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Memoirs of the Miami Valley - Volume Two
The Medical Profession of Butler County, Incorporated Towns of Butler County

The Medical Profession of Butler County


            (page 450) Perhaps no profession has had within its circle so many men of eminence as that of the medical profession in Hamilton and in Butler county. The name most familiar in this profession is that of Milikin. Dr. Daniel Millikin was Hamilton's first physician. In later years he was succeeded by Dr. Samuel Millikin and later by a man of the same name, Dr. Dan Millikin, who attained a national reputation as a diagnostician and general practitioner. He in time has been succeeded by Dr. Mark Millikin, his son, who is not only a physician but also a surgeon of some. note. Dr. Mark Millikin served during the world war in France as a captain in the United States army medical corps.

            The early physicians of Hamilton were naturally who came in the early days of settlement, some to spend the remainder of their days, others merely as transients who later sought fame and fortune elsewhere. Dr. Jacob Lewis, who located in Hamilton in 1802, practiced but a short time until he became the surgeon of the First regiment, Ohio militia. Later, in 1805, Dr. J. Laurier practiced in Hamilton, followed in 1810 by Dr. Charles Este and later by Dr. John Slayback and Dr. John Reily. Other practitioners who located in Hamilton during its early days were Dr. Alexander Ramsey, Dr. A. Green, Dr. Jeremiah Woolsey, who lived in Rossville, and Dr. John C. Dunlevy, a native of Lebanon.

            It was in 1824 that Dr. L. W. Smith, Dr. Henry Baker and Dr. Samuel Wood located in Hamilton, followed in 1826 by Dr. Laomi Rigdon, a native of Pennsylvania, who became not only a leading physician but also a religious and social leader, and for whom Rigdon street was later named. Dr. Rigdon was for ten years a practicing (page 451) partner of Dr. John C. Dunlevy and later was associated, until his death, with Dr. Cyrus Falconer.

            In still later years,. Dr. H. Symmes opened an office over Latta's drug store, followed shortly afterward by Dr. William Kelley and Dr. Joel B. McFarland, who was a member of the Ohio state legislature in 1841-1842. Dr. Samuel Miller was also a practitioner in Hamilton during the late 30's, while Dr. Otho Evans came to Hamilton in 1839 and rapidly built up a large and lucrative practice. Dr. Eli Vance conducted a drug store and a general practice for several years succeeding 1846, while Dr. Riddell established himself in Rossville in 1838.

            It was in 1838 that Dr. Andrew Campbell located in Hamilton, having offices in the Hamilton house, then standing at the northwest corner of Second and High streets. Drs. Baldridge and Goodall were practicing physicians in Rossville during this period, while Dr. Samuel Millikin had a large practice. A man who left a deep impress upon Hamilton by his personality and his influence was Dr. Jacob Hittel. He came from Pennsylvania in 1842 and was engaged in active practice until 1865, when he returned to his birthplace, where he died in 1878. Another physician who became a man of great influence in the community and a religious leader, especially among the Baptists, was Dr. William H. Scobey, who located in Hamilton in 1842, and continued the practice of medicine until 1884, when he retired. Men whose names for years were household words in Hamilton because of their success in the practice of their profession were Dr. Cyrus Falconer, Dr. Hanbury Smith, Dr. William Huber and Dr. R. B. Millikin, while Dr. F. D. Morris, who died in 1866, had been rewarded with a large general practice. In 1866, Hamilton possessed twenty-one practicing physicians, many of whom are still well remembered by the older citizens. These physicians were Henry H. Mallor, W. W. Caldwell, Cyrus Falconer, George Dick, J. W. Gale. William Huber, Henry Krone, Jacob Hittel, Christian Forster, J. B. McDill, F. W. Major, Joseph S. McNeely, J. M. Dudley, Constantine Market, S. H. Potter, J. M. Parks, Max Schaller, William H. Scobey, Alanson Smith, George Wyman and S. B. Wolf. In later years and up until 1880, Drs. Lee Corbin., H. Beauchamp, John R. Brown, John Cass, A. N. Ellis; C. H. VonKlein, J. Trepold, and J. F. Stricker practiced in Hamilton. Dr. Samuel L. Beeler, William C. Miller and Aaron Myers were graduate physicians, but never engaged in practice, devoting their time to conducting drug stores. Other physicians who have practiced in Hamilton in recent years and who attained reputations for conscientious work, but who have passed to their rest, are Doctors Henry H. Mallory, George Trebel, J. L. Kirkpatrick, Constantine Market, O. P. McHenry, Thomas D. Sharkey, S. M. Schell, James H. Roll, Minor M. Jacobs, W. O. Mayer, William Huston, C. L. Ferris and William C. Huston.

            Practicing physicians in Hamilton today are Doctors Malcolm Bronson, H. L. Burdsell, John A. Burnett, Frank M. Barden, A. C. Carney, Edward Cook, J. B. Cowen, George M. Cummins, Francis M. Fitton, Merle Flenner, John Francis, Louis H. Frechtling, Henry Lee Good, John A. Grafft, G. A. Hermann, C. T. Hull, Charles N. (page 452) Huston, Leon R. Iutzi, Corliss R. Keller, Henry Krone, Clarence S. Latham, M. P. Manning, J. D. Marshall, J. L. McHenry, Mark Millikin, James W. Overpeck, P. M. Sater, J. O. Scheel, Hugh D. Schell, John B. Scott, Elmer C. Sill, George C. Skinner, Daniel Millikin Skinner, Victor P. Urbain, Clarence C. Wasson, H. L. Wilkinson, Georgette Williams, Mark F. Vereker, Frank P. Zerfass, Walter Brown, Frank G. Hornung, Herbert E. Twitchell, C. D. Smedley, A. L. Smedley.

            A number of physicians in the early days of Butler county located in settlements which were destined to become the villages and smaller communities of the county. One of the first men to do this was Dr. Littell, who located in Venice in 1808. Dr. Benjamin Clark, a native of New York, located in Venice in 1814. It was Dr. Clark who laid out Venice, giving it at that time the name of Venus, which was later made Venice, although the postoffice is Ross, to avoid a duplication of postoffice of the same name in the same state. Dr. Clark continued his practice in Venice until his death in 1826. Another early practitioner in Venice was Dr. John Wood, also a native of New York, who located in that village in 1816. Tradition says that he was a firm believer in the use of the lancer and in the letting of blood in all cases in which the patient's condition became acute. Dr. Wood removed to Illinois in 1828 and was immediately succeeded by Dr. Blackleach, a native of Warren county. He remained in Venice until 1839, his successor then being Dr. Prather, who is said to have been of a rather pugnacious nature, especially to other physicians. Finally, in 1853, he removed to Indianapolis, Indiana, when he was succeeded by Dr. R. P. Lamb, who practiced in the village until his death in 1847. Drs. Bradford, Cogley and Haines were also practitioners in Venice in the 40s, while in 1847 Dr. Scott located there. He practiced in the village for four years, when he removed to Paddy's Run, later New London, but now Shandon, where he met with great success until he retired to his farm near Venice. Another early practitioner at Venice was Dr. Waterhouse, who located there in 1854, but who soon turned his attention to theology and became a minister of the Methodist Epischurch. It was in 1858 that Dr. Stevens came from Lebanon, Ohio, to locate in Venice, where he remained until the civil war, when he left to become a surgeon in the Union army. Following the war Dr. Stevens located in Princeton, Liberty township, and then in West Chester, Union township. Following the Civil war, Dr. Phelps located in Venice, but died suddenly in 1866. He was succeeded by Dr. Morris, who had a wide reputation as an operator in surgical cases. He sold his practice in 1871 to Dr. Joseph Iutzi, who remained in Venice until 1878, when he removed to Richmond, Indiana, remaining there until his death in 1902. In 1871, Dr. S. K. Hamer, who had also been an army surgeon, located in Venice and built up a large practice especially in the vicinity of Shandon. However, in 1880 he went to Denver, Colorado, to enter the real estate business. Doctors C. E. Hoover. and M. O. ButterfIeld both located in Venice in 1882 and soon enjoyed large practices. Dr. Hoover died in April, 1893, while Dr. Butter field died in May, 1904. Later Dr. O. J. Smith located in Venice, while in more recent years Doctors (page 453) J. C. Craig and John F. Bausch became the practicing physicians of the village. Dr. O. J. Smith is the present practicing physician of the village.

            Dr. Ellis was the first physician to locate in Jacksonburg. He left there in 1820 and was succeeded by Otho Evans, who located there in 1821, remaining until 1827, during the period when Middletown had but two physicians ; Hamilton, four ; Trenton, one; Oxford, one ; Camden, one ; Eaton, one ; Germantown, one ; Franklin, two ; but few physicians for such a large territory at a time when there were bat few bridges and the roads at most seasons of the year almost impassable. Dr. Evans had quite a number of students, including Lewis Evans, Johnson I. Phares, John C. Fall, John P. Haggott and Pliny M. Crume. Dr. Evans removed to Franklin in 1837 and then in 1839 took up his residence in Hamilton, where he died in 1848. Of those who studied medicine under Dr. Evans, Dr. Lewis Evans located in Middletown, then in Indiana, and finally in 1849 went to California, where he died in 1878. Dr. Pliny M. Crume opened his office in Astoria, Madison township, but later went to Eaton, where he died in 1869. For several years he was professor of obstetrics in the Cincinnati College of Medicine and Surgery. Dr. John P. Haggott was located in West Chester from 1828 until 1830, when he removed to Franklin, where he remained for twelve years, when he removed to Sidney, where, in 1861, he was appointed surgeon of the 57th Ohio Volunteer infantry. He was stricken with illness following the battle of Shiloh and died on April 30, 1862, in St. Louis, Mo. Dr. John C. Fall located in Lewisburg, Preble county. Dr. William Miller opened an office in Jacksonburg in 1834, where he remained until 1855, when he removed to Minnesota, where he died in 1876. Dr. Lurton Dunham located in Jacksonburg in 1837, but later went to Camden. Dr. Smiley was located in Jacksonburg for several years following 1845, while about the same time Dr. Ayers located on Gregory creek, near' Jacksonburg. Dr. Lowder located in the village in 1848, but died during the cholera epidemic of the following year, as did Dr. Hibbard, who had located in Seven Mile. Dr. John Corson was located in Jacksonburg in 1850, remaining until 1863, when he located in Middletown. Dr. W. A. McCully, who became associated with Dr. Corson in 1862, became an army surgeon and at the close of the Civil war located in Trenton. Dr. J. B. Owsley was the successor of Dr. Corson and continued in practice until his death.

            The pioneer physician of Middletown was Dr. Carlton Waldo, who located there just after the War of 1812, remaining until his death in 1831. In this year Dr. Andrew Campbell located in Middletown, having studied medicine under Dr. Otho Evans in Franklin. Dr. Campbell remained in Middletown until 1848, when he located in Hamilton, where he died in 1851. Dr. Campbell was the father of the Hon. James E. Campbell, the former governor of Ohio. In 1819 Dr. Peter Van Derveer, a native of New Jersey, located in Middletown, where he remained until his death in 1861. In succeeding years Doctors T. D. Dickey, John T. Sutphin, D. P. Bundy, Thomas Reed, S. R. Evans, George Lummis, George Evans, Byran Sharkey, S. L. Stewart, and A. Wannewich have practiced in Middletown.

             (page 454) Dr. Joshua Stevens was one of the earlier practitioners of Butler county, locating at Monroe in 1820, where he remained until 1847, when he removed to Lebanon. At Bethany Dr. James McCready located in 1859, continuing there until the outbreak of the Civil war, when he entered the army as an assistant surgeon. In 1864 Dr. McCready died in Oxford. His son, Dr. J. L. McCready, graduated from Miami university and later took up the practice of medicine in Cincinnati.

            Oxford's first practicing physician was Dr. James R. Hughes, he locating there in 1818, remaining there for more than, twenty years. He was succeeded by Dr. James M. Corey, who had removed to Oxford to educate his children in Miami university. In the succeeding years, Doctors Pliny M. Crume, Joel Fithian, and Edward Schiel practiced in Oxford, while from 1840 until 1850, Dr. Thomas Boude, Dr. Waters, Dr. Joseph Waterman, Dr. Benjamin M. Corey, Dr. A. McDill, Dr. James Garver, Dr. Alexander Porter, Dr. C. G. Goodrich and Dr. J. H. Morrison practiced in the village. From 1850 until 1860 among the Oxford physicians were Dr. R. C. Huston, Dr. Henry Sanders, Dr. H. Bodman, Dr. E. L. Hill, Dr. A. Burnet, Dr. R. Brooks and Dr. John Parks. From 1860 until 1870, the Oxford physicians were Dr. John Gilchrist, Dr. Judah Hinckley, Dr. Daniel Trimbley, Dr. John Garver, Dr. George Munns, Dr. Pinkerton and Dr. Smith, while succeeding these came Dr. James M. Saunders, Dr. James B. Porter, Dr. Bradley and Dr. H. D. Hinckley. Dr. William H. Scobey, who later located in Hamilton, was the first practitioner in College Corner, in 1836, being succeeded in 1841 by Dr. Huston, who took as an associate, in 1842, Dr. R. D. Herron, who later located in Millville. Dr. A. D. Hawley located in College Corner and has been succeeded in his practice by his son. Dr. R. O. Campbell has been located in the village since 1897. In the early days of the nineteenth century, Dr. Dan Millikin and Dr. Greenlief of Hamilton had a large practice in Reily township, but finally Dr. Andrew King, a native of Ireland, located in the township on Indian creek, on a farm now owned by his son, Samuel King. Dr. Corey, who lived in Miliville, practiced in Reily township from '1820 until 1830, while in 1840 Dr. Kerr located in the village of Reily. Dr. Gilchrist, who later lived in Oxford, practiced in the village for fifteen years. Dr. James N. Robinson located in Reily in 1866, where he remained until his death in 1882. Dr. J. W. Bell, of Morgan township, practiced with Dr. Robinson for several years, being succeeded by Dr. Dill. Dr. David D. Borger practiced in Reily from 1876 until 1896, when he went to his native farm in Indiana, later returning to Butler county and locating on a farm near Oxford, where he died suddenly in November. 1918. Dr. John M. Trembly practiced in Reily just prior to the Civil war, but soon retired to a farm east of the village, where he died in 1903. Dr. H. H. Smith. now located in Oxford, located in Reily in 1886, being succeeded by Dr. Dill, who remained in the village until 1904, when he also went to Oxford. Dr. Walter J. Smith then became a resident practitioner in Reily.

            One of the first physicians to locate in Morgan township was Dr. Benjamin Morris, who took up his residence near Okeana about (page 455) 1847, and continued in practice for nearly thirty years. Dr. Eli Parkhurst, who later located in Cumminsville, where he died in 1881, was a student under Dr. Morris. In the early 80's, Dr. Armstrong located in Okeana, while, a little later, Dr. Newton came from Mt. Carmel, Indiana, to the village. In 1885 Dr. Scott located in Okeana, but remained only a short time, and was succeeded by Dr. H. H. Smith, while later came Dr. Frank J. George, while Dr. Bertinshaw of Drewersburg, Indiana, has for many years had an extensive practice in the vicinity.

            For many years, Dr. A. B. James, who resided across the Indiana line, had an extensive practice in the vicinity of Scipio. Dr. Chitwood and Dr. Boyd were also practicing physicians at Scipio about 1840-1850, while in 1838 Dr. Carnahan, who believed in the efficacy of steam in the treatment of disease, located there.

            Shandon's first resident physician was Dr. Thomas, who was succeeded by Dr. Scott. For a number of years, Dr. C. T. Hull, now a resident of Hamilton, had a very extensive practice in the vicinity of Shandon. Dr. Clark now enjoys the village practice.

            Dr. James Corey located in Millville in 1825, while three years later Dr. Lot Cooper located there. Later Dr. Kingslee and Dr. Arbuckle were residents of the village, being succeeded by Dr. Herron and Dr. Battenburg. In later years Dr. W. B. Hair and Dr. A. Hancock had their offices in Millville, while Dr. W. D. Hancock took up the practice of medicine with his father and still continues. Drs. Dodd and Long practiced in the village from 1882 until 1896. Dr. J. D. Cochran is now also a practicing physician in the village.

            For more than sixty years Dr. Silas Roll practiced medicine in Hanover township, living at McGonigle. Later his nephew, Dr. James H. Roll, took up the practice of medicine in the township and continued until 1893, when he removed to Hamilton, where he died suddenly in 1918.

            Fairfield township, being located so close to Hamilton, has had but few resident physicians, although for half a century Dr. R. C. S. Reed, living at Stockton, enjoyed a wide practice. He was succeeded by his son, Dr. William S. Reed, who still has his office at Stockton, while another son, Dr. Charles A. L. Reed, became one of the most noted physicians and surgeons of Cincinnati. Dr. Elbert Armstrong was another Fairfield township physician, being located at Symmes Corner for several years succeeding 1876. Dr. Alfred Heinemann now has an office at Stockton.

            The village of West Chester, in Union township, has had Doctors Richardson and Haggott as its early practitioners, who were later succeeded by Dr. A. S. Stevens, Dr. John Reed and Dr. Bishop. Doctors J. C. Hutzelman and G. M. Meek are now practicing in West Chester, with Dr. C. J. Chamberlain. Seven Mile's first resident physician was Dr. Joseph Hippart, who located there in 1848, but who became a victim of cholera in 1849. In more recent years, Doctors Halderman and Berchard, Dr. John Irwin, Dr. D. H. Kumler. Dr. N. E. Broombaugh, Dr. Haynes, Dr. William Davis. Dr. Prior, and Dr. Wesco practiced in the village.

            (page 456) Physicians who early settled in Collinsville were Doctors Robinson, Kline and Smiley, but none remained for any length of time.

            The first physician to locate in this village and remain was Dr. E. C. Wooley, who went to Collinsville from Symmes Corner. Later he removed to Paris, Illinois. Rev. John G. Wooley, who was the candidate of the Prohibitionists for the presidency in 1900, was a son of Dr. Wooley and was born in Collinsville.

            The first physician to locate in Darrtown was Dr. Yeaman, going there in 1825 from Hamilton. He remained but two years, and then went to Crawfordsville, Indiana. Dr. Wilson came from New England in 1833 and, after remaining in Darrtown for five years, removed to Rushville, Indiana. In 1832 Dr. Cruikshank, who had been living in Cheviot, Ohio, took up his residence in Darrtown, where he remained for eight years, at the end of which time he sold his practice to Dr. Mack, who practiced in the village for twenty-five years. Dr. C. R. Shafer, who afterward practiced in Hamilton for a number of years, was a practicing physician in Darrtown until succeeded by Dr. A. B. Wilkie.

            Somerville's first physician was Dr. Brown, who was succeeded by Dr. Williams, who located there in 1825 and remained for three years. In 1828, Dr. Waugh located in Somerville and remained for three years. Later Doctors Adams and Mendenhall located in the village. Dr. Easton, who had been living in Cincinnati, located there in 1860. Then Doctors Ferguson and Hair were residents of the village, while during the period immediately following the Civil war, Doctors Creighton, Simpson, Miller, Brown and Cook were practitioners in this village. Dr. O. P. McHenry, who afterward became coroner of Butler county and who ultimately removed to Hamilton, practiced in Somerville until 1894, when he was succeeded by his brother, Dr. J. L. McHenry, who, in 1909, also removed to Hamilton. At present Dr. J. B. Grothaus is practicing in Somerville.

            Butler county's first medical society was formed at a meeting held in Hamilton, January 1, 1836. The first officers of this organization were Dr. Dan Millikin, President; Dr. J. Fithian, vice-president; Dr. G. W. Riddell, secretary. A reorganization of the society took place December 26, 1848, at a meeting held in the office of Dr. Cyrus Falconer. It was then given the name of the Hamilton Medical society. At a meeting of this society, February 17, 1849, the code of ethics of the National Medical association was adopted, together with a fee-charge as prepared by Doctors Falconer, Rigdon and Millikin. Dr. L. Rigdon was then president of the organization. Beginning with October 3, 1849, it was decided to hold quarterly meetings of the society, while at the annual meeting held in January, 1850, Dr. L. Rigdon was elected president ; Dr. George Wyman, vice-president ; and Dr. William Huber, secretary. In 1850 Doctors Falconer and Millikin were the delegates of the society to the meeting of the National Medical association. On January 1, 1851, Dr. Rigdon was again elected president, with Dr. Scobey, vice-president., Doctors Huber, Wyman and Millikin were then appointed to draft a petition to the legislature of Ohio, asking for the erection of two additional asylums for the insane, one of which (page 457) should be located at Hamilton. Doctors Scobey, Huber and Rigdon were named a committee to investigate the influence of the dams in the Great Miami river on the health of Hamilton and Rossville.

            In July, 1853, the society adopted a constitution and changed its name to the Butler County Medical society, a name it still holds. In 1865 Dr. Laomi Rigdon, who had been president since 1848, passed away, and Dr. J. A. Coons was elected president, which office he held until 1867, when he was succeeded by Dr. Cyrus H. Falconer. It was in July, 1867, that an invitation was accepted to meet with the Union Medical society in Oxford. This society consisted of the medical organizations of Preble county, Ohio, and Fayette and Union counties, Indiana. This meeting proved such a success that these district meetings have been held twice a year ever since.

            In 1868, the Butler County Medical society had some trouble with the Ohio Medical society and withdrew its affiliation because of "gross incivility shown in defiance of its own rules and all courtesy." The state society ultimately made proper amends and the former amicable relations between the two organizations were renewed. It was in 1876 that the meetings of the society were changed from quarterly to monthly affairs. In 1894 it was decided to make the meetings evening instead of afternoon affairs, to be held on the first Wednesday of each month ; but this was found impracticable and at the annual meeting in 1896 it was decided to meet at 3 p. m. on the last Wednesday of each month. Except for a short period in 1898, when quarterly meetings were held, this rule of monthly meetings still remains in force, and the society meets on the third Wednesday afternoon of each month in the auditorium of the Hamilton Y. M. C. A.

            A reorganization of the Butler County Medical society took place in 1902 to conform to the provisions of the American and Ohio State Medical societies. Under the rules then adopted, any legally qualified physician of any school of medicine whatsoever, residing in Butler county, could become a member of the society. The society has seen but few changes since that time and it is now representative of the medical profession in Butler county, holding its meetings regularly and deriving much good for its members from its organization.

            The present membership of the society is as follows :

            Hamilton : Frank M. Barden, Malcolm Bronson, Walter Brown, H. L. Burdsell, A. C. Carney, Edward Cook, J. B. Cowen, George M. Cummins, Francis M. Fitton, Merle Flenner, John Francis, Louis H. Frechtling, Henry Lee Good, W. E. Griffith, G. A. Hermann, Frank G. Hornung, C. T. Hull, Charles N. Huston, Corliss R. Keller, Henry Krone, Clarence S. Latham, Mary P. Manning, Mark Millikin, P. M. Sater, J. O. Scheel, Hugh G. Schell, Elmer C. Sill, Mark F. Vereker, Clarence C. Wasson, Georgetta Williams, H. L. Wilkinson, Dan Millikin Skinner, John A. Graft, Frank P. Zerfass, George Calvin Skinner, A. L. Smedley, C. D. Smedley.

            Middletown : E. O. Bauer, F. W. Brosius, D. B. Bundy, O. M. Corson, A. J. Dell, T. A. Dickey, Mabel Gardner, D. F. Gerber, L. S. Krauss, G. D. Lummis, L. R. Mundhenk, Bryan Sharkey, W. T. Shipe, Harry M. Silver, C. A. Spitler, E. T. Storer, W. M: Warner, H. H. Smith.

            (page 458) Oxford : R. Harvey Cook, H. M. Moore, Hazlitt Moore, H. H. Smith, Wade McMillan.

            Other Communities : At Ross, John F. Bausch ; at West Chester, C. T. Chamberlain ; at Okeana, F. J. Gerber ; at Trenton, James G. Graft ; at Somerville, J. B. Grouthaus ; at Millville, W. D. Hancock ; at Reily, Francis Smith ; at Morning Sun, W. T. Stewart; at Bethany, Homer Williamson.

            The present officers of the Butler County Medical society are : Dr. James Graft, Trenton, president ; Dr. Francis M. Fitton, Hamilton, secretary and treasurer ; Di. H. H. Moore, Oxford, first vice-president ; Dr. T. A. Dickey, Middletown, second vice-president ; and Dr. Pyrle M. Sater, Hamilton, third vice-president.


Incorporated Towns of Butler County


            Besides the cities of Hamilton and Middletown, which have been extensively dealt with elsewhere in this context, there are seven incorporated towns in Butler county.

            College Corner, Oxford township, situated in one of the most fertile agricultural regions in the United States, has always been an important trading center from the first years of its foundation. The village was platted by Gideon T. Howe on May 5, 1837, and as originally laid out was entirely within the confines of Butler county. However, the natural growth and development of the town have gradually extended its limits into Preble county, Ohio, and Union county, Indiana. These later additions to the town have made necessary a dual government, the town being incorporated in both-Indiana and Ohio, and to meet the requirements of the laws of incorporation, two municipal governments are maintained.

            Some of the early settlers in the village were Jacob Bake, David Bonner, James Huston, Samuel Huston, Samuel McDill, Tobias Miller, John Patterson, and Peter Ridenour, and although the town was not officially platted until 1837, there was a considerable settlement existent many years earlier. Thus in 1811 appeared the first building-a log hemp mill, and this was soon followed by the first store which was operated by Thomas Forbes. in 1835, Ambrose L. Burnside lived in the village working at the trade of tailoring-the same man who later became. famous as a general in the Civil war, governor of Rhode Island, and United States senator from that state. In the earlier years of the town, separate school systems were maintained, but this being found impracticable, a fine high school building was erected several years ago, part of which is in each state, and this school is under the control of a joint committee representing both school boards, the teachers of which schools hold licenses in both states. The support of the school is contributed to equally by both corporations, and the unification plan has been found to be highly successful. College Corner has establishments of almost every representative business, including a marble works, and has a population of 379 in the Ohio corporation only. The matter of transportation is adequately taken care of by the C. I. & W. railroad, which also brings many visitors to the famous Tallewanda Mineral Springs near the town.

            (page 459) Jacksonburg, the oldest town in Wayne township, and near the highest ground in that township, is an important trade center west of the Miami river in Butler county. The town's first settlers were John Baird, John Craig, Benjamin Van Cleve, and Henry Weaver, by whom the town was laid out on February 16, 1816. John Baird built the first tavern, and the town soon attained the high water mark in its prosperity. It was on the main highway from Cincinnati to Preble and Darke counties, and in 1824 as many as fifty teams were put up in the town in a single night. But the building of railroads which did not enter the town, and the construction of a bridge across the Miami river at Middletown, started the decline of Jacksonburg, until now it is the smallest incorporated town in the state, having a population, according to the Thirteenth United States Census, of 55, but in spite of its lack of size, Jacksonburg has a complete municipal government under the village plan. Monroe, Lemon township, early became an important trade center in that section of Butler county. The country around the present site of the village was settled as early as 1800, and in 1817 Nathan Sackett and John H. Piatt platted the town of Monroe. Some of the early settlers, besides the two men who laid out the town, were John Baker and John P. Williamson. Monroe was a promising and thriving community before the days of the railroads, but, as was the case in Jacksonburg, the advent of steam transportation and the overlooking of Monroe, inhibited the. further prosperity of the town. In the early days it was one of the favorite stopping places on the stage route between Cincinnati and Dayton, and great hopes were then maintained for the future greatness of the village, but as it is now, Monroe is a pretty, peaceful country village with a population of 255.

            Oxford, Oxford township, with a population of 2,017, is the third largest incorporated town in Butler county. The town was laid out by direction of the Ohio legislature. According to the law passed February 6, 1810, the board of trustees of Miami university met at Hamilton on the first Monday in March, 1810, and appointed a committee as follows : Thomas Irwin, William Ludlow, John Ceily, Ogden Ross and Joseph van Horne. This committee was to select a suitable tract one mile square on which to lay out the town of Oxford, and on March 29, 1810, proceeded to Miami county and chose S.E. quarter section 22, S.W. quarter section 23, N.W. quarter section 26, and N.E. quarter section 27. James Heat on platted

            the first portion of the town consisting of one hundred twenty-eight inlots, and on the south side of "the inlots, forty outlots, in the eastern part of the town was laid off sixty-six acres designated as University square. Lots were disposed of in a public sale in Hamilton by trustees, the first sale being conducted on May 22 and 23, 1810, when odd numbered lots already laid out were sold. Among the first settlers were Seth Bates, Ethan S. Weston, Thomas Craven, Robert Morris, George Davis, William Ludlow, John C. Irwin, and many others. The first house was erected by Samuel McCullough on Lot No. 1. The first bank in Oxford made its appearance in 1869 and was known as the Citizens bank, and this was followed the next year by the Oxford bank. Oxford has (page 460) had a newspaper since 1854, the first one being the Oxford Citizen. The first school erected was built on the university campus in 1811.

            The town of Oxford was incorporated February 23, 1830, and was governed by a president and a trustee until 1855, when the first mayor, Peter Sutton, was elected.

            Seven Mile, Wayne township, was laid out in 1841 on land owned by Samuel Brand, who was also the proprietor of a mill and a distillery. The first lot was purchased by F. B. Landis, and the sale of lots continued until all those originally platted had been disposed of, and it became necessary, in 1851, to lay out additions to the town. Seven Mile was on the turnpike leading from Eaton to Hamilton, and great hopes as to the future of the town were entertained. The growth of the town was sufficient in its early years to induce a stock company to establish an academy there in 1858, of which Mr. 1. N. Hughes was the first principal. After a life of eight years the building and grounds were sold to the Seven Mile special school district for $3,500. One more attempt to conduct a private school was made in the year 1870 by Prof. B. Starr, the last principal of the above academy, who founded and for several years conducted a select school for boys. Seven Mile was incorporated in 1875, and is now a prosperous trading center in that part of the county, boasting a hotel and several business establishments, and having a population of 340.

            Somerville, a flourishing little town in Milford township, was platted in 1831 by Jacob F. Rowe. The first merchants to establish themselves in business here were John and Marsh Williams, and so rapid was the initial development of the town that in 1832, the first year after its platting, it was incorporated under the state law with Thomas Martin the first mayor. Its growth has not been rapid, and yet it is now a business center of some importance, and has a population of 349.

            Trenton, the largest village in Madison township, has had an interesting history. In 1800 Michael Pearce and Stephen Gard, both natives of New Jersey, led a number of pioneer settlers to the Miami country, and selected the present site of Trenton as an excellent place to end their wanderings and settle down.  In 1815 the village was platted and given the name of Bloomfield in honor of Governor Bloomfield of New Jersey, but when, in 1831, a postoffice was established in the town, it was discovered that there was another town in Ohio already bearing the name of Bloomfield, and the village was, therefore, given the name of Trenton. The first tavern in the town was conducted by John Smith, and the first storekeepers were Squire Littell and Stephen Gard. Trenton was incorporated in 1898, and since the construction of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction road the growth of the town has been rapid, until now it has a population of 564.

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