was the greatest benefactor, in the deep, true sense of the word, that had ever gone up and down the streets of the pretty village. Financially, his life had been a blessing to the community, for the patronage of the 'hundreds of students, who yearly were residents of the town, was far from trifling. But better than the financial gain was the impetus that his teaching, his standards of thought and education were to the youth, not only of the village, but also to those who came from near and far, to carry away with them ideals of true living which, in turn, they also would impart to others. In a book published in his seventieth year, entitled- "Reminiscences of the Happy Life of a Teacher," Prof. Holbrook has written of his life work in Lebanon, and it is a chronicle that shows deep devotion to the highest, best things in life.

            He passed away at his home in Lebanon, April 16, 1909, at the advanced age of ninety-three years. The “last of life” was to him singularly happy. His friends delighted to show their re

            spect and honor for him. The anniversary of his birthday was always remembered, and the one hundredth anniversary of his natal day, which fell in June, 1916, was made a veritable "homecoming" occasion, for Lebanon was . full of gray-haired men and women who, for a brief period, dropped the cares of business and home, and journeyed, from near and far, to the pretty shady town in the Miami valley, to honor the memory of the man who, each and all realized, had impressed them with the truth and joy of noble living.

            Teachers' Institutes. Four years after the first teachers' Institute was held in 1847 at Cincinnati, the teachers of Warren county organized a similar association and held its first meeting in the ensuing summer in the academy at Maineville. And during the nearly seventy years that have elapsed since that date, regular sessions of the institute have been held, where leading speakers of (page 374) national reputation, have brought mental stimulus and encouragement to the teachers of the Miami valley, and proved a potent agency in keeping instructors, and the pupils to whom they imparted the knowledge gained, in touch with the best and most advanced thought of current times.

            Lebanon Public Schools. The Lebanon public schools under the efficient superintendency of Mr. Claude A. Brewer, who has filled the office for three years, are counted among the best schools of southwestern Ohio. The curriculum of study is arranged to render the boys and girls, who are given the prized, worked-for diplomas at the close of their school days, fully qualified to take a trustworthy place in the workaday life of the world, if they so desire, and to hold fast to the highest ideals no matter where their path may lead. Many of the pupils have availed themselves of the domestic science and manual training courses. The latter embraces joinery, Farm Buildings, Metal Work, Cabinet Making, and the addition of a business course to the high school studies has largely added to the attendance. There are at present a full enrollment of 1,026 pupils.

            The list of teachers of Lebanon Village School District comprises : High School, R. M. Bradford, principal ; L. V. Simms, history and mathematics ; W. E. Simms, science; E. C. Kerr, vocational ; Mrs. Lucille Berry, English ; Miss Bernice Evans, Latin ; Miss Alice Sowers, domestic science.

            Special teachers: Bertha Brown, art and penmanship; Margaret Rife, music; R. P. Williams, physical director.

            Grades: E. J. Steddom, principal; Vella Behm, Gertrude Brown, Nell Swindler, Ona Strawn, Mayme Evans, Anna Snook, Helen Ullum, Helen Wood, Pearl Le Faver, Wanda Iorns Katherine Will, Lucy Ross, primary supervisor; Almeda McClung, Ruth Dakin, Nellie Wise.

            Rural: Evelyn St. John, Beatrice Ullum, Owen Carter, Agnes Bowsher, Lura Irons, Esther Wunderly, Lillian Long, Gertrude Seaman, Marie Augspurger, Florence Kleinhenn, Mabel Lane, Margaret Roberts, Jeanette Bowers, Helen Mounts, Mildred Meloy, Ina Perrine, Katherine Presley.

            Post offices. Nearly ten years elapsed after the first settlements in Warren county, before the United States government established a mail distributing point within its borders. The pioneers in southwestern Ohio received their mail at the little postoffice in Cincinnati. If a letter from his dear old home came over the mountains to Israel Jones, whose cabin was located in Turtle creek township, it would simply be addressed to "Israel Jones, Turtle creek," and the post rider or stage coach would bring it to the overjoyed recipient. But within two years after state. government was conferred upon Ohio by the National congress, Warren county rejoiced in the possession of four mail distributing offices, located, respectively, at Waynesville, Deerfield, Franklin and Lebanon. Several years later, Warren county settlers whose homes were near the boundary line of Hamilton county were able to get their mail at Montgomery in that county.

            Now, when a letter from New York City addressed to one residing in Lebanon will reach him in twenty-four hours, one can (page 375) scarcely imagine or appreciate the patience of a settler, anxious for news from an eastern point, when it is remembered that it required seven days for a post rider to carry the mail on a circuit starting from Cincinnati, passing through Lebanon, Xenia, Urbana, then across to Piqua, returning again to his starting place, via Franklin and Hamilton. But patient waiting was part of the spiritual armor against discouragement of the early settler, and he, doubtless, thought that the very acme of progressiveness had come to his environment when, in 1825, the weekly visits of the post rider made way for the tri-weekly coming of the stage coach with the coveted letters.

            The postmasters of Lebanon during the first hundred years of its history as a municipal corporation were : William Ferguson, Jeremiah Lawson, Matthias Ross, Daniel F. Reeder, George Harnesberger, John Reeves, George Kesling, Thomas F. Brodie, Elijah Dynes, Ira Watts, Hiram Yeo, Mrs. Belle E. Parshall, T. H. Blake, J. W. Lingo, Thomas Starry, Mrs. Mary V. Proctor, Owen S. Higgins and Wm. H. Antrim.

            The record of Mr. William H. Antrim as postmaster is not only a record of faithful service as one of the efficient servants of both the United States government and a Lebanon public, but his wonderful kindness to the little folks of Lebanon at the holiday season is one of the beautiful chapters in the local history of Lebanon. Every Christmas day he was a veritable "Santa Claus" to hundreds of the, children of the town, and men and women in future years will recall with a warm glow of heart the happiness that postmaster W. H. Antrim, a Warren county boy by birth, brought into their childish lives at Christmas tide. Free mail delivery was established in Lebanon in the spring of 1900, and blue-gray uniforms of the faithful carriers play an important part in the business and social activities of the progressive town. The postoffice at Lebanon is now under the capable management of Mr. Charles B. Dechant, assisted by Ray Starry, assistant postmaster, and an office force of Misses Bertha Walker, Florence Brown and Messrs. Seldon Luce and H. H. Hamilton. , Shoe Factory. It was a red letter day in the commercial history of Lebanon when the corner-stone of the new shoe factory vas laid on Tuesday, December 5, 1911. The ceremony was performed by the Hon. J. W. Lingo, after which the proprietors of the new enterprise, Messrs. E. H. and K. M. Elbinger, were formally introduced to the large assemblage by Mr. John Marshall Mulford, editor of the Lebanon Western Star. A short address was made by Mr. Lingo.

            The factory was opened for work in February of the ensuing year, and is one of the most complete in equipment of any similar plant in the state. Four stories in height, on the first floor are found the offices and packing and shipping departments. Ascending to the second floor, the visitor enters the well-lighted lasting, buttoning and finishing department, while the cutting and stitching are done on the top floor ; in the basement is placed the machinery for sole cutting and fitting. The entire factory is furnished with light (page 376) and power furnished by an immense 100 horsepower engine, 600 dynamo, located in an adjoining building.

            Newspapers. It would be interesting to know the hopes and ambition that filled the heart of young John McLean, as on a hot summer day in the year 1806 he "gee-d" and "haw-d" at the patient oxen that were meekly drawing over the forest-lined road the printing press whose primitive type was to weekly bring the "news" of the outer world, and in time help mould the opinions, as it does today, of the men and women of the Miami valleys. The trip from Cincinnati was of more than twenty-four hours' duration, for the feet of the weary beasts, in their slow, persevering way, were long in covering the road. And the thought comes, when he neared the little settlement of Lebanon which to him was home, as the shadows slowly gathered, did the beautiful evening star that was probably glorifying the sunset sky, give him the inspiration to name his proposed enterprise "The Western Star"?

            Tradition whispers that the prized treasure so carefully loaded in the springless, creaking ox-cart, was the first printing press ever in use in southern Ohio, and was brought to Cincinnati in the year 1793, and from it were folded the damp sheets of "The Liberty Hall," until, in 1806, it had to give way to an improved press, the Stanhope, imported from England, and it then became the property of the future associate justice of the supreme court of the United States, and very proud was he as the oxen made their way through the village streets yet full of stumps, to the little office of the young aspirant for editorial renown. History also recounts that it was a wood press with a bed of stone, its motive power consisting of a bar that it was a herculean task to work, and the three hundred copies that weekly were issued to the three hundred subscribers represented not only labor of brain but brawn as well. If the print. at times, was dim and almost illegible and aroused the ire of the reader, the fault could be legitimately ascribed to the "devil" having failed to evenly ink the type with the pelt balls, that in course of time were to give way to the rollers now in universal use. It would likewise be interesting to place one of the first small sized issues by one of the large, Splendid copies that now, every week go to the many hundreds of subscribers in the Miami valleys from the complete, modern press, run by electricity, that places the office- of The Western Star among the up-to-date offices of the present day. The comparison would be great, but not invidious, for the little sheet played an important part in the entertainment and intellectual life of the early settlers, in bringing to the people the latest tidings of political events in Europe, for the birth of the editorial was an unknown power in primitive journalism, and the social and fashion feature departments were impossible because pioneer life knew them not. The comparison would consist solely in the size of the papers and material furnished. Unfortunately there is not a copy of the first issue of the paper in existence to show whether or not the young editor made his introductory bow gracefully, timidly, or authoritatively to his reading public. Probably authoritatively, for the faith in his own ability that eventually landed him upon the highest judicial bench of the nation, was not latent when he (page 377) undertook the duties of editor of the first newspaper published in the Little Miami valley.         

            It was not smooth sailing always to John McLean during the two years that constituted his connection with the Western Star.

            There were no telegraph wires or long distance telephones to bring an order of paper by an express wagon to the office door; the paper was often suspended several weeks at a time, especially in winter, for heavy snows made the roads impassable to travel by oxen express, and the high water or ice often stopped the operations of the paper mill that furnished the desired commodity. In connection with the editing of the Western Star, Mr. McLean carried on the work of publishing pamphlets and books, the most notable one being "The Testimony of Christ's Second Appearing," a publication printed for the Shakers of Union Village.

            Nathaniel McLean, who had been associated with his brother as printer, then assumed the editorship and publication. He had reached his twenty-third year and was thoroughly conversant with his trade, having learned it in Cincinnati in the press room of The Liberty Hall, at a time when there were but three printing offices in the state, Cincinnati, Chillicothe and Marietta. Mr. McLean's connection with the Western Star continued until the year 1814, during which time he received, as did the other professional men of the period, part of the pay for his editorial labors in farm produce or whatever commodity that the subscriber had to offer. Like his elder brother, John, he held political aspirations, and was twice sent by Warren county to the state legislature, and for seven years employed as keeper at the penitentiary in Columbus, but in the year 1849 he caught the Minnesota fever and removed to St. Paul, engaging in the newspaper business which brought him much wealth.

            The reader of the newspaper of today often unfolds it with dissatisfaction, as he sees page after page barren of "news," but covered with advertisements printed to allure every housewife away from domestic duties for a visit to the bargain counter, where she can purchase for ninety-eight cents the article that yesterday could not have been bought for less than one dollar. The advertising column of the early Western Star was generally filled with, perchance, notices of estray horses, that have been appraised at twenty dollars, and one advertisement was for tidings of a runaway apprentice, for which a reward of six and one-fourth cents would be paid. There is often the information that "good rye whisky at 40 cents per gallon will be taken in exchange for goods at Lebanon." The advertisers sometimes permitted business jealousy to color their public announcements, as is seen in the issue of April 16, 1821, when eight cabinetmakers of the village signed an advertisement or rather an announcement of the bad qualities of a glue that is being manufacture in Lebanon by "a certain Richard Ellis." The subscribers plaintively announce that they have used his glue and evince no hesitancy in asserting that "it is the worst glue that they ever attempted to use," adding that the odor of it was so obnoxious to them, after it is dissolved, "that one cannot stay in the shop."  Even religious belief sometimes dictated the advertisements of the merchants.

            (page 378) As late as December, 1842, W. F. Parshall & Co. ask their customers to please settle all accounts, as the Rev. Mr. Miller recently prophesied from his study of the Scriptures that the windup of all earthly affairs would occur in the ensuing April. Why they were so anxious to have money in hand at that thrilling time, they do not say, but they desire all indebtedness to them to be squared by the first of February; they also announce that their goods "will be sold very cheap from this time on."

            The name of William H. P. Denny is associated with the Western Star as editor longer than that of any other who, in that capacity, used the quill and scissors. His motto "Be just and fear not," exemplified the spirit of fearlessness that impelled his pen. The individuality of the editor had, by this time, crept into the public press, and perchance there was scarcely ever a time in the history of the American nation when the newspaper was as strong in influence as during the formative days of the great Republican and Democratic parties. One of the most amiable, gentle-hearted of men in his daily life, yet so intense was Mr. Denny in his political faith, that in propagation of Whiggism his words seemed fairly to scorch the columns of his paper. Mr. W. H. Venable in his graphic centennial sketch-of Lebanon thus depicts the veteran printer: "I can fancy I see him in the printing office, his shirt sleeves rolled up, his white, small hands a little inky, a goose quill stuck over his ear, as he stands beside the press ready to pull the lever. That goose quill dripped Whig vituperation, that press stamped ignominy upon locofocoism. But the man was as gentle as he was valiant."

            Mr. Denny, as editor and publisher, was longer in control of the Western Star than any other man who sat in its editorial sanctum, his proprietorship continuing for over a quarter of a century. During his lifetime he was connected with other newspapers in Ohio, and his whole editorial activity lasted more than fifty years, and, including his apprenticeship and work as printer, he was probably longer in newspaper work than any other man in the state of Ohio. He was sent to the state senate by the Whigs of Warren county, and later, moving his 'residence to Pickaway county, served the people of Circleville as postmaster for seven years.

            With the publication of the Western Star through the long period of its history there has never been a break in its editorship. Like a lighted torch, it has been passed from hand to hand, always casting the light of pure Americanism into the intricacies of political problems, and never losing its influence for right over the community. Associated with its editorship and publication at different periods, are the names of Jacob Morris, A. H. Dunlevy, Dr. W. H. Corwin, Hon. Seth W. Brown, William McClintock, Dr. Herschel I. Fisher, Addison Russell ; Mr. McClintock twice filled the editorial chair, and was succeeded by Mr. Will McKay, who afterwards was editor of the Wilmington journal, the leading Republican paper of Clinton county. The death of Mr. McKay while engaged in this public work, was regarded by his friends and admirers as a great   loss to fine journalism.

            (page 379) Never has the Western Star been more influential and as far-reaching in its influence as it is today under the editorial management of Messrs. John Marshall Mulford and William Fraser. It easily stands as the leading weekly paper of southwestern Ohio. Better than aggressiveness is its steady attitude against all chicanery in politics, national, state, and local. It is always heading the procession for progressiveness in everything pertaining to the improvement of all town and county conditions. No partiality is ever shown in its columns along denominational lines, as is too often the case with papers published in small centers of population. There are two causes in the furtherance of which the colors of the Western Star float a little higher on all occasions, and these are, Temperance and Republicanism. From the very first issue of the paper under the management of its present editor, Mr. John Marshall Mulford, the Star has been an enemy of the saloon, uncompromising, unrelenting in its assault, never yielding a single point of its attack. It has been straightforward prohibition on a road that has had no turn to the right or the left, and there is no journal in the state, possibly in the entire country, that has advanced the propaganda of prohibition more zealously, more untiringly, and more effectively than the Western Star under its present editorial leadership. Not only in the cause of temperance has Mr. Mulford stood for the protection of society, but he has tried to guard it against every evil that would lower the standard of morality in the community. And so kindly has the spirit of reform been manifested by the paper, so strongly and plainly has it been seen that the good of all concerned was meant to be expressed, that never has the journal been accused of having "an axe to grind." The same consistent course has been pursued in politics. Believing in the standards, the principles of the Republican party, the Western Star has been true to its ticket under rough as well as smooth sailing. Mr. Mulford is a son of Warren county, being born in the little town of Maineville. He is a man of wide intellectual attainment, courteous and kindly in manner, and one of the strongest editorial writers in southern Ohio. Before assuming the control of the Western Star he was a school teacher and fully as successful in that profession as he is now in running a newspaper. The reputation of Mr. Mulford as an able editorial writer has traveled far beyond his home boundaries. In the fall of the year 1918, The Editor and Publisher of New York City, the oldest of the journals published in the interests of the printers of the United States, offered a prize for the best editorial that would interest and add to the number of subscribers to the Fourth Liberty loan. Over six hundred editors entered the contest ; the great dailies of both the East and West desiring a prize that stood for enthusiastic patriotism. On the seventh of October Mr. Mulford's intense loyalty to human liberty found expression in an editorial entitled, "Again, Kamerad, No!" To Mr. Mulford's gratification and the pride of his friends, several weeks later he was notified that both editor and paper had been awarded a "certificate of distinguished merit," one of the second prizes, the first laurel being a gold medal, which was won by Mr. Elmer T. Peterson of the Wichita (Kansas) (page 380)Beacon. Mr. Mulford was one of several editors winning the "certificate of distinguished merit."

            For twelve years Mr. Mulford has been engaged in the responsible duties of journalism, the Western Star being purchased by him of Messrs. Pauly and Houseworth, in February, 1907. His progressive spirit was at once in evidence by the almost immediate installment in the office of a monotype or type-making machine, which is rarely seen in a town as small as Lebanon. Mr. Mulford resides in Lebanon, and his pleasant home is one of the musical centers of the town, his wife being a musician of rare attainment. Mr. William Fraser who, for about six years has been associated as local editor with Mr. Mulford in the publication of the Western Star, is one of Lebanon's prominent young business men. Intelligent, fully comprehending everything connected with newspaper work, in all things he is truly the "right-hand man" of the editor in-chief, and is fast winning a reputation for ability that makes the future most promising to him. He is also a Warren county boy, and his home and little family are very popular in Lebanon. A noteworthy fact in the story of the Western Star, which, next to the Scioto Gazette, is the oldest paper in the state of Ohio, is that in the one hundred and twelve years of its history its name has never been altered or changed, which is so often the case when a paper passes under new management. As has already been said, books and pamphlets were given to- the reading public from the printing press of the Western Star, even at the early period of John McLean's connection with the paper. In the year 1812, a calendar, known as the Lebanon Almanac, was printed at the Western Star office, which bore on its title page, as author of the astronomical calculations contained therein, the name of Matthias Corwin, jr. This was succeeded by other almanacs and pamphlets, and even spelling books came from the same source. The abolishing of the old wooden press and the placing of a new cylinder press in the work room of the Western Star in the year 1870 was an improvement to the looks of the paper, and when, five years afterwards, steam power was introduced as a labor-saving agency, the efficiency of the paper was more than doubled.

            Previous to the outbreak of the Civil war, a number of newspapers had a sporadic existence in Lebanon. Political changes. formation of new parties were responsible for the natal hour of many of them. Some had only a few months of life, others reached a promising childhood, and then came to an untimely end. A few related to the interests of the farmers of the Miami valleys, but lack of appreciation from its special class of readers or poor editorship accounted for their brief life. Among these short-lived journals may be enumerated the Farmer, the Ohio Argus, the American Democrat, the Spirit of Freedom, the Second Sober Thought, the Buckeye Mercury, and the Democratic Citizen. The last-named journal met a most disastrous fate. So intense was the Republicanism of the Miami valley, especially in the boundaries of Warren county, that at the time of the beginning of the war of the Rebellion, political partisanship was the unwritten law, and a man had to be either decidedly for or against the South. Warren county tolerated no (page 381) half-way attitude, and however unjust it may have been, to many hot-headed Republicans the term "Democrat" was synonymous with Southern sympathizer, and the intensity of the sentiment was responsible for the demolition of the Democratic Citizen. In the year 1877 the Lebanon Gazette was started by Mr. W. H. P. Denny, who did not succeed in establishing a permanent footing. During all this troublous time of competition the serene rays of the Western Star never were hidden nor obstructed, and so valuable is it today to its subscribers, that notwithstanding the flood of daily journals that pour into Lebanon from the neighboring cities of Cincinnati and Dayton, it has a place in the affection of the people of Warren county that no rival journal will ever be able to weaken. There are also six or seven other weekly papers published in the limits of Warren county, but the Star leads them all in age and progressiveness.

            The Lebanon Patriot. But the hour struck when the Democratic following of the Miami valley, especially in Warren county, demanded a journal for the propaganda of its party platform and principles. Three years after the close of the war, in the year 1868, Gen. Durbin Ward, the noted and respected leader of the Democratic ranks in southwestern Ohio, established the Lebanon Patriot in Lebanon. He was the very man for the work. A reputation. for true patriotism had been established by him that was far above all narrow lines of party prejudice. The name of Durbin Ward was the first on the enlistment roll of volunteer service after the call of President Lincoln for 75,000 men. This fact was not forgotten by the people of the Miami valley, and the names of many dyed-in-the-wool Republicans were on the first subscription list of the Lebanon Patriot, because of the honor and affection they had for Gen. Durbin Ward. So zealous was Gen. Ward for the promulgation of Democratic tenets, that he shouldered all expense connected with the publishing of the Patriot, until it stood firmly above all apprehension of foundering. For a series of years it was ably edited and published by Mr. Edward Warwick, and when he relinquished its control it passed into the editorial management of Mr. A. A. Roland.

            The most brilliant era in the history of the Lebanon Patriot is when Mr. Thomas Meigher Proctor assumed its editorial duties. He came to the work not only splendidly qualified by natural ability, but by years of newspaper service, having been connected in a literary capacity with many of the leading newspapers of the country. For several years he was sole editor and manager of the Home Weekly, a bright little sheet published at the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan home at Xenia, Ohio, in the interest of that splendid institution. About 1881, desiring a wider field of opportunity, he went to Wilmington, Ohio, and became editor and publisher of the Clinton County Democrat, a paper of large circulation and influence, but in the year 1883, the call of the future located him in Lebanon, where he entered upon the editorial duties of the Patriot with a bright, keen grasp of what was due a community from a newspaper, and in a short time the opinions of Tom Proctor upon politics, both national and local, were eagerly looked for with avidity by the (page 382) people of the Miami valley by friend and political foe alike, for they were so original, so trenchant, and so often hit the nail on the head, that Tom Proctor, in a slight degree attained a Tom Corwin notoriety for wit and pungency. His death in the summer of 1891 created a vacancy in southern Ohio journalism that has never been    filled as Tom Proctor filled it.

            But the Lebanon Patriot did not fall into hands unequal to the task of ably carrying it on the lines for which it had been established. Mr. Proctor's wife, Mary Swindler Proctor, was mentally endowed with ability to continue the editing and publishing the paper to the entire satisfaction of the Democrats of the Miami valley. It is no mere stringing together of words to say that the wife of Thomas Meigher Proctor is a remarkable woman. A daughter of one of the old farm-homesteads in the valley of the Rappahannock, Virginia, she was only a toddler of four years of age when her parents came to Ohio and located on a farm in Greene county, where she attended the rural schools of the neighborhood. She was but fifteen years of age when she began the serious work of life by teaching country schools, the sunny age when nothing is expected of a happy-faced girl but to be happy as the birds and f lowers are happy. But to Mary Swindler, then barely entering her "teens," the future meant earnest, serious application in whatever path duty might lead. Realizing the need of a broader education, after two years of faithful work in the schoolroom, she entered the Xenia Female college, where so faithfully did she apply herself that the required course of study was completed in a year and a half. Securing a place as teacher at the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan home, she met Mr. Proctor, then editor of the Home Weekly, and on the twenty-seventh day of November became his wife, the marriage taking place at the home. Her quickness to grasp the problems, clear insight into probabilities and fine mental training made her a most fitting and capable wife for a young, ambitious newspaper man, and her pen was often called upon for contributions to the columns of the paper which her husband was, at the time, editing. In speaking of the Patriot at the time Mr. Proctor was its editor-in-chief, one has said, "In no small degree its prosperity must be attributed to the foresight, prudence, and executive ability of Mrs. Proctor."

            The death of her husband cast Mrs. Proctor on her own resources for a livelihood, and there was another important- element for her consideration, and that was the support and education of her only child, a daughter, Merrill Anna Proctor. With wise judgment she decided to continue the editing and publishing of the Lebanon Patriot, a work most congenial to her, and with which, through assisting her husband she had become very familiar. With the courage born of grief and necessity, she at once assumed the sole control, both as editor and publisher, of the Lebanon Patriot, and by her wise judgment, mental training, thorough understanding of what a newspaper means to an intelligent community, and her firm adherence to the standards and tenets of the Democratic party, she placed the paper in the front ranks of literary journalism and also made it a leading party organ.

            (page 383) But it was not always easy sailing for this woman-editor. Her thorough understanding of political issues has in reality made her a leader in Warren county politics. Democrats generally recognize this fact and often accept her judgment and far-sighted opinions while others are prone to chafe under her directorship. Firm, uncompromising in her attitude towards all political chicanery, she yet remains the kind, womanly woman, respected by all citizens and beloved by her friends.

            Several years after the death of Mr. Proctor, Mrs. Proctor was united in marriage to Mr. Wilson, a prominent lawyer of Lebanon, and the union was one of rare congeniality and happiness.

            In the year 1894, during the administration of President Cleveland, a vacancy occurring in the Lebanon postoffice, Mrs. Wilson concluded that she could fill the place acceptably, procured fine recommendations, secured the appointment, and filled it with great credit to herself and the gratification of her friends. Mrs. Wilson has one or two hobbies, both in the right direction, both meaning help and uplift of humanity. The first and greatest is her zeal in the temperance cause. Naturally philanthropic in temperament, her heart has gone out in sympathy to various reforms for the alleviation of suffering, especially to those who are down and out from the cruel evils of intemperance. From the day of its first issue, her paper has been conscientiously devoted to the overthrow of the saloon. Never does it receive a word of palliation from her individually or editorially. To her it is an evil black both in exterior and interior, and her paper has proved a strong agency in the Miami valley for prohibition, a prohibition that really prohibits. It was mainly through the efficient work of Mrs. Wilson, both personally and editorially, that her town went "dry" under the Beal law some years ago.

            Another field of activity in which Mrs. Wilson loves to devote her energies is the equal suffrage cause. And she has won many "votes for women," not only through her clear statements and -logical facts as presented through the Patriot, but more by the splendid capability she has evinced as a bread-winner, and her beautiful home life, where, as tender wife and mother, no duty was ever slighted or neglected, amply proving that if necessity or choice calls woman into commercial life, she can, and does maintain the sweet graces of gentle womanhood that constitute her greatest charm. Her philanthropy joined to her great executive ability, has procured state recognition. For more than fifteen years she served on the board of lady visitors of the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' home, receiving her appointment from two separate governors. Other state institutions have also been placed under her oversight as a slate inspector into their needs and management. She was asked to take charge of the Girls' Industrial home at Delaware, Ohio, for she is recognized as one of the best sociological thinkers and workers in the state of Ohio. The duties of probation officer of Warren county have also been intrusted to her wise judgment.

            Mrs. Wilson's newspaper work has received just recognition from the journalism of the state. City papers have offered (page 384)  inducements for her to join their staff of writers. But she loves her beautiful home in Lebanon, where friends are cordially welcomed, where she can plan greater things to help the poor and unfortunate, where she can, and does, daily prove that there is no sex law for brain or heart expression.

            Business Activities of Lebanon. Quiet as, are generally, the business streets of Lebanon, yet there is an air of activity that impresses the chance visitor with the fact that a great deal of commercial stir is around him, and the influx of automobiles and conveyances of all descriptions, with the crowded pavements on Saturday afternoon, are ample testimony that many "live wires" are in process of operation between the village and large business centers all the time.

            Lebanon has more stores, groceries and shops than many towns much larger, and all seem to be disposing of the commodities they are anxious to sell. This is not strange, if it be true that "history repeats itself," for business enterprise was present in the village when the town scarcely numbered half a dozen scattered cabins. A store was opened in the year 1803 by John Huston in a room of the "Black Horse," a log tavern kept by Ephraim Hathaway. The merchandise had been floated down the Ohio by Huston in a flatboat as far as Columbia, where he first started business, removing in a few months his location to the new settlement of Lebanon. His nephew, Isaiah Morris, afterwards associated with the early history of Wilmington, acted as clerk. Business apparently presented a most promising outlook, for two years later merchants' licenses were granted to Daniel F. Reeder, William Ferguson, and Lawrence & Taylor. The early stores were veritable "department stores," as is seen in the advertisement of Ebenezer Vowel & Co., who came to Lebanon in the year 1810, and through the medium of the Western Star informed an interested public that they could please the residents of Lebanon with "dry goods, groceries, iron mongery, cutlery, stationery, medicines, queens and glass ware, tin ware assorted, dorsey's iron, castings assorted, paints, oils, American blister steel, German crowley do., salt, cotton, etc." With their attractive windows, advertising placards and electric lights, the business rooms of Lebanon are pleasing in every particular. The largest mercantile emporium is that of the S. Fred Mercantile company. The power of a concentrated will upon a praiseworthy purpose was never more strongly exemplified than in the history of this immense mercantile establishment, which would stand most favorable comparison with any house of its kind in cities many times larger than the corporate limits of Lebanon. The story of its founding is as wonderful as it is interesting. In the year 1885 there came into the quiet streets of Lebanon a young man of Russian-Jewish parentage, carrying on his back a peddler's pack, the contents of which were sold in the usual way. His visits were repeated, and his fair prices, the excellent quality of the articles proffered by him, speedily won for him a large number of customers, and not only purchasers but likewise friends among the influential men of the entire. county. They esteemed him, not only for a kindly, pleasing personality, but even more for the sterling (page 385) qualities of rectitude, innate honesty and unconquerable determination to make a place for himself in the world. One of his staunchest friends and admirers was Mr. J. M. Hayner, who for many years was identified with the Lebanon National bank as its highest official. In a short time Mr. Fred's increasing trade warranted the purchase by him of a wagon from which to sell his goods, and which, consequently, enlarged his circle of custom. So well and favorably did he become known that he resolved to stop peddling and open a store in Lebanon, a plan which met the approval of his friends and patrons. But before establishing himself permanently, he decided to make a visit to his childhood home in Europe, from which he returned more completely impressed with the beauty and strength of American ideals and life, and thankful that his future years were to be spent under the glorious old "stars and stripes." Upon his return to America, no influence could induce him to locate in any of the large eastern cities, which apparently offered a wider circle of custom than the pretty town in the beautiful Miami valley. He had faith in the friends who had stood by him in his first efforts to start his business, and who had been won by his never failing courtesy and integrity, and what was equally helpful, expressed faith in his ability to win.

            In the year 1890 a small room was rented by him, and in it was laid the foundation of a business that was eventually to surprise and win the admiration, not only of the people of Lebanon but of the surrounding country by its extent and splendid management. Little by little was the stock increased, and with the increase of trade grew the demand for a larger force of clerks, for no one must be kept waiting for lack of attention in the establishment of the S. Fred Mercantile company. In less than thirty years of indefatigable toil and watchfulness, like the magic tent in the Arabian Nights, the ; small room had stretched into the mammoth concern that stands on the corer of Mulberry and Mechanic streets. As progression along all lines of improvement has been the unwritten law in the activities of the S. Fred Mercantile company, it is not strange that window attraction has had much to do with the success of this wonderful establishment. Big windows beautifully draped or enticingly filled with everything to a person can possibly desire for home comfort or personal adornment, make it impossible to pass without stopping to gaze, and nine times out of ten the act of gazing means an entrance in the store and an exit with a pocketbook considerably lighter, but there are no regrets, for both purchaser and seller are satisfied.

            As the customer enters the really magnificent emporium of the S. Fred Mercantile company, it is a little difficult to realize that he is not walking down the aisle of a city store, so extensive is its capacity and so great the merchandise in quantity that meets the eye on every side. It has been stated that no town the size of Lebanon, or county with the population of Warren county, has a store that covers as large amount of floor space as that of the store of the S. Fred Mercantile company. On Mechanic street it runs a frontage of eighty-six feet with a depth of one hundred and sixty-five feet, while Mulberry street holds it with a depth of eighty feet and a frontage (page 386) of seventy-five feet. Both stories of each frontage are lighted with immense windows, in fact both faces of the building are practically solid glass, and when illuminated at night with the brilliancy of a myriad of electric lights, the immense house has a wonderfully gala appearance, as though the gods of prosperity were holding a carnival of rejoicing over Lebanon's good luck in having the S. Fred's store in its midst.

            On the lower floor are arranged, so as to show the. goods to the best advantage, a complete line of ladies' suits and dresses, millinery, dry goods and notions. A division to itself is devoted to men's wearing apparel, caps, hats and haberdashery ; in another section every man, woman and child in Warren county can find high       shoes, low shoes, pumps, slippers, of every size and almost of every color. And what is especially pleasing to a tired shopper is a mezzanine floor at the north side of the immense room, which embraces a space eighty by twenty feet where a rest room, inviting with easy chairs, tables and a piano, soon brings forgetfulness of tired, aching feet. Here also is the commodious office of the firm, from which the watchful eyes of Mr. Fred can command a survey of the entire first floor. Furniture, rugs, carpets, stoves, wall paper, everything but groceries and hardware are to be found on the second floor of the S. Fred store. And one especially pleasing feature of this establishment is the interest and courtesy of the employees. The main principle on which the business seems to be conducted is the pleasing of the purchaser. An example to the employees in this important phase of business success is found in the affability and never-forgotten courtesy of Mr. Louis Fred, who has been associated with his brother in the management of the store since the day of its establishment.

            The business of the S. Fred store has been conducted with one finger always on the pulse of the greater, outside realm of activities, and stood ready at all times, not only to enhance its own special interests, but has always showed a desire to be a power for good in the surrounding community. It soon became awake to the wide advantages of the co-operative system, and in the year 1910 the citizens of Lebanon were given an opportunity, if they so desired, to become shareholders in the business, and so fully did many of the leading citizens of Lebanon and Warren county realize the benefits accruing from this home investment, that but little soliciting was necessary on the part of the firm. The stock was offered at, ten dollars per share, and the benefits resulting to the purchaser are seven per cent on the investment, with a discount of five per cent on every purchase made in the store. The stock certificates are also accepted as cash in all purchases or in the settlements of accounts. The purchaser has the privilege of having the stock transferred on the books of the company at any time he so desires, and never incurs any liability, as the stock is non-assessable. This cooperative plan has added greatly to the interest of the community at large in the prosperity of a business that carries the welfare of its friends and neighbors along as a feature of general success. Underneath all the activity and good fortune of the S. Fred Mercantile business is the cardinal principle of all achievement, (page 387) and that is undeviating adherence to honest dealing with the customer. In this line the firm goes so far as to insist that the customer must be satisfied even at a loss to the store. If dissatisfied with a purchase, the article may be returned or exchanged and the money will be refunded.

            The influence of such an establishment upon its environment cannot be estimated in dollars and cents. It is a wonderful example of splendid achievement, founded upon strict business integrity, to every young man entering either upon a business or professional life.

            The business scope of this progressive establishment has, several times, been greatly enlarged. In the month of January, 1918, its capital stock of $60,000 took a big leap to one of $100,000, $40,000 preferred and $60,000 common.

            The present official management of the store lies in the capable hands of Solomon Fred, president and treasurer; Louis Fred, vice-president ; H. W. Ivins, secretary. Its efficient board of directors are Solomon Fred, Louis Fred, Howard W. Ivins, A. B. . Kaufman, Miss Ida Rosenthal, and Samuel Fred, of ' Richmond, Indiana.

            For nearly twenty years Lebanon's elevator has done a thriving business, and the shipping facilities of the town have placed more hogs in the Cincinnati market, than have been forwarded by any other town in southern Ohio.

            One of the most helpful activities of the village is the Building and Loan association, through which many people of limited incomes are enabled to own property and lay up a surplus for the rainy day.

            Electric Power in Lebanon. In the year 1880, three years after the telephone astonished the world with its wondrous power of voice-transference, the first wires were stretched in Lebanon for home communication. Not until the spring of the following year was the village connected with Franklin and Middletown, and the first conversation between Lebanon and one of its neighbors, took place on the evening of May 1st, 1881, between the Hon. Josiah Morrow of Lebanon and Mr. C. H. Bundy, manager of the line, who talked from Middletown.

            Eight years later a private corporation established an electric light plant in Lebanon, and the streets were soon brilliant with incandescent lights, very different from the gasoline lamps on wooden posts which had made the streets of the village luminous just twenty years before. Many private residences were also wired for the new light, and in the year 1898 Lebanon voted an appropriation of $20,000 in bonds for the purchase of the electric light plant, and since that date it has been owned and operated by the municipality; during the same year electric arc lights were substituted for the street incandescent lights which had been in use for about nine years.

            Electricity as a motive power as well as for illumination crept gradually into use in the business houses of Lebanon, and there are but few, if any, places of commercial activity, where it is not now used for both purposes. In some Lebanon shops the old steam (page 388) engine has been removed and power furnished by the magical strength of the wonderful current. In the Oregonia Bridge works electricity has taken the place of steam power. The Western Star applies the "magic fluid" to many uses. Not only does it light the office and press room, but at its bidding, the presses go instantly to work as does the paper folding machine.

            In the fall of the year, 1903, an electric railway was completed from Lebanon to Cincinnati. Eight months later the first passenger car on the electric line between Franklin and Lebanon, arrived at the latter village on May 28th, 1904.

            Besides owing its electric light plant, the municipality of Lebanon also owns its waterworks system, gas works and opera house. All these modern improvements and necessary comforts are controlled by vote of the village.

            Telegraph. Seven years after the electro-magnetic telegraph system was established between Washington and Baltimore, which was in March, 1844, an office was opened in Lebanon on a line operating between Cleveland and Cincinnati. But a long time elapsed before the service became financially profitable to the company, and the "receipts of the Lebanon office were barely sufficient to pay the salary of the operator."

            The Lebanon office was opened August 1, 1851, the operator being Montgomery Patton, but the service in 1856, fell into the hands of James B. Graham, who manipulated the key for the long period of thirty-six years. The telegraph office was in a room in his residence on Broadway, and as he carried on the tailoring trade in the same room, he was kept quite occupied with the different duties of the place. It was an attractive resort for the men of the village, and few indeed were the evenings that did not find a group of intelligent villagers gathered for the purpose of discussing town interests, or more probably, national, state and local politics. Even deeper subjects made the hours fly before it was time to disperse to their several homes for the sleep of the righteous, for Lebanon's telegraph operator was a man of wide reading and especially fond of acquainting himself with experimental philosophy and practical mechanics. His interests practically, were not confined to his trade or operating the telegraph key. He found leisure to fill the offices of mayor, justice of the peace and town councilman at various times ; through his persistent effort Lebanon purchased its first fire engine, and was made to see the necessity of good street crossings and the digging of a fre-cistern ; he was also an enthusiastic promoter of the building of Washington Hall, and a zealous advocate for the establishment of gas and waterworks in the village. Mr. Graham died at the home of his son, Dr. W. T. Graham, in Indianapolis in 1910, at the advanced age of ninety-four years. His body was brought for interment to the Lebanon cemetery.

            The Grand Army of the Republic. On Thursday, May 30th, 1918, Granville Thurston Post, No. 213, of the Grand Army of the Republic of Warren county, celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of beautiful Memorial Day at the opera house in Lebanon. People came from near and far to honor the memory (page 389) of those who had laid their lives upon the altar of their country's need, and to unite in the patriotic service with the "boys in blue" who are still left to gather around the "camp fre" and tell the tragic story of the early sixties. The following pleasing program was given, under the directorship of Comrade Josiah Holbrook : Music, Harmon Hall Band ; Invocation, by the Rev. Father J. E. Bartel ; Song, America, by schools ; Solo, My Own United States, Miss Alice Montfort; Recitation, Lincoln's Gettysburg address, Madison Curry Hutchinson ; Song, "Battle Hymn of the Republic," by schools; Oration, by Hon. Willard Jurey Wright; Quartet, Keep the Home Fires Burning, Miss Alice Montfort, Mrs. Fred Pauly, Messrs. C. C. Eulass and C. E. Parker. Announcements : Song, Star Spangled Banner, by schools ; Benediction by the Rev. Charles F. Williams ; American Hymn, by the band.

            At present there are fifty members enrolled on the Post roster, with the following register of officers ; post commander, Milton Brown ; senior vice commander, D. J. Morris ; junior vice commander, F. M. Hamilton ; chaplain, Albert Brant; officer of the day, James M. St. John ; officer of the guard, John Trovillo; surgeon, H. H. Dunham; adjutant and quartermaster, Henry Reid; quartermaster sergeant, Josiah Holbrook ; sergeant major, Silas Hutchinson ; guard, William Gerrard.

            The Masonic Organization. The Masonic Order of Warren county has a very large enrollment. The first in age is Lebanon Lodge No. 26, F. and A. Masons. Its charter was granted January 3, A. D. 1815. Following is the list of officers for 1919: Frank V. Stitt, wor. master ; Stanley M. Sellers, senior warden ; Wilmer Littell, junior warden ; Robert B. Foster, Chaplain ; Peter B. Benham Treasurer ; Ed S. Conklin, Secretary ; William Fraser, Senior Deacon ; Heber D. Williams, Junior Deacon ; William T. Drake, Tyler; Solomon Fred, John W. Bratten, J. Raymond Law, Trustees; Ed S. Conklin, G. F. Brown, Stewards.

            Deceased past masters: Thomas Ross, Phineas Ross, Thomas Corwin, Samuel Reeder, Allen Wright, Lewis Osborn, George Kesling, Samuel Glenny, H. M. Stokes, William Adams, W. F. Parshal, Thomas Hardy. T. Kelley O'Neall, John R. Drake, J. F. Benham, J. D. Steddom, W. R. Kemper, Robert G. Hufford. Living past masters : Albert H. Kelsey, Joseph W. O'Neall, F. M. Cunningham, M. A. Jameson, C. W. Randall, Frank Brandon, Edward S. Stevens, George G. King, C. C. Eulass, J. M. Hamilton, F. M. Hamilton, Bert Drake, G. F. Brown, F. D. Strickler, J. V. Mulford, P. P. Benham, W. M. Jackson. Chas. T. Cross, Solomon Fred, Dean Stanley, John W. Bratton, Chas. J. Waggoner, Claude A. Brunner, Harry C. Schwartz.

            Roll of members: John M. Adams, Albert Anderson, Owen T. Anderson, Chas. Babbit, Frank W. Baker, Robert E. Baldwin, Chas. A. Beatty, George Benham, Guy T. Behm, Boyd Benham, Peter P. Benham, Harold Benham, Albert H. Bennett, Elmer J. Beedle, Ellery F. Beller, Frank Binkley, John A. Blair, jr., William E. Blair, Robert M. Blair, Chas. Boerstler, Percy W. Bolmer, Fred S. Bone, Huse Bone. Karl Bone, Clarence Booth, John H. Booth, Raymond A. Booth, William D. Booth, Elwood F. Borden, John W. Bowyer, (page 390)       Clifford W. Bowyer, Frank Brandon, Thomas S. Brandon, Alfred C. Brant, John W. Bratten, Clifton E. Bratten, Elder R. Brewer, Clarence Brown, Granville F. Brown, Clarence A. Brown, Karl M. Brown, Wade S. Brown, Sylvester C. Britton, Claude A. Bruner, Boyd H. Buchanan, John Buck, Joseph L. Budd, Charles F. Bull, John E. Bundy, Edward E. Blood, Chas. E. Braumiller, Fred P. Bennington, Frank B. Carey, Ralph H. Carey, Harry W. Carey, Luther Case, William M. Chambers, Oliver H. Chenoweth, Ed. S. Conklin, Delbert H. Cleland, William W. Cline, Earl J. Coburn, Daniel Collett, Leroy Conover, E. W. Conover, J. Milton Conover, John W. Cole, Clyde Collins, Clinton D. Corwin, La France Coryell, Walter S. Cowan, Chas. T. Cross, J. Earl Cox, Harrell Crane, Frank

M. Cunningham, William J. Curran, J. Marion Cochran, William G. Curran, Humphrey A. Darby, John D. Dawson, Heber M. Dill, William H. Dilatush, C. Donald Dilatush, Karl D. Dakin, Joseph H. Drake, Raymond Donley, Val Dombaugh, Frank Dombaugh, Bert Drake, Horace A. Drake, William T. Drake, Silas Drake, Alfred W. Drake, David E. Dunham, Leander S. Dunham, Clem Daly, Alfred O. Dill, Frank B. Dilley, Edward A. Dickson, Joseph T. Earnhart, Ralph W. Earnhart, William H. Ege, William F. Eltzroth, C. Carroll Eulass, Chas. H. Eulass, William R. Eulass, Chas C. Eulass, C. Carl Evans, Chas. L. Evans, Jacob S. Evans, Herschel I. Fisher, Robert B. Foster, Benjamin L. Frye, Samuel Fred, Solomon Fred, Louis Fred, Frank H. Frost, Arthur N. French, Henry J. Fuhr, Thurman I. Felter, William Fraser, Harlan O. Fudge, Thomas J_ Furman, Frederick Fennell, Frank Gallaher, Carl J. Gallaher, C. E. Gammill, Reginald E. Gilford, Wilds R. Gilchrist, Waldon C. Gilmour, Edwin S. Gambee, Elmer E. Griesmer, Warren E. Gustin, John Hackett, Frank M. Hamilton, Francis M. Hamilton, Arthur Hamilton, Harry M. Hamilton, John M. Hamilton, J. Loren Hancock, Roy C. Harkrader, J. Scott Harrell, Lemuel D. Harrold, Peter D. Hatfield, Chester P. Hatfield, Alfred M. Hinsch, John L. Hizar, Chas. E. Hjelm, Henry F. Holland, Chas. A. Hopkins, Harry S. Hoople, Welton D. Huford, Chas. A. Hough, Horace E. Howland, Chauncey F. H. Huff, George Hutzel, Thos. B. Hutchinson, Moses B. Hyman, Samuel Hyman, Avon Hollcroft, Homer Hollcroft, Carey F. Irons, C. Wilbur Ivins, Howard W. Ivins, W. Merton Jackson, Martin A. Jameson, A. Clarence Jones, Ed. M. Johnston, W. Elmer Johnson, Fred O. James, Abraham B. Kaufman, Theodore E. Keefor, Albert H. Kelsey, Howard G. Kemper, Paul L. Kemper, Harry King, George G. King, R. Eugene King, John Kohl, Emil Kniess, J. Ray Law, Wilmer Littell, Edward A. Lane, Horace W. Lewis, George F. Longstreth, Frank Ludlum, E. F. Mangold, Chas. P. March, Abraham W. Mardis, Chas. G. Marvin, Lee Mason, William McBurney, James T. McClelland, Earl McCreary, Fred McCurdy, William McDonald, Robert McGetchin, John F. McKay, Wallace E. Miller, Lacey S. Mitchell, Peter O. Montfort, Harvey L. Morgan, Ed. H. Morris, J. Sherman Morris, John Marshall Mulford, James V. Mulford, Cyril Noble, Louis K. Oppitz, Joseph W. O'Neall, T. Cornelius Patterson, William A. Parkhill, Harry L. Palmer, A. E. Pleak, Frank M. Powell, Edward Quimby, Jesse A. Rader, Harry F. Ralston, Chas W. Randall, Otto (page 391) R. Randall, Boyd S. Rathgeber, Joseph P. Rawles, Ernest W. Ramsey, John Jacob Reid, Vance T. Reynolds, Norman L. Richmond, Emmitt Roosa, James Allen Runyan, Harry E. Rudman, Herbert Rittenhouse, Harry L. Rosencrans, Theodore M. Schofeld, Walter M. Schofield, Chas. E. Schell, Chas. Schemil, Clarence J. Schwartz, Harry C. Schwartz, Loma M. Scofield, Elmer C. Sears, Stanley M. Sellers, Robert J. Shawhan, James M. Shurts, R. Bruce Smith, George W. Snook, Addison E. Southard, Morton Sparks, William R. Spriegle, Peter P. Stultz, George W. Stanley, Dean Stanley, Morris P. Steddom, Fred D. Strickler, Edward S. Stevens, John Stibbs, Frank V. Stitt, William L. Suemening, Cliford P. Sweney, Earl. Southard, Jos. A. Schilling, Marion Slayback, William C. Turton, Earl L. Thompson, John A. Thompson, Jeferson Thompson, William C. Tichenor, James S. Thornhill, Elijah Trovillo, Marion F. Trovillo, Alfred C. Tucker, William C. Van Fossen, Ralph Van Meter, Chas J. Waggoner, Erwin . J. Wagner, Harve E. Warwick, Otto Walter, Eugene A. Weber, Benjamin D. Welton, Marion C. Wikof, Edward B. Williams, Hugh Watson, Ira E. Williams, Heber D. Williams, Herschel M. Williams, John W. Wilson, Voorhis C. Williams, Theodore T. Williams, William N. Wright, Willard Jurey Wright, Chas. H. Young, George E. Young, John E. P. Zimmer, Cloyd E. Zeiders.

            Lebanon Chapter No. 5, R. A. Masons was chartered December 30, A. I. 2348, A. D. 1818. Oficers-1919: John W. Bratten, high priest ; Ray Law, king ; Wm. C. Turton, scribe ; Edward A. Lane, captain of the host; Solomon Fred, prin. sojourner; Fred R. Sherwood, R. A. captain ; Peter P. Benham, treasurer ; Ed S. Conklin, secretary ; Chas. G. Marvin, G. M. 3rd V ; William Fraser, G. M. 2nd V ; John H. Booth, G. M. 1st V.

            Deceased high priests: Phineas Ross, John Satterthwaite, Thomas B. Van Horne, Absolem Death, Robert Herd, Horace M. Stokes, Chas. P. Gray, Wm. F. Parshall, H. B. VanNeman, Wm. Adams, George W. Frost, J. Kelley O'Neall, Thomas Hardy, John R. Drake, Jacob Randall, J. D. Steddom, W. R. Kemper, Robert G. Huford.

            Living high priests: Joseph O'Neal, Albert H. Kelsey, F. M. Cunningham, Chas. W. Randall, George G. King, Huse Bone, Edward S. Stevens, Bert Drake, Peter P. Benham, Chas. K. Hamilton, Granville F. Brown, John M. Hamilton, Solomon Fred, Chas. A. Hough, David E. Dunham, Martin A. Jamison, Harry E. Rudman, Chas. J. Waggoner, Stanley M. Sellers, Chas. T. Cross. Roll of members : Albert Anderson, Chas A. Beatty, Emmer J. Beedle, Albert H. Bennett, Peter P. Benham, Fred Bennington, Chas. H. Boerstler, Percy W. Bolmer, Huse Bone, Elwood F. Borden, Frank Brandon, Granville F. Brown, Karl M. Brown, Thomas B. Bodley, Joseph L. Budd, John E. Bundy, John A: Blair, jr., Ellery F. Beller, John W. Bratten, Claude A. Bruner, Fred S. Bone, Wm. D. Booth, John H. Booth, Wm. E. Blair, Boyd H. Buchanan, Chas. E. Braumiller, Jas. L. Cadwallader, Frank B. Carey, Harry W. Carey, Ralph H. Carey, Warren M. Cleaver, Ed S. Coaklis, Earl J. Coburn, Earl J. Cox, Clinton D. Corwin,. La France Coryell, (page 392) Oliver H. Chenoweth, Chas. T. Cross, Robert A. Cross, Marion J. Cochran, Frank M. Cunningham, Russell G. Cutler, Bert Drake, Horace A. Drake, Wm. T. Drake, Jos. H. Drake, David E. Dunham, Leander S. Dunham, Wm. H. Dilatush, Heber M. Dill, Chas. L. Eesley, Chas. H. Eulass, Carroll C. Eulass, George B. Fouche, Wm. Fraser, Solomon Fred, Louis Fred, Frank H. Frost, Arthur N. French, Benj. L. Frye, E. H. Griest, E. S. Gambee, R. W. Gilchrist, John Hackett, Fred Hagemeyer, Wm. Hagemeyer, A. D. Haines, Frank M. Hamilton, John Hamilton, F. M. Hamilton, George F. Harlan, M. S. Harlan, L. D. Harrold, M. Bruce Hatfield, S. D. Henkle, A. M. Hinsch, John L. Hizar, H. D. Hollcroft, C. A. Hopkins, C. A. Hough, Horace E. Howland, W. D. Huford, Wm. S. Hofman, M. B. Hyman, C. F. Irons, C. W. Ivins, W. M. Jackson, M. A. Jameson, Ed. J. Janney, Fred O. James, A. B. Kaufman, A. H. Kelsey, Walter J. Kilbon, George G. King, Emil Kniess, L. D. Lackey, E. A. Lane, Ray J. Law, Wilmer Littell, F. E. Mangold, C. G. Marvin, Wm. McBurney, Earl McCreary, Robert McGetchin, Wm. McDonald, J. F. McKay, Ed Murrell, Harry Murrell, Avery Needles, J. W. O'Neall, H. F. Ralston, E. W. Ramsey, C. W. Randall, B. S. Rathgeber. G. E. Randall, J. P. Rawles, D. M. Roosa, H. L. Rosencrans, J. A. Runyan, H. E. Rudman, J. J. Reid, C. E. Schell, Chas. Schemil, G. W. Snook, Wm. L. Suemening, S. A. Stilwell, E. C. Sears, S. M. Sellers, James Shorts, Thos. R. Spencer, G. W. Stanley, H. C. Schwartz, Fred B. Sherwood, F. V. Stitt, Fred Strickler, E. S. Stevens, J. H. Thompson, J. A. Thompson, Wm. C. Tichenor, A. C. Tucker, H. C. Tyndall, Elijah Trovillo, Wm. C. Turton, Ralph Van Meter, Otto Walter, J. W. Ward, H. E. Warwick, Hugh Watson, T. T. Williams, J. M. Wright, Ira E. Williams, J. M. Weine, Chas. J. Waggoner, Clovd E. Zeiders, Emil Zimmer.

            Miami Commandery, No. 22, Knights Templar, was chartered October 15, A. O. 751, A. D. 1869. Officers-18-19 were J. R. Law, eminent commander; J. W. Bratten, generalissimo ; G. F. Brown, capt. general ; E. A. Lane, senior warden ; F. B. Sherwood, junior warden ; Wm. A. Kermode, prelate ; P. P. Benham, treasurer; Ed. S. Conklin recorder; Wm. C. Turton,  standard bearer; E. F. Beller, sword bearer; H. C. Schwartz, warder; L. D. Harrold, 1st guard; LH. C. Schwartz, warder; L. D. Harrold, 1st guard; S. M. Sellers, 2nd guard ; W. T. Drake, 3rd guard ; W. T. Drake, sentential; C. T. Cross, Bert Drake, D. E. Dunham, trustees.

            Deceased eminent commanders: Thomas Corwin, Thomas Hardy, Wm. McKinney, W. S. Huford, W. R. Kemper, J. Kelley O'Neall, J. R. Drake, J. W. Organ, J. W. Shockey, J. R. Mulford, J. D. Steddom.

            Living past eminent commanders: J. W. Shawhan. T. W. O'Neall, F. M. Cunningham, G. W. Snook, C. W. Randall, Frank Brandon, Huse Bone, E. S. Stevens, S. J. Eicholzer, P. P. Benham, J. M. Hamilton, C. K. Hamilton, G. F. Brown, D. E. Dunham, Bert Drake, J. M. Mulford, Z. O. Worley, W. A. Kermode, C. C. Eulass, C. T. Cross.

            Roll of members : Albert Anderson, H. F. Anderson, J. W. Anschutz, A. C. Baker, F. M. Baldwin, C. A. Beatty, E. T. Behymer, (page 393) P. P. Benham, A. H. Bennett, T. B. Bodley, Huse Bone, F. Brandon, E. F. Borden, G. F. Brown, J. L. Budd, G. E. Bundy, J. E. Bundy, W. H. Beck, E. J. Beedle, J. A. Blair, A. P. Basinger, E. F. Beller, J. W. Bratten, W. E. Blair, R. M. Blair, K. M. Brown, W. D. Booth, J. L. Cadwallader, F. B. Carey, H. W. Carey, R. H. Carey, O. H. Chenoweth, Ed S. Conklin, L. F. Coryell, F. M. Cowden, C. T. Cross, F. M. Cunningham, E. J. Coburn, W. D. Corwin, Wm. Daughters, W. H. Dilatush, H. M. Dill, W. T. Dowrey, Bert Drake, H. A. Drake, W. T. Drake, J. H. Drake, L. S. Dunham, L. C. Dunham, D. E. Dunham, C. L. Eesley, S. J. Eicholzer, W. C. Emery, C. H. Eulass, C. C. Eulass, A. N. French, G. B. Fouche, R. W. Gilchrist, J. W. Gustin, John Hackett, A. D. Haines, C. V. Haney, Clyde Haney, S. J. Harrell, L. D. Harrold, Fred Hayner, A. M. Hinsch, Willis Hitzing, C. A. Hopkins, W. S. Hoffman, C. F. Hoppe, H. E. Howland, W. D. Hufford, S. D. Henkle, W. C. Ivins, G. W. Jack, M. W. Jackson, F. O. James, M. A. Jameson, E A. Juterbock, A. H. Kelsey, A. P. Kaiser, W. A. Kermode, G. G. King, C. E. Kunker, E. A. Lane, R. J. Law, L. D. Lackey, E. A. Ludlum, C. G. Marvin, Wm. McBurney, E. C. McCreary, R. S. McGetchin, J. D_ Miller, C. S. Mounts, J. M. Mulford, E. C. McConoughy, J. W. O'Neall, T. J. Patterson, John E. Pyle, W. H. Page, Frank Pyle, H. F. Ralston, C. W. Randall, B. S. Rathgeber, J. P. Rawles, J. A. Runyan, E. W. Ramsey, J. J. Reid, D. M. Roosa, W. S. Roof, H. E. Rudman, H. C. Schwartz, S. M. Sellers, E. C. Sears, J. M. Shurtz, S. S. Stahl, G. W. Stanley, J. W. Shawhan, F. B. Sherwood, G. W. Snook, Fred Stanton, E. S. Stevens, S. A. Stilwell, W. L. Suemening, C. B. Smith, J. H. Thompson, James H. Thompson,. W. G. Thompson, Elijah Trovillo, M. F. Trovillo, W. C. Turton, H. C. Tyndall, C. J. Waggoner, H. E. Warwick, Harlan Whitacre, W. B. Whitacre, Ira E. Williams, T. T. Williams, John M. Wright, J. M. Weins, Z. O. Worley, S. N. Zentmyer.

            Lebanon Chapter, O. E. S., No. 343, was chartered October 25, 1911. Oficers-1919: Celia Spencer, worthy matron ; Claude A. Bruner, worthy patron ; Myrtle Chenoweth, associate matron ; Mary E. Ross, secretary; Martha E. Trovillo, treasurer; Clara M. Blair. conductress: Fay W. Thompson, associate conductress ; Margaret A. Maria, chaplain ; Louise Booth, marshal ; Gwendolyn Schwartz, organist ; Rosa Schwartz, Adah ; Jessie Sibey, Ruth ; Florence I. March, Esther; Helen James, Martha ; Lucy P. Israel, Electa ; Lucy Ross, warder ; Agnes Orndorf, sentinel. Past worthy matrons : Carrie B. Conklin, Carrie Law, Marie Benham, Lucy Ross, Leota E. Burner, Florence I. March, Sara Stuart.

            Past worthy patrons : G. E. Brown, C. A. Bruner, G. W. Stanley, J_ W. Bratten, L. D. Harrold.

            Roll of members : O. T. Anderson, Jane C. Anderson, Tessie 0. Beck, Elvia L. Beedle, P. P. Benham, Loretta Benham, Marie Benham, G. F. Benham, Verna M. Benham, J. A. Blair, Ethel Blair, Alice M. Blair, Clara M. Blair, E. Blair, Corinne C. Blair, R. M. Blair, Mildred Blair, Mae Pearl Boimer, J. H. Booth, Carrie M. Booth, Louise Booth, E. F. Borden, John W. Bratton, Alice Bratton, G. F. Brown, Anna B. Brown, C. A. Bruner, Leota E. Bruner, F. B. (page 394) Carey, Anna L. Carey, R. H. Carey, Louise Z. Chambers, O. H. Chenoweth, Myrtle Chenoweth, D. H. Cleland, Lillian E. Cleland, Mildred C. Coburn, J. M. Cochran, Kizzie Cochran, Grace Marion Cochran, E. S. Conklin, Carrie B. Conklin, Laura B. Cunningham, Lelia Cunningham, Annie B. Dilatush, H. M. Dill, Irene D. Dill, B. Drake, Velma B. Drake, W. T. Drake, Jane Drake, Ida D. DuBard, Frankie Dunham, Nellie McL. Fisher, L. B. Frye, Christine H. Frye, Evelyn Gray, L. H. Harrold, Zella Harrold, C. P. Hatfield, Flora Henderson, Mabelle K. Hunkins, Lucy P. Israel, F. O. James, Arty D. James, Helen James, M. A. Jameson, Sarah M. Jameson, J. R. Law, Carrie Law, Eva Lewis, C. P. March, Katherine March, Florence I March, Margaret A. Maris, Marcella McBurney, Marie A. McClung, L. S. Mitchell, Hazel G. Mitchell, Jason Moody, Ruby D. Mulford, Lena Myers, N. H. Orndorf, Agnes C. Orndorf, Anna Lois Post, Amanda L. Reed, Lucy H. Reid, Mamie H. Retallick, Jennie S. Riley, Lucy Ross, Mary E. Ross, H. E. Rudman, Julia K. Rudman, Mamie Runyan, Marie Runyan, H. C. Schwartz, Corinne S. Schwartz, Gwendolyn Schwartz, Rosa Schwartz, Loma M. Scofield, Laura B. Scofield, Esther K. Sellers, Jessie E. Sibey, Priscilla Spencer, Celia Spencer, G. W. Stanley, Ella T. Stanley, L. Stibbs, Eva Stibbs, Sara Stuart, Ella Stuart, Carrie Stuart, Hester Moody Swain, Fay W. Thompson, W. G. Thompson, Florence M. Thompson, Anna C. Thompson, W. C. Tichenor, Elijah Trovillo, Martha E. Trovillo, W. C. Turton, Etta Turton, Mary D. VanNote, H. E. Warwick, Esther Warwick, Jessie Whitacre, Eva Williams, C. H. Young, Hester A. Young.

            Sunday School Association. One of the most active and efficient agencies in Wailren county in religious work is the Sunday school association, which in the year 1918 held its fifty-fifth annual convention in Franklin. Its members are interested in the work which the association endeavors to foster. Its present ofcial board consists of Judge Alex. Boswell, president ; Rev. E. Kneisley, of Springboro, frst vice-president ; A. T. Rettig, of Maineville, second vice-president ; O. B. Cain, of Maineville, third vice-president; Fred L. Pauly, of Lebanon, secretary ; Mrs. Eva J. Steddom, of Lebanon, assistant secretary and treasurer.

            The Carnegie Library. Few counties in Ohio have possessed greater love and desire for intellectual attainment than Warren county. From the date of its organization, Lebanon, especially,' has been distinguished for men to whom the acquirement of knowledge was the most desirable thing in life, and they entered upon their life-work with so deep an appreciation of things really worthwhile, that the inevitable result was leadership. And knowing this, one is not surprised to read that the Lebanon library, chartered in the year 1811 was one of the first in the Miami valley; the Cincinnati library antedated it by only nine years. Men, eminent for intellectual attainment, Joshua Collett, John McLean, Dr. Jos. Canby, Silas Hurin and the Rev. William Robison, constituted the library's first board of directors. From the shelves of this early treasury of thought the citizens of Lebanon gathered information valuable for all time, for it was "solid" reading entirely ; it is doubtful if a single work of fiction could have been found in the collection.

            (page 395) Mr. Carnegie's offer to assist the town of Lebanon in establishing a public library was dated February 20, 1903: he would gladly give the sum of $10,000 if the citizens of the town would furnish a suitable site for the building, and also guarantee not less than $1,000 a year for the maintenance of the institution.

            His offer was accepted by the electors of Lebanon, and in July the town council by resolution consented to all that was asked by the donor of the library. After some quibbling as to the location of the building, requiring recourse to legal proceedings, the present structure, attractive both in exterior and interior was erected, and completed in 1908 and has proved a source of enjoyment to all its numerous patrons.

            As the work of erection of the building proceeded, it was found that Mr. Carnegie's gift would not cover all the expense of interior decoration, but aid came in the generous provision of Mr. Wm. Harmon of Lebanon, in the form of $2,500 and an additional amount of $1,000 towards the book fund.

            Moving Picture Theatres. Lebanon keeps step with much larger towns in providing popular amusements for its citizens, and the moving picture theatre nightly offers its attractive program to both old and young. The first permanent theatre in the town was opened as Dreamland in Woods' building on Mulberry street in the summer of 1907. The following year saw The Lyceum and the Royal opening their doors to the public, the former in Odd Fellows' Hall, the Royal in the Meloy building on Broadway. But they did not come to stay. At present there is but one moving picture theatre in Lebanon, the Grand, on Mulberry street, which has contributed to the pleasure and entertainment of its patrons since the year 1912. It is built on sanitary and safe lines, and showing good, clean pictures, proves a paying institution.

            The Oregonia Bridge Company, Inc. A firm, that for good, honest, reliable work has won a national reputation, is the Oregonia Bridge company of Lebanon, Ohio. Never was the homely adage that small beginnings are generally the foundation stones of successful achievement more openly proved, than the success of this same company.

            The founder of the organization was john Bradbury, an English blacksmith, who came to America in his twenty-fifth year. Kind fortune guided his steps to the beautiful Miami valley, and in the spring of 1873 he reached Freeport, now Oregonia, and set up his forge in connection with a wagon shop. For fifteen years he was sole owner and manager of a business that yearly so increased in extent and value that he decided to enter into partnership with some one, if he could find a man as honest in work and purpose as himself. Again was fortune kind, for she brought him a man whose life has evinced that "his word is as good as his bond." On January 1, 1888, letters of equal partnership were signed by him and Thos. R. Spencer, a young man in the first years of early manhood, whom the potentialities of the great west had drawn from his native place, Pittston, Pennsylvania. The business was now conducted under the firm name of Bradbury & Spencer and grew rapidly. Deciding to enlarge it, they added bridge building (page 396) to their general blacksmith trade, and in the first year of their business connection built their first iron bridge on the pike that leads from Springhill to Wellman in Warren county. Over thirty years have passed since the structure was erected, and its excellent condition today is most satisfactory evidence of the honest work of its builders. Other contracts for bridge-building were given them, and so satisfactorily were they filled by them, that the erection of larger buildings was required, and new iron working machinery and steam power added to the equipment of the thriving little factory.

            The sunshine of prosperity was rarely darkened by a cloud, even as small as "a man's hand."

            In May 1896, the firm's name was changed to The Oregonia Bridge company, and on the first day of the year, 1901, new articles of partnership were required, as Charles A. Spencer, a young man of push and ability, purchased a one-third interest in the business. Two years later the factory was found inadequate to meet the demands of the fast-growing business, and as Freeport was too small to offer any inducement that would influence the plant to remain, it was decided to remove it to Lebanon, the county seat of Warren, where it was heartily welcomed by the progressive little town. The company found a desirable location in the eastern part of Lebanon along the Dayton, Lebanon & Cincinnati railroad, now merged in the great Pennsylvania system, and $13,000 was expended in erecting a large brick building ; the machinery was moved in March, 1904, to the new spacious factory and all things were ready for the success that awaited the company. Unfortunately Mr. Bradbury was not to see the prosperity that the future was so rapidly unfolding, his death occurring December 13, 1904. A stock company had been formed at the removal of the plant to Lebanon, capitalized at $50,000.00, with John Bradbury, president ; Chas. A. Spencer, vice-president; Thos. R. Spencer, treasurer and general manager; H. W. Ivins, secretary; but the death of Mr. Bradbury necessitated a change in the official management of the business, which resulted in the election of Thos. R. Spencer as president and general manager; P. O. Montfort, vice-president; Chas. A. Spencer, treasurer ; Howard VV T. Ivies, secretary, and so honestly and efficiently has the work of the company been carried on, that large contracts have been filled by it in more than one-third of the states in the Union.

            In January 1918, the company received an order for 800 tons of plate work necessary in the building of United States vessels, and since June 1918, they have been working their shops to capacity in filling orders for material for government cargo ships, ordered by the American International Shipbuilding corporation of Hog Island, Pennsylvania, for the Emergency Fleet corporation. A recent issue of the Western Star contains this very interesting item: "The launching of the 7,500 ton cargo carrier Quistconck, at Hog Island, Pa., was of more than passing interest to the citizens of Lebanon and Warren county, for the ten Winch foundations for this great ship were made by the Oregonia Bridge company of this city. The Quistconck was the first steel shin to be completed at Hog Island by the American International Ship Building corporation, the (page 397) Oregonia Bridge company having the contract for the winch foundations for all the `A' ships to be launched at that place. The local firm has already shipped foundations for 24 additional ships, and is now working on the winch foundations for the second 25 `A' ships." It is also a little bit of additional interest that this immense steel carrier, the Quistconck, was christened at its launching by the wife of President Wilson.

            The opening days of 1919 finds the company working at utmost speed both day and night on material necessary for the proper equipment of twenty-two different parts of thirty-five "B" ships, and are monthly shipping from 200 to 250 tons, and will be kept at the same rush speed until the middle of the summer, when doubtless new contracts will demand the same efficient, splendid work.

            But the patriotism of the Oregonia Bridge company was not evinced only by placing its force and equipment at the service of the government in shipbuilding. When one of the Lebanon lodges, the junior order, presented a large beautiful fag to the public schools, from the shops of the Oregonia Bridge company came a splendid steel fag staff, sixty feet in height, a magnificent gift, from which the beloved emblem of American freedom could float in grace and beauty. And a still greater evidence of not only the patriotism but the kindheartedness of the company was shown when, in the month of June 1917, a bonus of ten cents a day for three hundred days was given to every man and woman employe whose earning power amounted to less than twenty-five dollars a week, with the proviso that the employe would consent to leave forty, cents a week in the company's possession until the expiration of the three hundred days, when a Liberty bond would have been paid for in full and given to the employe. The workman pledged himself to remain with the company until the end of the time limit of the payment of the bond. The same kindness was extended to every man in the employ of the company who entered the army. This generosity was appreciated by the employes and ninety per cent of them availed themselves of the double privilege of helping the government and at the same time making a good financial investment. An organization so patriotic and public-spirited as the Oregonia Bridge company of Lebanon, is a moral as well as a financial benefit to the surrounding country.

            The present official force of the organization is headed by Thos. R. Spencer, president and general manager ; W. W. Mills, vice-president; Charles A. Spencer, treasurer; Howard W. Ivins, secretary.

            War Work in Lebanon. The whole county nobly sustained its reputation for enthusiastic patriotism during the recent terrible conflict in Europe.

            The first Liberty loan campaign in Warren county began in May 1917. Its quota was $219,000; its subscription reached $356,500.

            Oversubscribed $137,500, equal to an oversubscription of 65 per cent. The subscriptions by towns ran as follows : Springboro, 22 subscribers, amount, $9,000; Franklin, 202 subscribers, amount $138,400; Mason, 60 subscribers, amount $33,900; Morrow, 68 (page 399) subscribers, amount $16,300; Waynesville, 65 subscribers, amount $23,500; Lebanon, 259 subscribers, amount $134,800; county at large, 2 subscribers, amount $600. Total amount, $356,500.

            Second Liberty loan, Warren county's quota, $306,000 to $510,000. Subscription reached, $516,500. Lebanon subscribed $209,400; Franklin, $110,350; Waynesville, $78,450; Mason, $75,550; Morrow, $31,500; Springboro, $11,250. Total amount $516,500.

            Third Liberty loan: 195-Waynesville National bank, $95,350; 73-First National bank, Morrow, $28,000; 68-Morrow National $26,950; Warren National bank, Franklin, 65-First National bank, Mason, $33,000; 100-Mason bank, $87,700; 209-Franklin National bank, $102,950; 60$30,700; 55-Farmers' bank, Springboro, $23,800; 225-Lebanon National bank, $86,050; 162 Citizens National bank, Lebanon, $85,000. Total amount subscribed, $599,500.

            Fourth Liberty loan : Warren county's quota, $609,850. Franklin, 767 subscribers, amount $217,300; Springboro, 81 subscribers, amount, $34,100; Waynesville, $133,950; Morrow, 220 subscribers, $72,950; Mason, 257 subscribers, $113,450; Lebanon, 699 subscribers, $318,000; Co. R. R. employes, 32 subscribers, $2,400. Total amount, $892.450. The splendid sum of $2,373,950 is Warren county's "bit" towards saving democracy.

            Red Cross Work. No county in southern Ohio has a finer record of Red Cross work than splendid old Warren. Nobly and constantly did its women labor in the manufacture of articles necessary for the comfort of the boys over seas, and for those mobilized in the home camps. Mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts pushed      everything aside in the way of social functions in order to give their time and strength to the preparation of dainties for hospitals and the making of sweaters, helmets, hose, any and everything that would minister to the gladdening of the heart of the soldier, in making him realize, that those he left behind him were, as best they could, caring for him at long range.

            The Warren county branch of the Red Cross organization was formed in the early summer of the year 1917. The following month, before it was scarcely in working order, its contribution to the million dollar fund was $18,339.55. Contributions were as follows: Lebanon corporation and Turtle creek township, $5,583.55; Franklin corporation, Franklin township and Clear creek township, $4,692; 1arveysburg and Massie township, $99.50; Morrow corporation and Salem township, $434; Maineville corporation, $25; Harlan township, $438.50; Kings Mills, $4,395; Mason, $261; Fosters, $15; Waynesville corporation and Wayne township $2,396. The second Red Cross drive was in June 1918, the quota being $14,000. The oversubscription lacked not quite $1,000 of doubling the quota.

            The subscriptions by branches were as follows : Lebanon, comprising Turtle creek and Union townships, $6,355.91; Franklin, comprising Franklin and Clear creek townships, $8,112.92; Morrow, comprising Salem, Washington and Harlan townships, $1,791.45; Waynesville, comprising Wayne and Massie townships, $2,000; Kings Mills, comprising Hamilton and Deerfield townships, $8,800. Total amount, $27,959.38.

            (page 399) United War Work Drive. Reliable Warren was the first county in the Cincinnati district which embraced fourteen counties in southern Ohio, to not only reach her quota but to surpass it in the United War Work Drive in the fall of the year 1918. Five days before the expiration of the time limit of the drive had terminated the work was done, returns all in. This splendid effort drew from Mr. F. W. Ramsey, state director of the war work drive the following complimentary telegram.


Columbus, Ohio, Nov. 14, 1918.

Chas. J. Waggoner, Chrm.,

Warren county war work,

Lebanon, O.

Warren county first county in Ohio to make its original quota of $22,000: also first county in state to make its fifty per cent increase amounting to $33,000. Congratulations!

(Signed) F. W. Ramsey, state director.


            War Savings Stamps. The bottom of the purse of Warren county seemed unreachable when patriotic demands were made upon it. Notwithstanding the magnificent subscriptions to the Liberty loan, Red Cross work, and war drive, there were those who would not permit the war saving stamps to pass them without investing in another of the government's good securities. The last official report obtainable as to the purchase of war savings stamps by Warren county's citizens, was made in August 1918, when the sale of the little green pledges amounted to $403,331.

            Lebanon has a record of distinguished visitors that, it is doubtful can be equaled by any town of its size in the state. Six presidents of the United States have been seen as honored personages in its streets.

            On the twenty-second day of July, 1825, Gen. William Henry Harrison was one of the distinguished guests who participated in the festivities attending the banquet given to Gov. DeWitt Clinton, of New York. Gen. Harrison passed through the village again in the year 1840, when a candidate for presidential honors.

            On June 4, 1842, the village band had the honor of escorting ex-President Martin Van Buren to the Lebanon hotel, where Gov. Thomas Corwin delivered a brief address of welcome. The expresident was on a tour through the southern and western states. The Hon. John Quincy Adams was the third person of presidential renown to be a guest of Lebanon's citizens. His short stay was made an occasion of sincere rejoicing by the little village. The distinguished visitor was in his seventy-seventh year, and on his way to Cincinnati to assist in the ceremonies of laying the cornerstone of the Cincinnati observatory.

            Gens. Hayes and Garfield addressed Lebanon audiences, during close political campaigns and in the summer of 1883, Benjamin Harrison delivered an eloquent speech at the reunion of the 35th and 79th Ohio regiments at Lebanon.

            Gubernatorial aspirations also brought Hon. William McKinley to Lebanon in October 1893, when seeking re-election to the office.

            (page 400) The visit of Hon. William H. Taft in November 1898, occurred through desire of being present at the funeral of his friend, judge George R. Sage.           

            The King Powder Company. The organizers of this great corporation were engaged in the manufacture of explosive powder for many years before the incorporating of The King Powder company in 1878, and their experience and wise management laid the foundation for the present splendid success and wonderful prosperity that has made it a valuable asset in the prominence of Warren county in the public eye. Its capital is large and paid up, and its stockholders are widely known as men of ample fortune.

            The location of its factories is peculiarly favorable to prosperous operations, being in the almost immediate neighborhood of Cincinnati and consequently favored by fine railroad connection with that excellent distributing center, being directly on the line of the Little Miami railroad, which is an important branch of the great Pennsylvania system, and the products of the company go to all parts of the country, even to foreign marts. The land on which stand the company's plants comprise about 700 acres of hill and valley and lies directly on the banks of the picturesque Little Miami river ; on this land are built the company's mills, factories, magazines, warehouses and tasteful homes of its employes. About the year 1904 the plants were reorganized throughout and electricity introduced as the motive power, the finest and latest machinery being employed for its transmission. Both steam and water are used in the generation of the electric fluid, and their combined capacity equals one thousand horse-power.

            The King Powder company runs two separate plants in the making of their explosives ; one manufactures their smokeless powder, the other is responsible for the black powder furnished its customers. The latter has two main divisions, one for the making of blasting powder and the second furnishes what is known to the trade as black sporting powder. Both plants are capable of large outputs.

            Looking entirely for their profits to the commercial line of business, the Spanish-American war added, somewhat unexpectedly, large profits to the company's coffers. in the spring of 1898, the company was notified by the war department that its plants would be expected to have a certain amount of explosives available when called for by the government. The factories were not caught nap-. ping. When the order came, calling for shipment, a special train loaded with 100,000 pounds of the terrible freight was headed southward, destined for the troops invading Cuba.

            The Peters Cartridge Company. Just across the Little Miami river, almost opposite to the King Powder mills, are the factories of The Peters Cartridge company, which was organized under the laws of the state in the year 1887. It might be termed an of-shoot of the King Powder company, as Mr. G. W. Peters, son-in-law of the pioneer powder manufacturer, the late Mr. J. W. King, for years was head of the company. Its financial foundation was almost assurance of the prosperity that has attended its activities. Like its sister factory across the river, it has a strong financial backing in (page 401) the individual wealth of its stockholders, and five years ago its paid in capital amounted to $1,500,000. Despite this, however, there were many apparently insurmountable obstacles in its way at first. But there were wise, skillful hands at the helm, whose steady determination to win out gained for it a reputation that has traveled beyond the shores of our own country. Its chief claim for prominence in the manufacturing world is the making of shotgun ammunition by mechanical process. In this, it is truly a pioneer. It literally established a new commodity in the world of trade, both as to the article thrown on the market, and to the increase of the number of selling agencies.

            The factories of The Peters Cartridge company lead the ammunition plants of the world in size and completeness. Its numerous buildings, taken collectively, aggregate a floor space of nearly 500,000 square feet, which means that if the buildings were placed in a continuous line they would cover ground three miles in length and thirty feet in width. The growth of the business is constantly demanding more buildings and extensions. The company is always on the alert for new improved machinery, which is run and managed by men who thoroughly know the capacity of the equipment, and can run it to its highest efficiency. Which results in an annual output of hundreds of millions of all kinds of shells and ammunition.

            A short stoppage in the work of The Peters Cartridge plant came on July 15, 1890, caused by a terrific explosion of powder on a train that stood at the little railroad station, ready to carry its load of dangerous freight to various destinations. A flash, a report like a thousand cannon and The Peters Cartridge plant was practically a wreck, as was also the railroad station and other buildings ; nine unfortunate human beings were hurled into eternity and others dangerously hurt. The awful catastrophe gave rise to numerous and hotly contested law suits as to where the responsibility of the explosion lay, and it was finally attributed to the carelessness of railroad employes, and large judgments paid. The attorneys representing the company were judge Runyan of Lebanon, and Gov. Harmon. But The Peters Cartridge company was quickly on its feet again, rebuilding at once, and branching out or still more extensive scales.

            Filling orders for the general trade after the close of the Spanish-American war, kept the mills of both companies going at a comfortable, profitable pace, but Germany's savage effort to destroy the peace and civilization of the world at once put both plants on their mettle to fill the immense orders for ammunition that came to them. First, from foreign governments, and finally from our own country when the "Stars and Stripes" were carried across the sea to float in battle line with the banners of England, France, Belgium and Italy.

            The first war contracts were made with England and North Russia, afterward with our own government. Both plants were placed at the service of the United States war department, and night and day the constant whir of machinery indicated that the factories were running to capacity limit, striving "to do their bit" in the (page 402) advancement and protection of true democracy. New machinery was installed and the cry went out for more help. Warren county responded nobly as did all southwestern Ohio. About 3,000 men and women worked daily at the plants. Both the electric and steam railway lines arranged their schedules to the satisfaction of employes who lived at a distance and who desired to go back and forth to the mills. From farm, workshop, store, and office, came men and women, anxious to assist in the patriotic work of turning out 1,500,000 cartridges a day, which was the average output of the factories during that troublous time. The same spirit of patriotism that moved the men of Warren county in '61 to hasten to the defense of the Union, was in the breasts of their children and grandchildren, moving them to set aside all other duties and obligations in the higher calling of defending helpless humanity across the sea. Products of the Mills. What of the products of the two organizations? The blasting powder manufactured by The King Powder company is without a rival for quality and effectiveness, but the company bases its reputation for progressiveness in the art of making powder, on its semi-smokeless and smokeless powders. The semi-smokeless powder has won a world-wide repute, and the company claim that it is absolutely without a rival in the field. For its composition The King Powder company holds letters patent, and it is manufactured solely by The King Powder company. The company asserts that it is not a mixture of the nitro and black powders, but "has the best qualities of both, without their faults. It has the high velocity of a nitro powder, with the low breech pressure of black." Climate fails to affect it, it does not deteriorate, is free from smoke, and so clean that the sportsman can fire hundreds of shots without being compelled to stop to clean his gun, nor can he complain of loss of accuracy. While recognized as a superior shotgun powder, it is as a rifle powder that it stands as yet unequaled. For over twenty years it has carried off the prizes in International and National Rife and Pistol Shoots, and also is highly extolled as a winner in military shoots.

            Products of the Peters Cartridge Company. It was the original intention of the company at the time of its organization, to confine its output to loading shells, but the stress of competition in the ammunition business forced them to enlarge their borders in that respect. Today the buyer of ammunition can purchase from their printed advertising list, 300 different styles of metallic cartridges, and this number is constantly increased, as new ideas of improvement come to them. The sportsman has nearly 650 styles of shotgun ammunition from which to make his selection, "and this number can be doubled and almost trebled, by adding chilled shot loads and loads of various nitro powders." No other cartridge factory in the world can furnish its markets with a similar list of ammunition goods, nor can any plant be found that manufactures almost absolutely everything that goes into the making of the shell or cartridge. The Peters Cartridge factory from its own equipment produces everything with the exception of some of the nitro powders and "the rawest parts of the raw material." The manufacture of everything means the making of the primers and fulminate that is (page 403) in them; the wads, and its felt factory cannot be surpassed by any ammunition plant in the United States or abroad. From a tower of the most recent design comes a perfect shot, but the most distinguishing advance in the making of shotgun ammunition is a steel reinforcing cup placed in the head of its smokeless shells "in order to afford ample protection to the shooter, when using properly constructed arms in good condition." Only the smokeless powders, manufactured by the company are used in the construction of Peters Metallic cartridges.

            Welfare Condition. In this day of contesting interests between capital and labor, Warren county is proud to call the eyes of the world to the splendid provision made by the King Powder company and the Peters Cartridge company for the comfort and well-being of its employes. The little railroad station that is so picturesquely located on the banks of the Little Miami river, is a beautiful village of comfortable, and even elegant homes ; well paved, graded streets, and well lighted at night by electricity. A concert hall brings first-class amusements for the entertainment of the villagers, and every Sunday, those devoutly inclined, in a pretty little church can forget the cares of the week in strength gathered from divine worship. An excellent public library and reading room furnish the latest books and current news, and the schools of the village have attained so high a reputation for thoroughness of instruction and advanced studies, that daily the electric cars bring young people from neighboring villages who desire to take advantage of the high school course at Kings Mills. No happier, more progressive village can be found in the United States. And this welfare work is not confined to the village. The factories themselves are equipped with everything that can be thought of to make the work easy, pleasant and attractive. The comfort of the women employees has been made a subject of special study. Perfect cleanliness, light and ventilation are always present conditions. Every woman is given work that requires no standing on her part, and never is her strength taxed by heavy lifting. It is seldom that serious accidents occur at the plants. Machinists are protected by every precaution possible from injury while at work, and only very small quantities of explosives are kept in the factories at any one time. But, that even slight hurts may be cared for, and sudden illness alleviated, there is a finely equipped hospital in the big concrete building recently constructed, where a capable trained nurse is always on duty.

            The present management of the Peters Cartridge factory is in the hands of Mr. W. E. Kepplinger, president, and Mr. Harry L. King, general manager.


First Warren County Hero.


            From Kings Mills, went the first soldier from Warren county who made the supreme sacrifice for the well-being of others-Robert Jennings Hall, son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Hall. His death seems doubly sad when his youth is remembered, for he had barely passed his majority. In April of the year 1917, he enlisted at Cincinnati in company "A," fourth Ohio infantry, but in a short time was transferred to the 166th infantry, which afterwards formed a part of that body of heroic men, that (page 404) will be chronicled in history as the Rainbow Division. He was wounded while in action of May 4th, 1918, and "went west" three days later.    

            Franklin. "Sweet Franklin, loveliest village of the West," wrote a homesick heart many years ago, whose manhood's call compelled a residence far from the beautiful village that nestles so closely to the Great Miami, where the happy, sunny days of his boyhood and youth had been passed.

            The little town, that in beauty and progressiveness challenges its sister village, Lebanon, in many things, was laid out in 1795, shortly after the signing of the treaty with the Indian tribes at Greenville, by two young men hailing from New Jersey, William C. Schenck and Daniel C. Cooper, whose primitive residence was built near the present location of Lot No. 21 on Front street. They bought the land in common, but Cooper sold his interest to Schenck, only for the latter, eventually, to discover that, as part of the purchase lay in the territory known as Symmes' purchase, it was impossible for him to hold a clear title to all of it.

            The young surveyors were not long alone in the solitude of the wilderness, for the following spring saw a neighborhood of six or eight cabins on the town plot, and as early as 1837 the settlement was large enough to possess a town charter, and was already rich in the possession of a church, that was used by all denominations for public worship, and also for all local gatherings. It could also boast of a "miniature fire department in the `Ringleader,' a small hand engine, which was filled with water at fires by means of a `bucket brigade."' "The brawn and muscle of six men working at cranks proved to be sufficient power to create the necessary water pressure to fight the `raging elements' that would dare threaten to wipe out the industrious town of Franklin."

            Elsewhere have been given sketches of William C. Schenck, the founder of Franklin, and his two sons, who as Admiral James F. Schenck and Gen. Robert C. Schenck, attained national fame for brilliant service in the momentous days of the Civil war. The family name also appears at frequent intervals in Franklin's local history, as citizens honorable and just in all business relations, friends of everything that was advanced for the promotion and extent of the town's progression, careful for the educational and moral standards of the community, in brief, models of good citizenship. Christopher Schenck, Isaac Plume Schenck and W. L. Schenck, are names that will always stand as a major part of that which is "worth while" in the story of Franklin.

            Other families that contributed richly to the business, educational, social and religious life of Franklin, were the Evans, and Thirkield households. Dr. Richard Pierce Evans, one of Franklin's earlier physicians, was born in the village in 1829, and upon completing his medical studies, returned to Franklin and became one of the leading practitioners of the Miami valley; Dr. Otho Evans, Dr. F. R. Evans, Dr. George B. Evans of Dayton, are names that are intimately associated with the medical history of Warren county, particularly in Franklin and its neighborhood. Miss Mary Frances Hassett in her beautiful and intensely interesting "Historical (page 405) Souvenir of Franklin," says, "Until recently Franklin has not been without an Evans physician for almost one hundred years." The Thirkield name is one of the religious and business assets of Franklin. The faith of Methodism, from its first establishment in Franklin about 1825, found James E. Thirkield among its staunchest supporters. He was as good a business man as he was an advocate of "free grace." His life was an example of integrity, justice and moral uplift to the community in which he lived. To him, religion was not a matter of lip service; he loved the church of which he was a regular attendant, but he did not leave his religion wrapped around his hymn-book in the pew, when he left the sacred edifice, but carried it out with him for service in the six days' work in the business and social life that lay before him, and it found rich and constant expression in square dealing, fidelity to right principles, and sympathetic kindness to others. A marked characteristic of Mr. Thirkield's life was an utter detestation of laziness. To him it was coincident with shiftlessness. Work was to him a blessing given by God to keep man out of evil doing, for to a busy man Satan could obtain no entrance for the concocting of evil plans, hurtful to the individual and society alike. The village of Franklin is, today, much indebted to the memory of James E. Thirkield for the influence of his upright, consistent life, and the high Christian ideals that made such a life possible to live.

            John L. Thirkield. Another scion of the Thirkield house, John L. Thirkield, who came with his parents from Fayette county, Pennsylvania, in the year 1817, when John was about eight years of age. he family located on a farm about one-half mile north of Franklin.

            The boy had no bent towards a farmer's life, and opened a small dry goods store in Franklin, which was eventually to become the oldest establishment of its kind in Warren county. Bishop Wilbur P. Thirkield. There is no name in the annals of Franklin more honored than that of Bishop Wilbur P. Thirkield. The community delights to honor him by cordial welcomes when he comes to visit the village on the banks of the Miami, where he was born in 1854, and whose school days are associated with those of the gray-haired men and women who are residents of Franklin today. His education, after completing the high school course in Franklin in 1873, was continued at the Wesleyan seminary in Delaware, Ohio, and the Boston Theological school. In 1881, as a helpmate in his ministerial life, Miss Mary Haven, daughter of Bishop Gilbert Haven, became his wife. Positions of great trust have come to Bishop Thirkield in his consecrated ministry, having been called to fill the president's chair at the Gammon Theological school at Atlanta, Georgia, secretary of the Freedman's Aid society, and later placed at the head of the Howard university at Washington, D. C. In the year 1912 at the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal church at Milwaukee, bishop's honors were conferred upon him.

            William A. Van Home. Another name held in affectionate veneration by the people of Franklin, is that of William A. Van Home, whose long life of over four score years was passed in Warren county. Bor at Lebanon in 1808, upon reaching manhood, he concluded to locate in Franklin, and for over sixty years was identified with the advancement of all that promoted the progress of Franklin. His philanthropy was large, his ample means enabling him to contribute freely to all charitable and benevolent objects. A. E. Harding. Perhaps no name is more prominently identified with the commercial activities of the village of Franklin than that of Mr. A. E. Harding, founder of the Franklin Writing Paper mill. English by birth, he came to America in 1850, having previously been employed in the paper mills of Surrey in his native land.

            By the slow speed of a canal boat he reached the Miami valley, and as his eyes drank in the prosperity promised by its vales and streams, he chose it for his permanent location. Greatly to his delight, he found that the manufacture of paper was one of the industries of southwestern Ohio, and for several years was an employee in different mills in this part of the state, and knowledge of the business and grasp of its growing potentiality brought him in the year 1858 a partnership in the mill-firm of Oglesby, Barnitz, Tytus & Erwin at Middletown, Ohio. His association with these gentlemen continued until the year 1865, when he became identified with the paper manufactory of Harding, Erwin & Co., who erected the Excello Writing Paper mill the same year. But, desiring to go into business for himself, Mr. Harding in 1873 located at Franklin, erected a mill, which today is one of the greatest commercial activities of Franklin, and is said to be the first mill west of the Allegheny mountains to successfully manufacture the highest grade of writing paper. It is the largest, and perhaps the best equipped factory in the village of Franklin. Its employees, about 200 in number, must show thorough understanding of their duties, else they are soon told to seek employment elsewhere. For the motto of the firm is to not only keep the quantity of their output up to an average of 15,000 pounds a day, but there must not be the slightest deviation from the superior qualities for which the product of the mill has a national reputation. The scientific management of the work is interesting in every detail. The raw materials, rags of all descriptions and quality, millions of pounds, are assorted, cut in a "rag house," and then thrown for thorough cooking in immense rotary boilers, where the solution of lime water robs them of all coloring. Their next stations are the washers, where six big wheels in their revolutions put them through another cleansing bath of a solution of bichloride of lime, and they drop to the drainers a mass of pulp white as winter snow. But the process is not yet complete. For four hours the mass is thoroughly thrashed by the "beaters," which, while driving out all evidence of the bichloride of lime, at the same time mixes with the pulp any tint or coloring that may be desired. A Marshall clarifying machine then loosens up the fiber, and the mass is "sized" and the colors made fast by the introduction of alum solution. The pulp is now ready to be pressed into a selling commodity, and an immense 62-inch and 86-inch begin the magic process of rapidly transforming the bank of snow begins, and to the music of the click and clack of smoothly gliding bars and revolving wheels, beautiful white sheets of fine writing paper drop from the end of the machine opposite to where the pulp was introduced. "Fine-mesh cylinders 'put in the (page 407) weave' and water-mark, and an endless woolen jacket, copper rolls and an atmospheric pressure extract the water before the paper passes into the dryer," which is a series of heated cylinders. The fingers of another machine cut the product into sheets, which are carried to large drying lofts and kept for four days in a temperature of one hundred and ten degrees, after which it goes to the caretakers in the finishing department, where the latest improved machinery imparts the gloss and finish that make the product of the Harding mill always a leader in the commercial world. The exterior of the factory at once attracts the eyes of a visitor. No public institution can be found in the Miami valleys more pleasing in environment, beautiful lawns and majestic trees destroying the hard "necessary" look nearly always making the exterior of a factory prison-like in appearance.

            Mr. A. E. Harding, founder of the mill, died in the year 1887, and its control passed into the hands of two sons, Charles and Clarence, who had for years been associated with their father in the management of this great industry ; but to the deep regret of the community their father only preceded them in death by a few years. William Augustus Newell. On September 17, 1817, there was born in Franklin, Ohio, a child, from whose fertile brain in later years was to evolve a method of life-saving that would place his name among the saviors of the world.

            The parents of William Augustus Newell moved to New Jersey while their son• was but a small boy. In that state he acquired a liberal education, and then chose the practice of medicine as a life profession. His medical qualifications were acquired at the University of Pennsylvania, after which he entered the office of an uncle, Dr. Hankinson, who resided at Manahawkin, New Jersey. While here he became intensely interested in shipwrecks, which were numerous on the New Jersey coast, and his mind was filled with a desire to invent a method of communicating with vessels in distress. One night, as he watched an Austrian ship go to pieces, and the bodies of the entire crew were thrown by the cruel waves upon the shore, like a flash of inspiration he conceived the possibility of throwing a line over a vessel in peril of destruction by rocks and waves. First experimenting with bow and arrow, rockets and a shortened blunderbuss, successful achievement came with the use of a small mortar which had been taken from a wreck. The outlook for a wider practice in his profession brought about his removal to Allentown, New Jersey, but the improvement and establishment of his life-saving method was a bee in his bonnet that never stopped buzzing.

            Being an ardent Whig, that party in 1846 sent him to congress, and the very day after its formal organization he began to pull wires for the introduction and consideration of the hobby that almost possessed him. He asked for a resolution instructing a congressional committee on commerce to inquire into the feasibility of adopting methods for safe-guarding navigation from wreckage along the coast from Little Egg Harbor to Sandy Hook, and that the report of said committee be embodied in a bill. The resolution met the approval of John Quincy Adams, who occupied a seat near its (408) author, and Abraham Lincoln, who said, "Newell, that is a good

            measure. I will help you. I am something of a life-saver myself, for I -invented a scow that righted itself in the Mississippi sandbars." But notwithstanding the strong influence brought to bear upon the committee, it refused to make a report, pronouncing the proposed plan "impracticable."

            But the author of the resolution knew not the meaning of the word discouragement, and kept the. matter constantly before the congressional body, making speeches at every opportunity that presented itself, constantly calling attention to the dangers of the New Jersey shore, where, in the short space of two years, 122 vessels were wrecked. The dangers of the eastern coast were also presented, the perils vessels encountered from its sand-bars and terrific gales. Most persuasively he told how much wreckage would be avoided by providing stations for men, who in their office of lifesavers would be furnished "with cannonades to throw balls, with rod attached, over vessels in distress," thus securing communication with the helpers on the shore. He also suggested the use of signal rockets. He earnestly insisted that "it was the duty of the government to endorse the work, and so convincing were his arguments that congress voted an appropriation of $10,000,000 and the humane work began. That Dr. Newell was right in his ideas was amply proved when, on Christmas night, in the year 1849, while the air was dense with blinding snow, 301 passengers were rescued from a Scottish ship through the life-saving means suggested by Dr. Newell. In after years, when Abraham Lincoln was elected president of the one great Republic, he did not forget his earlier friendship with Dr. Newell, but voluntarily placed him in the superintendency of the stations of the life-saving service located on the New Jersey coast, a position which he most ably filled until his re-election to congress in the year 1864.

            Dr. Jane Sherzer. Injustice to the noble womanhood of Franklin would be done, if omission was made of one of her daughters, who by her own steadfast endeavors and intellectual ability, has attained a leading place in the ranks of scholarship and brain achievements.

            The father of Dr. Jane Sherzer was born in Lebanon, Ohio, in the year 1828, but when he had reached his twentieth year located in Franklin, where he learned the harness trade. He was one of the honored citizens of the village, in time serving it as a member of council, also as mayor. All of Miss Sherzer's early childhood and youth was passed in Franklin, her primary education being in the common schools of the place, from which she was graduated in 1875 with the honor of valedictorian of her class. She chose the practice of medicine for a profession, and, although teaching, so great was her ambition that she consumed quantities of "midnight oil" in her determination to acquire a thorough knowledge of the ills of humanity with the skill to cure them ; she also was preparing for admission to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. For three years she filled the important place of principal in the high school at Franklin, spending one of her vacations abroad, uniting sight-seeing with the study of French and German. Upon her (page 409) return she re-entered college, but before she had completed her senior year was compelled to return home on account of ill health ; upon her recovery she accepted the position of instructor in modern languages in Oxford college, where she remained for over two years. Then came another sojourn in Europe which was devoted to study. Young as she was, Miss Sherzer then for two years held the high honor of dean of Oxford college, her duties being so arranged that she was permitted to complete her senior year at Ann Arbor, and receive the coveted degree. Several more trips to Europe were her happy lot, each time embracing the opportunity to acquire greater familiarity with the French language. Her scholarly attainments were, by this time, widely known, and when she again reached her native land, it was to fill the position of principal in a young ladies' school in Jacksonville, Illinois. Then, desiring to know more of her own country, in the year 1898 she spent several months on the Pacific coast, taking in on the homeward Journey the wonderful scenery of Colorado and other points of interest familiar to every tourist.

            But her love of study and wish for wider attainment demanded work in one of the great universities abroad, and she was singularly fortunate, in the year 1899, in the University of Berlin, and was the second woman to be granted a degree from that conservative institution. This concession was probably, in a large degree, granted because of the "recommendations and certificates" of an organization the membership of which numbered about 2,000 alumnae of all the American universities that open their doors for the admission of women as students in their halls. The presentation of such a certificate is demanded of every woman presenting herself for study at the higher German institutions of learning. W. H. Sherzer. The brother of Dr. Jane Sherzer has achieved a standing equally brilliant with that of his talented sister. To him, his school-life in Franklin, where he was graduated with honors in the year 1878, was regarded by him as just a portal through which to pass into the great realm of learning that lay invitingly open to his research. It did not promise to be an easy journey, for the limitations of small income and ill-health apparently forbade all successful achievement. But in him was the ambition that would "hitch his wagon to a star," an idealism that was greater than feeble body, a determination that laughed at slim pocketbooks, a combination that was to ultimately crystallize into magnificent success. Teaching was his chosen profession, and a country school was his first step in an upward progress that placed him for twenty years at the head of the department of natural science in the State Normal school at Ypsilanti, Michigan, which has a superior standing in the collegiate schools of the United States.

            His geological understanding and information was soon recognized by the mining world, and three times was he sent on prospecting tours to British Columbia and the Selkirk mountains, and has been called as an expert witness by the United States government to testify in federal cases.

            Notwithstanding the apparently full occupation of every hour of his busy life he has found time for able authorship, and with (page 410) Professor Graham of Columbia university as co-laborer, published an extensive History of the Monroe Formation of Southern Michigan and Adjoining Regions. The public schools of Michigan use as a text-book an outline for nature study which is the product of his pen. And so accurate and reliable are the opinions entertained of his theories and research that in the service of the Smithsonian institute at Washington, D. C., he spent three months in the Canadian Rockies studying the glacier formation. The result of his work, embodied in exhaustive notes, was published by the institute in a magnificent edition, and is said to be the most complete work on glaciers ever given to the public. So highly regarded was his work by scientific men everywhere, that he was the guest of honor at an elegant dinner given by the Alpine club in Boston, where the distinguished John Muir presided and Dr. Sherzer was toasted by famous men from all parts of the country. But with all the honors that have fallen in his pathway, Dr. Sherzer holds dearest in his affection the Franklin of happy memories, and it is not strange that the name of Sherzer is so greatly honored and esteemed in the Miami valleys.

            New Jersey Presbyterian Church. Franklin is in truth a village of beautiful churches. Many of them are artistic in architecture and set in the midst of beautiful majestic trees, whose snow-laden branches in winter, and long trailing shadows in mid-summer, are wonderful frames of nature's own handiwork.

            The first Presbyterian church was not erected in the village of Franklin, but in its vicinity, in a settlement of immigrants from New Jersey, who had located on the west side of the Great Miami, and today is still often called the Jersey settlement, but to the United States' mail service is known as the village of Carlisle. These newcomers were staunch adherents to the formula of faith established by John Calvin and his followers, and after the clearings were made and the log cabins built, their spiritual being called for an expression of their religious convictions in the form of a house of worship. So, on the fourteenth day of August, 1813, they assembled at the home of William P. Barkalow, and the first Presbyterian society was formed to which was given the name of the New Jersey Presbyterian church, in memory of the old church so dear to them all, that lifted its spire so far away from their new home. Names familiar in the early history of the Miami valley are found on the records of this primitive association : Baird, Lane, Denise, Van Derveer, McKean, and many others, whose conscientious, upright lives were a sure foundation for the future of the settlement that was to mean home to them henceforth and their descendants.

            As with all pioneer churches, religious services were first held in the cabins of the people, and later when they began to build large barns for their grain and stock, they were used by the people for religious assembling. With the growing congregation of the New Jersey Presbyterian church the barn of Hendrick Lane, that stood near the present hydraulic dam, was the most popular place of meeting. For nearly a century this strongly built structure stood as a historic landmark, but went down under the food-waters of the year 1913.

            (page 411) The first shepherd of this little fold was the Rev. Francis Montfort, during whose spiritual guardianship a new church was built. The erection of the new edifice was in every way a labor of love, being built in a style similar to the dearly loved church in that faraway home state, and was the admiration of the entire valley. The cost of the building was not made a consideration in its building; different members brought in the loving, reverent spirit of the Israelites of old, offerings for the building of the sacred edifice. The frame work was furnished by Tunis Van Derveer, while the weather boarding was the gift of George Lane, and Michael Van Tuyl sawed the material into shape ; Hendrick Lane laid the floor, and John McKean had the honor of furnishing the sacred pulpit; the seats were benches, which each member of the congregation supplied in the best way he could. Unfortunately, the church was but slightly built, and in winter the worshippers suffered so from cold that charcoal fires were resorted to, but these filled the room so dense with smoke that the people were literally "smoked out," and resorted to the barns again until the return of warmer weather. The first Sunday school in connection with the church was organized about the year 1826.

            The centennial of this thriving congregation was celebrated August 13, 1918, in the handsome brick edifice, whose cornerstone was laid on the twelfth day of May, 1866. It was an occasion of heartfelt gratitude. For one hundred years the congregation had been a power for good, whose influence reached over the whole Miami territory. The anniversary sermon was preached by the Rev. George E. Gowdy, pastor of the Presbyterian church in Lebanon, who had previously, for thirteen years, faithfully cared for the spiritual needs of the congregation of Carlisle. Mr. Gowdy passed into the higher life February, 1919, during a sojourn with his wife in Florida. The present pastor of the church is the Rev. J. L. Robison. First Presbyterian Church. On the twentieth day of May, in the year 1918, the First Presbyterian church of Franklin celebrated its one hundredth birthday, a century of spiritual blessing to the people having elapsed since its founding.

            The organization of this church was an event of peculiar interest. The majority of the human race are of the opinion that when a man has almost reached the four-score milestone of life, he is entitled to rest until the summons comes for a change of environment. Not so thought the Rev. William C. Schenck of Huntington, Long Island, who, with his wife and three unmarried daughters, in 1817, came to make his home near three sons who had preceded him to the Miami valley, and located in Franklin. To his sorrow, the venerable man found that the village, as yet, had no Presbyterian organization, and the missionary spirit burning hot within him, not deterred by the fact that the snow of seventy-seven winters lay upon his head, he set about the forming of the nucleus of a church which, indeed, was exceeding small as it numbered only ten members, six of whom were from his own immediate family; but to his great happiness, and to the strengthening of his faith, the number of communicants rapidly increased. The first services were held in a brick schoolhouse "which stood for many years on the hill not far (page 412) from the site of the old Big Four depot. Here, and elsewhere, Dominic Schenck preached up to the time of his death, September 21, 1823. When afflicted with the infirmities of age, it is said that his aged wife would sit beside him and prompt his failing memory as he addressed the people; and an incident of his last appearance before his people is, that he lifted his hands as if in benediction and repeated over and over again, `Little children, love one another ! Love one another."

            In the year 1823 the Presbyterians, Methodists and New Lights united in erecting a building on the lot now occupied by the Conover Hardware store. This union only existed for about five years, when the Methodists went to themselves, the New Lights subsequently taking the same step. The different pastors who succeeded Mr. Schenck at various periods, were men of steadfast faith, thoroughly comprehending the needs of a community struggling with the perplexities and privations of a comparatively new civilization. In the year 1833, the congregation having grown to a strength sufficient to warrant the erection of a church edifice, a lot was donated where the present church is now located, by Samuel Caldwell. It was a wet, low place and spoken of in the neighborhood as Bear Wallow. The building committee was composed of Jacob Long, Stephen Burrowes, Otho Evans, Warren Anderson and Cyrus Johnson. It was a handsome building for the day in which it was built and cost its membership between $5,000 and $6,000. The first gathering of the congregation within its walls was at the funeral of Mrs. McLean, on Sunday, December 1, 1834, when the more superstitious of those present were frightened by an eclipse of the sun during the solemn discourse.

            Disaffection appeared in the church when John Holloway added his base viol to the music of the choir, the introduction of instrumental music being considered an almost sacrilegious innovation by the older people.

            On a beautiful June day in the year 1884, the cornerstone =-f the present handsome church building was laid by Dr. F. R. Evans, a great-great grandson of the first occupant of the pulpit of the pioneer church. The building was completed in the summer of the ensuing year, during the pastorate of the Rev. W. A. Hutchison, one of the best loved and most successful pastors in the history of the communion. The pulpit of the church, at present, is unsupplied. Old School Baptist Church. The congregation of the Tapscott meeting house was organized as early as the year 1814, with eleven members, but not incorporated until in the winter of 1830, when its communion was much larger. The church took its name from the donor of the land on which the church edifice was erected. A difference on points of faith brought about a split in the congregation in 1836, and the disaffected withdrew and organized the Baptist

            church, whose membership worships in one of the largest and most imposing of all the churches in Franklin. The division occurred in 1836, but no organization was effected until the summer of 1843, with a communion of forty-two members, over which the Rev. William T. Boynton assumed the pastorate, H. W. Meeker and Peter Dubois were elected deacons, and Absalom Death clerk. An (page 413) old church building standing on the corner of Center and Fourth streets in the village was occupied as a place of worship, and later purchased and remodeled and added to, until it became the handsome building of the present day. It very happily and gratefully celebrated its semi-centennial in the summer of 1893; an anniversary that brought out the sincere congratulations of the entire village. For its ministers have been God-fearing, humanity-loving men, serving gladly and self-sacrifcingly the great and noble cause of which they are the standard-bearers. The Rev. E. E. McFarlane is now in charge of the spiritual progress of the church, and it is advancing all lines of uplift to the community.

            Methodist Episcopal Church. The old Union circuit, which was the first route of the early circuit rider in southwester Ohio, comprised the settlement of Franklin in its appointments. With his Bible and hymn book, and perchance a change of linen in his saddlebags, the earnest advocate of the doctrine of free grace and the comforting assurance that he could promise the personal assurance of divine pardon to the earnest faces uplifted to him under the shade of spreading tree, or by glowing firesides, the "circuit rider," on his trustworthy steed, ambled up the banks of the Little Miami, "and perhaps farther up the valley of the Mad or Big Miami, then coming down the valley of the Big Miami, eagerly looked for by settlements at Lebanon, Dyke's, Robertson's, Franklin, Simoney's, Rehoboth, Dayton, Hopewell, Bellbrook, Moler's, Park's, Nesbitt's, Xenia, Bogg's, William Davis', Union, Bethel, Good's, Brandenburg's, Salem, Millgrove, Deerfield, Middletown, and Emley's. A long and sometimes perilous journey with fear of treacherous foe, the fording of streams swollen by melted snows or heavy rains, but singing in his heart, or more often piercing the silence of the woods with his resonant voice, the circuit rider was the happiest man of his day, rejoicing in his work.

            The first church home of the followers of John Wesley in Franklin, was a frame building that stood between Center and Front on Third street, and was built in the year 1832. Four years later the congregation were in possession of a brick church that was erected on the site of the present edifice. In 1860 this was replaced by the present building, one of the most attractive churches in the village.

            So rapidly increased the population of the Miami valleys that circuits became shorter, for settlements were growing closer together. The village of Franklin was made a station in 1853. That their pastor might be sure of a home roof when he was sent to them by the conference, the congregation in the early fifties purchased a parsonage, but in the year 1881 erected the beautiful home that stands on the corner of Third and Front streets, commanding a splendid river and park outlook, which is ample testimony of the affectionate regard that the good people of the Methodist church of Franklin have for the comfort of the men who come to guide them in the way of earnest, uplifting truth.

            The Rev. Frank W. Stanton has now in charge the leadership of this church, and its different departments of welfare service are pushed forward with the loving zeal characteristic of the Methodist organization.

            (page 414) St. Paul's Lutheran Church. Named after the great apostle to the Gentiles, the congregation of St. Paul's Lutheran church of Franklin, keeps abreast of its sister denominations in all good works, realizing that true service to God must be expressed in service to humanity.

            The beginning of the organization is comparatively recent history, dating back only to the year 1881, when services were held by students from the Lutheran seminary at Capital university, Columbus, Ohio, in the rooms of the Y. M. C. A.J now the public- library of Franklin. In a year the little congregation felt strong enough to call a resident pastor and the Rev. H. L. Redman, now of New Lebanon, Ohio, was its choice.

            About ten years after the organization of the small congregation, the need of a church edifice was strongly impressed upon the membership, and in the year 1892 the cornerstone of the handsome building, located on the corner of Front and Second streets, was laid with fitting ceremonies, and so rapidly did the building of the church go forward, that in January of the following year the edifice was solemnly dedicated to the worship of God and the good of humanity. At present the church is without a pastor. Christian Church. Local history ascribes the organization of the Christian church of Franklin, to a small company of believers in the cardinal truths of its doctrines, who met in the year 1822, in a schoolhouse east of the village. The building now used by the Franklin Chronicle Publishing house was the first meeting house of the congregation, which was erected sometime in the forties. But both building and location were unsatisfactory to a major part of the membership, and in the year 1872 the present church edifice was built and dedicated, and under the pastorate of the Rev. Thomas Martyn McWhinney, D. D., the congregation grew in spirituality and in all good works.

            But, as is the history of the church universally, the Christian church of Franklin, has been sometimes overshadowed by clouds of discouragement, and the zeal of its membership would apparently lag. But there was always a "remnant" whose faith and fidelity to duty kept the altar fires from going out, and today St. Paul's church holds its own place in the record of the Christian work of Franklin.

            At present, the pulpit of the church is vacant.

            St. Mary's Church. One of the most impressive ceremonies ever beheld in the village of Franklin, was the dedication of the beautiful church of St. Mary's that took place October 26, 1913.

            Preceding the exercises at the church, "Two bands of music, the archbishop's special guard in full dress uniform, a large number of uniformed Knights of Columbus with big delegations of Catholic citizens from nearby cities all joined in a marching column of earnest men." At the new church pontifical high mass was conducted by His Grace, Archbishop Moeller, of Cincinnati, assisted by ten priests, and the magnificent music furnished by the choir of St. Joseph's church at Hamilton, Ohio, added greatly to the beauty and solemnity of the sacred occasion. The festal sermon was delivered by Rev. Dennis A. Hayes, pastor of St. Charles church, of Coldwater, Michigan.

            (page 415) Not until the year 1867, was there a Catholic organization in the little town of Franklin. So few were the number that mass was at first said in private homes, but as the number of devoted followers were increased, the city opera house was used for a gathering place and once a month they knelt at the celebration of the mass. Great was the happiness of. the congregation when it was decided that the time had come for building a new church. For over thirty years the members had worshipped in a frame building erected on a lot north of Franklin. Poor, indeed, was this first place of worship owned by the Catholic brethren of Franklin, unplastered and without pews. But ever before them was the determination and purpose of worshipping in a beautiful edifice ; their prayers, economy and sacrifice were rewarded, and on the first day of the last month of the year of 1912, they beheld with devout joy the laying of the cornerstone of the present handsome church of St. Mary's, by Father Crowley, St. Mary's first resident priest, on the lot next to the parish house on the corner of First and Main streets. Both the parish house and church are beautiful architectural additions to the village of Franklin. The Rev. Father Nicholas Schneider, who for over six years, has looked after the interests of St. Mary's parish, is still in charge of its manifold responsibilities, and has the love and confidence, not only of his people, but of the entire community.

            Public Library. Franklin is fortunate in possessing one of the finest selection of books of any town of its size in any state, and it speaks well for the intellectual culture and broad range of thought of the people of the Miami valley. It is located on the second floor of the Odd Fellows' building, and attractively fitted up with all that is needed for the convenience and con. `ort of the reader. The present librarian is Rachel Hartley, who finds constant pleasure in her work, and proves herself an authority upon the best books, which is eminently satisfactory and helpful to the patrons of the library.

            Limitation of space forbids the enumeration of all the Franklin boys who have "made good" in the professional and commercial activities of the great world outside of the environs of the pretty village of Franklin. The list is a long one. Only a few of those whose achievements have lifted them into the limelight of an admiring public can be given.

            In the high position of head master of the National Cathedral school for boys in Washington city is La Mont Gregg, whose fitness for a professorship in one of the leading boys' schools in the United States, was made possible by preparation at the University of Michigan and prior experience as an instructor in Racine college.

            Mr. Edward Peck is connected with the official government of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and associated with some of the great paper manufactories in the name of Mr. W. S. Warner, and in the same business, as inventor and superintendent, Mr. Perry E. Taylor has for years been occupied ; and so widely has the reputation of Mr. Taylor for thorough understanding of his work extended, that he was requested by the Chinese government to superintend the activities of a large mill in the celestial kingdom. (page 416)


Commercial Activities of Franklin


            Thirkield Dry Goods Store. In the year 1833, was organized a mercantile company, that for over three-quarters of a century has held a pre-eminent place over similar establishments in towns far larger than the village of Franklin. With a floor space of nearly 12,000 feet, with two frontages, one 163 feet, the other of 50 feet on two of the principal streets of the town, brilliantly lighted with the most modern electric equipment, it can challenge any town between the two great metropolitan cities, Cincinnati and Dayton, to show any establishment that can equal it in attractiveness and up-to-date goods, which range from a point lace handkerchief to an oriental rug. So satisfactory is this modem place of business, that it has but little "chance" trade, for the chance buyer always becomes a steady purchaser. For both the quality of the purchase, and the price, are equally satisfactory. In the year 1918 the firm did a business of over $180,000.

            The Franklin Board and Paper Company. At the head of the paper mills of the county, stands the Franklin Board and Paper company. Not a flaw can be found in the men who control it, in their integrity, fair dealing and quality of their output. Organized in October of the year 1903, backed by plenty of money, the story of the company has been one of constant prosperity. No mill throughout the length and breadth of the land is better equipped for good work than this mill in the Miami valley. The machinery comprising the paper-making outfit is modern and up-to-date in every particular, and may perchance be equaled, but cannot be surpassed by the equipment of any mill in the United States. The fact that it comes from the great machine shops of the Moore & White company of Philadelphia is a voucher for its perfection. The motor power is furnished by two great steam engines of 200 or 250 horsepower which stand in the center court of the mill. In the large beater room four Jordan engines grind the pulp and half a dozen beater engines carry on the work. Over the two tiers of dry rolls, each of which are 250 feet long, is a perfect ventilating system, in connection with which is a battery of five boilers of 150 horsepower each, driving one 300 horsepower and one 150 horsepower Corliss engine. When the press of orders demands night work the big manufactory is illuminated by a powerful electric light plant. The output of this immense factory is the tremendous amount of forty tons of product daily, and the fact that the tracks of the Big Four railroad run closely by the side of the mill, renders the shipping of its product an easy problem.

            Strange to relate, and yet most complimentary to the county seat of Greene county, all the officers of the Franklin Board and Paper company are from Xenia. Mr. Albert F. Hagar, president of the plant, is a New York attorney, but his home is with his mother and sisters who are residents of Xenia; Mr. George Little, only son of the late Hon. John Little, at one time attorney general of Ohio and also representative of his district in congress, has a beautiful home in an attractive residence street in Xenia, holds the office of vice-president of the company ; Mr. Karl Bull, secretary, hails from (page 417) the same well known little city, and Mr. Fred B. Zartman, treasurer and general manager, is one of the most highly regarded and efficient young men that Greene county ever sent out into the business world.

            The Franklin Coated Paper Company. One of the thriving industries of the village on the banks of the Great Miami river, is the Franklin Coated Paper company, whose plant is located in the west end of Franklin across the river. It is a mill which operates a modern three-coating machine, and is splendidly equipped with the latest and best machinery for perfect work. Electricity is the motive power which drives the machinery. The drying system of the plant is almost absolutely perfect, in the fact that there is no danger of over-drying, thus avoiding a large percentage of water, that is so often found in many coating plants.

            The mill has only been in operation a little over eleven years, but the company has established a splendid record for "putting out the goods," and won a fine business reputation.

            It is doubtful if any business activity in Warren county is more widely or popularly known than the Brown & Carson company of Franklin, who yearly furnish to the retail mercantile trade of the country at large, literally tons of outer winter clothing such as ear muffs, knee protectors, over gaiters, leggings, etc. Those who personally control this important industry are Messrs. B. A. Brown, sr., president; B. A. Brown, jr., vice-president; M. F. Brown, treasurer; H. C. Eldridge, secretary.

            The Shartle & Bevis Machine Company. Near the Big Four railroad, on Sixth street, in Franklin, is located a plant that has far more than a local reputation for doing a big business. It is the Shartle & Bevis Machine company. Its work is always up to standard requirements, and the management' possesses the entice confidence of the people of the Miami valley, and there is wide appreciation of its thorough business methods. The company is not a corporation, but is owned and operated by Mr. R. E. Bevis. The Franklin National Bank. One of the strongest banks in the Miami valley is the Franklin National, organized under the successful management of the following officers : H. J. Catrow, president; Wm. Michael, vice-president; Ralph B. Parks, cashier; R. C. Adams, assistant cashier. Board of directors, N. J. Catrow, Wm. Michael, Fred Moery, Wm. A. Mays, Frederick Gwinner, Geo. E. Riley, Abel Hoover.

            The bank at the present time is under the same official management with the exception that the place of vice-president is held by Mr. H. S. Conover, changes in the board of directors are that of the original board only the names of Messrs. Catrow and Riley are found, the new members comprising Messrs. H. S. Conover, Carl J. Miller, Geo. W. Byers, Wm. H. Albresht, Ralph B. Parks. The Miami Valley Chautauqua. "A great people's university," is what Dr. Gunsaulus, one of the eminent thinkers, orators and preachers of the middle west, called the chautauqua circles that now attract, like irresistible magnets, the dwellers in crowded hot cities, to delightful resorts and camps on mountain sides, or by lake or river, or in the cool, refreshing green of shady grove. The (page 418) formation of the International Chautauqua Alliance and of the Chautauqua union was a wonderful step in the progress of the literary, social, political and religious life of the United States. They have been the direct agencies through which the best of the world's culture, along all lines, had been brought to the villager as well to, perchance, the more highly favored person who lives in a metropolis that nightly has a program of interest to offer him.

            It would be difficult to find a more entrancing place for an assembly of any kind, than the beautiful and picturesque spot on the banks of the Great Miami river, between the towns of Franklin and Miamisburg. With nearly a mile of river frontage, under the shade of century-old forest trees, in hot midsummer days, gather from all parts of the adjoining country, hundreds and hundreds of people, anxious to forget the humdrum cares and biting anxieties of life's daily living, in the new outlook which the Chautauqua always brings to them. For, from the Chautauqua platform come messages from those who have learned the spiritual value of things, words of encouragement from men and women who have been conquerors over all the evils to which human life apparently is heir. Political issues are discussed on broad lines of true Americanism. Travelers lead their audiences to new points of pleasure, while artists and musicians open rare vistas of beauty for thought, and the business man and tired housewife go home after ten days of bodily rest and transformed mind, ready and willing to take up their daily tasks again in the place where life has set them. The benefit received is not all purely spiritual and mental uplifts. Fishing, boating, bathing, are ever present attractions at the Miami Valley Chautauqua, with athletic amusements so popular to young people of both sexes. The advantages accruing to the people of the Miami valley from yearly having the Chautauqua assembly in its midst, cannot be estimated in dollars and cents. The influence for good that reaches out in many directions, is far deeper and richer than any money value received, and like the widening circles of a pool deeply stirred, spreads and widens beyond all human estimation.

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