History of Dayton, Ohio 1889
Chapter Eighteen

(page 390)

 

CHAPTER XVIII.

 

Manufactures-Connection Between Manufactures and Agriculture-William Hamer's Mill-Mr. D. C. Cooper's Sawmill and "Corn Cracker"-Matthew Patton's Cabinet Making-Robert Patterson's Fulling Mill-James Bennett's Wool Carding-Sutherland's Carding Machine-His Sudden Disappearance-Emory, Houghtons & Company's Nail Factory-Elias Favorite's Ifat Factory-William H. Brown, the First Gunsmith-Thomas Clegg's Operations-Henry Diehl's Chair Factory-Jethro Wood's Patent Plows-Washington Cotton Factory-Greer & King-Hiram Wyatt's Cracker Factory-Thomas Brown-S. N. Brown S Company-Crawford's Last Factory-Miami Cotton Mill-Cooper Cotton Factory-Dayton Carpet Factory-Osceola Mills-Strickler, Wilt & Company-Clock Factory-Portable Threshing Machines-Marble Works-W. & F. C. Estabrook-Pritz & Kuhns-The Moore Grain Drill-Sachs-Pruden Ale Company-The Mead Piper Company-W. P. Callahan & Company-F. Benjamin, Ax Factory-Beaver & Butt-John Rouzer-Buckeye Iron and Brass Works-The Aughe Plow-Columbia Bridge Works-The Pitts Thresher and Separator-Barney & Smith Manufacturing Company-Dayton Manufacturing Company-Pinneo & Daniels-John Dodds-Dayton Buggy Works-Stilwell & Bierce Manufacturing Company-Breweries-McSherry & Company-McHose & Lyon-Farmers' Friend Manufacturing Company-Cracker Factories-Brownell & Company-Other Manufacturing Companies-The Hydraulics-Dayton Gas Light and Coke Company-Dayton Electric Light Company-Natural Gas-United Brethren Publishing House-Christian Publishing Association-The Reformed Publishing Company-Conclusion.

 

            THE place of manufactures in the industrial economy of a people is in all probability second to nothing but agriculture. If there were no agriculture there would be little necessity for manufactures, compared with the necessity for this industry that now exists. After the two are established in any community or country, however, they are mutually dependent upon each other, and are of almost equal benefit to society. Hence, whatever is for the benefit of the one is of almost equal benefit to the other, so that there is nearly, if not quite, as much interest attaching to the study of the one as to that of the other.

            Nothing, perhaps, is more certain than that the remarkable development of the manufacturing industries of Dayton had their origin in and were nursed in their infancy by the equally remarkable development of the agricultural resources of the valley of the Miami, a region of country almost unsurpassed in richness and varied fertility. This fertility of soil insured from the start a prosperous farming community, capable of purchasing manufactured goods of an endless variety, and to any extent demanded by the necessities of that community. And with this premise the reader need not, and will not, be surprised to learn that in (page 391) the early days of Dayton's history, there were large numbers of various kinds of manufacturing establishments continually springing into existence. For this reason, if for no other, it call hardly be expected that in a work of this general nature, every establishment of this kind can be enumerated and its history traced; for that would require a persistency, keenness, and accuracy of research into the traditions as well as history of the past, with which results would scarcely be commensurate. The first mill anywhere in the Miami valley, north of the fourth range of townships, was a small "tub-mill" built by William Hamer, for the purpose of grinding corn. Its location was where Water Street, or Monument Avenue, now is in Dayton, just east of and near to the canal bridge. The water was brought across from the mouth of Mad River by a small race, and the tail-race ran down the present course of the canal. The date of the erection of this tub-mill of Mr. Hamer's has not been preserved, but it must have been before August, 1799, for in that month D. C. Cooper started a small distillery on his farm two miles south of Dayton, on Rubicon Creek, in Van Buren Township, between the pike and the canal, as now located. Shortly afterward Mr. Cooper built a saw-mill and "corn-cracker." Each of these mills was run by water power-the saw-mill by a paddle wheel and the corn-cracker by a tub-mill. This little mill of Mr. Cooper's had most of the trade from the upper Miami country, and from the Mad River valley as far up as Springfield. "Settlers, in coming to the Cooper mill, would sometimes bring pack-horses loaded with sacks of corn, following the narrow trails through the forests. They came equipped to camp along the way. Rifle, ammunition, an ax, compass, blankets, and bells were necessary. Halting to camp at night, the horses were unloaded, bells fastened around their necks, and they were turned loose to graze. The fire being built, supper was cooked and eaten, after which the lonely traveler spread his bear skin for a comfortable sleep; then breakfast and all early start next morning for the mill. After such a journey, the pioneer would often have to wait a day or two for his turn at the mill."* (*For description of this mill see page 64.) Mr. Cooper sold this mill afterward to Robert Patterson, who converted it into a fulling-mill, as is mentioned later in these pages. In 1804 Mr. Cooper built a saw-mill, and soon afterward a grist-mill, at the head of Mill Street, to which lie added a carding machine in 1809. In 1808 Matthew Patton was engaged here in the cabinet-making business, and James Hanna was carrying on the weaving business “in all its varieties." In 1809 Robert Patterson's fulling-mill was in operation about one half mile south of the road now leading to St. Mary's Institute, which stands on the hill cast of Brown Street and south of Woodland Cemetery. In 1811, this mill was purchased by William Allison and named the "Rubicon Carding Mill." In 1821 it was advertised as in complete operation. In 1828, it was still in existence and was then known as the "Rubicon Factory." The manager at that time was James Ensey, who followed the business of wool-carding, fulling, coloring, etc. The mill remained standing until about 1870, when it was torn down.

            In 1809, James Bennett had one wool-carding machine in operation, and in 1810, he made the announcement to the public that for that season he would have two machines in operation, having added a new machine and attached new cards to the old one. Mr. Bennett's carding machines were located just north of the Cooper grist mill.

            During the year 1812, D. C. Cooper dug a race leading from the old mill race to his saw-mill, frequently having a whole company of soldiers at work at it for several days at a time. It was his intention to erect a paper mill upon this race, as well as a saw-mill, but his death in 1818 prevented the 'accomplishment of this purpose. The construction of the canal afterward furnished more plentiful as well as more economical water power, and largely increased the number of. manufacturing establishments immediately after it was built, and by this means double the population has since been sustained-of manufacturers and their employees. in the city and of agriculturists in the immediate vicinity-than would otherwise have been possible.

            In 1815, a man named Sutherland put some carding machines into' operation in the gristmill. Mr. Sutherland was a very industrious mail, and of all excellent moral character. He was of much more than ordinary intelligence, was highly respected, And devoted most of his leisure time to reading. He was not known to have an enemy in the world, and was not thought to deserve one. His business was so prosperous that it was necessary for him to run his machines night as well as day. It was his custom to attend the carding machines himself until about 1 P. M., and then to wake a young man who slept in the same room in which the machines were kept running, to attend them the rest of the- night. One night the young man awoke without being called by Mr. Sutherland. Upon awaking he noticed that the machines were not running, and Mr. Sutherland was missing. The money in his desk was not taken away, neither were the clothes he was not wearing removed. It was therefore inferred that lie did not leave the place clandestinely; for had he done so, it was thought that both money and clothes would have been taken. If violence had been done him some signs of that fact would have been discovered, and (page 393) the young man would probably have been aroused. Had he committed suicide his remains would have been found. It could not therefore be conjectured with any degree of certainty whether he had absconded, committed suicide, or been murdered, for appearances were as strongly against one of these suppositions as against either of the others. The mystery has never been explained.

            In 1821, the announcement was made that Emory, Houghton & Company had erected a nail factory near the Dayton Mills. The machinery of this factory was propelled by water power. In July of that year it was in complete operation, and nails of the best quality were being made. In 1823, Samuel Shoup was engaged in the manufacture of hats in Dayton, on the corner of Second and Jefferson streets. One of the earliest hat manufacturers in this city was Elias Favorite, who commenced in 1831 and continued to manufacture hats until the style changed from stiff hats to soft hats, in connection with the visit of Louis Kossuth to this country in 1853, when the business generally went into the hands of large manufacturing establishments in the East, and most of the smaller concerns closed out their business.

            William H. Brown came to Dayton in 1823, and from that time until 1839, carried on gunsmithing in this place. He was the first gunsmith in the city. For some time he manufactured his own barrels, but afterward purchased them of Strickler, Wilt & Company.

            Mr. Thomas Clegg was one of Dayton's most prominent early manufacturers. He came, here in 1824, and that year took up the site of the nail factory of Emory, Houghton & Company mentioned above, using it for the erection of a cotton factory, which was known as the "Washington Cotton Factory." This was the frst cotton factory in Dayton. Mr. Clegg commenced spinning cotton in a building erected by Thomas Morrison, which stood just north of First Street, about one square northeast of where the Swaynie House stood. In order to increase the capacity of the factory, Mr. Clegg erected several other buildings in 1825, and continued the manufacture of cotton at the old location until 1833, when he changed the location of his factory to the new hydraulic, just opposite-the lock in the canal, at the Fifth Street crossing. At this time, he took into partnership with himself his son, Joseph Clegg, under the firm name of Thomas Clegg & Son. This firm continued until 1844, when Joseph Clegg withdrew.

            In 1828, Thomas Clegg, in connection with Mr. McElwee, under the firm name of McElwee & Clegg, started an iron foundry, which was located at the head of the basin, near Cooper's mill. This was the first foundry in Dayton. At it nearly all kinds of castings could be obtained (page 394) at reasonable cost, and old metal could be sold at a half a cent a pound.

            This foundry was the origin of the business, which, continued along through various changes, became the Globe Iron Works, at present owned by Stout, Mills & Temple, a history of which firm may be found elsewhere.

            In 1832, the partnership existing between McElwee and Clegg was dissolved, and Thomas Clegg continued the business alone, under the name of the Dayton Iron Foundry. About the same time, or soon afterward, he started a brass foundry in what was known as the old distillery, on the bank of the Miami River, between Main and Jefferson streets, and for a long time his business in this line was very extensive. He continued in it until new and more extensive establishments with larger capital began competing for the trade, when be discontinued it, not considering it longer worthy his attention.

            When Joseph Clegg withdrew from the firm of Thomas Clegg & Son in 1844, as above narrated, he erected the building which is now occupied by John Rouzer & Company, in which he commenced the manufacture of cotton yarns and cotton batting on his own account, but the same year converted the establishment into a linseed oil mill, taking into partnership Thomas Parrott, under the firm name of Joseph Clegg & Company. In 1849, Joseph Clegg purchased the factory operated by Thomas Clegg & Son, which from 1844 to 1849 had been operated alone by Thomas Clegg who then retired from active business in Dayton. Soon after this purchase Mr. Clegg sold the factory to. Joseph Clegg & Company, and about the same time the name of the firm was changed to Parrott & Clegg. They then moved their oil mill machinery to the building recently purchased, the old Washington factory, and continued in business therein until 1850, when Mr. Clegg sold his interest in the establishment to Thomas Parrott, who continued to carry it on until his death, February 9, 1864, after which it was conducted for the estate by his two sons. In 1866, the business passed into the possession of Gebhart, Pope & Company, who continued it until 1882, when the frm became what it is now, H. L. Pope & Company, composed of H. L. Pope and Walter Gebhart, who have added largely to the capacity of the mills, until at the present time they have a capacity of two hundred thousand bushels of flax seed per year. The entire length of their buildings as enlarged is 185 feet, and the width remains the same as of old, 72 feet.

            When Mr. Clegg sold his interest to Thomas Parrott, lie became one of the organizers of the Farmers' Bank, which had its banking house in Beckel Block on East Third Street, the other two gentlemen owning this bank being Daniel Beckel and William Dickey. This same firm (page 395)  the Miami Valley Bank and the Dayton Insurance Company, sketches of all of which institutions may be found elsewhere in this volume. In 1852, Mr. Clegg withdrew from the Farmers' Bank, and from that time until 1861 devoted himself to the real estate business. In the first year of his operations in this line, he erected Clegg's Hall on Third Street, east of Main, the first hall built in Dayton. Mr. Clegg erected numerous other buildings in the city beside this hall. In 1861, he bought the buildings formerly occupied as the Crawford Last and Peg Factory, and then occupied by Thomas Brown & Sons as a wooden ware manufactory. Mr. Clegg continued in this business until 1862 or 1863, when he converted the establishment into an oil mill and operated it in connection with his son, Charles B. Clegg, and his son-in-law, Captain E. Morgan Wood, under the firm name of Clegg, Wood & Company, greatly enlarging its facilities and increasing its operations until 1873, when he retired from the business, and it has since been conducted under the firm name of Wood, Archer & Company. Since 1873, the capacity of the mills has been still more increased until it is now from one hundred thousand to one hundred and fifty thousand bushels of flax seed per annum. As has been stated above, the first iron foundry was that started by Thomas Clegg in 1828. When Mr. Clegg retired from business this foundry passed into the hands of Westerman & Stout, who, in 1846, built a fine machine shop on the Cooper hydraulic, adjoining the foundry. Some time afterward the firm became so changed as to be composed of Atlas L. Stout, who was the former partner of Mr. Westerman, William M. Mills, and John C. Temple, under the frm name of Stout, Mills & Temple, and as such it has been continued until the present time. Their works are known as the "Globe Iron Works," and are now located at the corner of South Ludlow and Bayard streets. Their buildings are of brick, and of the following dimensions: Main building, 267x50, 100 feet of the building being two stories high. The foundry is 130x50        feet, besides which there are a paint shop, blacksmith shop, and warehouses.

            The firm is largely engaged in the manufacture of paper-mill, flourmill, 'and saw-mill machinery. They also make rag engines and wood pulp grinders, the Gilbert combination, and Livingston roller-mills, shafting, gearing, pulleys, etc., and carry on a very extensive business. Their office is a neat two-story brick structure, located across Bayard Street from the main building, and the firm is now composed of the same gentlemen mentioned above.

            In 1827, Henry Diehl's chair factory was in operation. It was located a few doors south of the courthouse. Mr. Diehl manufactured all kinds (page 396) of chairs, but appears to have made a specialty of gridiron, Windsor, and fancy chairs. P. L. Walker was at the same time manufacturing saddles, harness, and trunks, as well as military accouterments. His factory was located opposite the clerk's office. Samuel Dolly was engaged in the manufacture of coaches, carriages, gigs, and Dearborns, “according to the newest fashion or to order." In 1828, the first canal boat was built in Dayton, by Solomon Eversole, for John Rench. The boat was named the Alpha of Dayton, and was launched August 16th of that year. The manufacture of Jethro Woods' patent plow was commenced in Dayton in the early part of the year 1829, by J. Ridgway, who informed the farmers of Montgomery County of the fact, and of the location of his factory, which was "just north of Lancasterian Seminary, and in front of the State Basin." All farmers who wished to purchase plows were invited to visit the factory, and the generous offer was made to anyone that he might take a plow on one month's trial and return it without charge if it did not prove satisfactory.

            P. C. Hathaway commenced the manufacture of planes in June, 1829, his factory being located on the "south side of Main Street, opposite Mr. Hughes' tavern." Brown & Darst commenced the manufacture of saddles, harness, and trunks in September, 1830, on Second Street, a few doors east of Phillips & Perrine's store, and also on Main Street, nearly opposite the courthouse, in the shop “recently occupied by P. L. Walker."

            S. Trembly on the 22d of March, 1831, gave notice to the public that he had established a hat factory in the new brick building on Main Street, opposite the jail, where he would carry on the manufacture of all kinds of hats. Peter Lehman had then been for some time engaged in wagon making. In January, 1831, he moved his wagon manufactory to the building formerly occupied by Elijah Githens as a chair factory, on Main Street, opposite Center Market Street. Toward the latter part of this year, D. L. Boogher and P. Lehman associated themselves together under the firm name of Boogher & Lehman, in the manufacture of combs. They called their establishment the "Dayton Comb Factory," where they manufactured combs of every description.

            In March, 1832, A. Casad and Daniel M. Curtis, under the firm name of Casad '& Curtis, commenced the manufacture of all kinds of satinets and jeans in the fulling-mill, formerly occupied by Mr. Elmy, near Cooper's mill, a short distance from the head of the basin. At-this time Lewis A. Hildreth was carrying on the cabinet-making business a few doors from W. Eaker's store, and William Parker was also engaged in the same line of manufacture on Old Market Street. Nelson Holland was engaged in wagon-making near the head of the basin, having recently (page 397) removed from First Street. Strickler, Wilt & Company were making gun barrels of a superior quality, both for the general trade and to order. E. Stansifer had a looking-glass manufactory on the corner opposite Mr. Samuel Shoup's hat shop, on Old Market Street, and the Miami Cotton Company, having doubled their machinery, could promptly supply any quantity of cotton yarn, candle-wick, and cotton batting. In connection with the Washington Cotton Factory was a machine shop, at which were made at that time all kinds of steam engines, cotton and woolen machinery, slide and hand lathes; fullers', millers', and tobacconists' screws, taps, dies; screw-plates, etc.  In connection with this factory, Thomas Clegg's iron and brass foundry was in operation, at which be made bells of all sizes, from one ounce up to one thousand pounds. In 1833, John J. Lyons was engaged in the manufacture of wooden-ware, tubs, buckets, pails, patent churns, and all articles in the coopering line. He was located on Jefferson Street, between First and Water streets. In the same year Knight & Kerr, having purchased the entire establishment of D. Bowen, commenced the manufacture of post coaches, chariotees, barouches, phaetons, gigs, sulkies, etc., at the old stand, on Main Street, between Main Cross and Fourth streets. The Dayton Chair Factory was owned and operated by G. A. Hatfield in 1835, and was located one door west of John Lehman's inn, on First Street, near the basin. All kinds of chairs were manufactured by Mr. Hatfield, but he appears to have made a specialty of Windsor chairs. S. T. Harker at this time had a soap and candle factory near the head of the basin, where he made molded and dipped candles, as well as soap. Henry Diehl had a chair manufactory on the west side of Main Street, two doors south of Franklin Street. Toward the latter part of this year there was established a new carpet factory, about one hundred yards below the gun barrel factory of Strickler, Wilt & Company. The building occupied by this company was one hundred by forty feet on the ground and three stories high.

                        In 1834, James Greer and Augustin King, under the firm name of Greer & King, established themselves in the manufacture of stoves and hollow ware in the city. These two gentlemen continued the business until 1848, when Augustin King retired from the firm, and was succeeded in the business by his son, Rufus J. King, who had been connected with the firm, ever since its establishment. No change of name was required, and the business was conducted by Greer & King until 1874, when Mr. Greer died. From that time until 1884, Mr. Rufus J. King carried on the business under the firm name which was so well known, until 1884, when he entirely discontinued it. This was one of the large (page 398) manufacturing firms of Dayton, employing when at the height of its prosperity, about one hundred men, and conducting a proportionately extensive business.

            In 1834, Hiram Wyatt came to Dayton from Cincinnati and went to work for Tilden & Smith, a firm composed of Alvin Tilden and Walter Smith, who had been for a year or two engaged in running a bakery here. After working for them about two months, Mr. Tilden wished to sell his interest in the business to Mr. Wyatt, and the firm became Smith & Wyatt. Their bakery was on St. Clair Street in what was known as the Academy Building, the front part of which this firm rented to the Catholic church, themselves occupying the back part. At the expiration of one year Mr. Wyatt bought the interest of his partner, and continued the business alone until 1838, when he went into partnership with Levi Wollaston on Second Street, the firm name being Wyatt & Wollaston, and it so remained until 1841 when it was dissolved. In that year Mr. Wyatt built a factory on Third Street, near Madison, and in it carried on the business alone until 1849, when he took into partnership John R. Nickum, the firm becoming Wyatt & Nickum. In 1851, this firm introduced a steam engine into their business, and established the first steam bakery in Dayton, if not in Ohio. This was a great curiosity, people from all the surrounding towns coming to Dayton to see a "steam bakery," of the management of which they had but little idea. In 1859, Mr. Nickum sold his interest in the establishment to T. Wyatt, and the name of the firm became H. &. T. Wyatt, as it remained until the business was sold and discontinued in 1886. The facilities for the manufacture of crackers were complete, and the business was very large, the annual trade amounting some years to forty thousand dollars.

            In 1828, Thomas Brown came from Xenia to Dayton, and established himself in business as a house contractor, and was engaged in building all kinds of houses until 1848. From that time until 1853 he was out of business, and in the latter year he became interested in a coal mine on the Wabash River, and was engaged iii coal mining until 1855, from which time until 1861 he was again out of business. From 1861 to 1869 he was one of the lessees of the public works of the State. The business carried on by the company, which he is now the president, and of which he became a member in 1869, was commenced in a small way by Harvey Blanchard, on the east side of the canal, between Third and Fourth streets, in 1847, and in 1850, S. N. Brown, who was a carriage-maker by trade, was admitted to partnership by Mr. Blanchard, the firm name becoming Blanchard & Brown. In 1863, J. M. Phelps became a silent partner, and in 1867, upon the death of Mr. Blanchard, Messrs. Brown (page 399) & Phelps purchased the interest of Mr. Blanchard, and changed the name of the firm to S. N. Brown & Company. In 1869, a stock company was incorporated with a capital of one hundred and forty-seven thousand five hundred dollars, which remains the same, but a surplus of sixty thousand dollars has accumulated. In 1851, the firm of Blanchard & Brown moved to the corner of Kenton and Fourth streets, and in 1869, the firm of S. N. Brown & Company erected the five-story brick structure, which they now occupy, and moved into it on January 1, 1870. This building is located on the southeast corner of Fourth and St. Clair streets. Besides this they occupy a three-story frame building, which was erected in 1852, and which is used for the rough turning of wood work. Their line of manufactures includes carriage wheels, hubs, spokes, and bent materials, of which they turn out annually about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth, and give employment to about one hundred and thirty hands. Their goods find sale in all parts of the civilized world. The officers of the company have always been as follows: Thomas Brown, president; S. N. Brown, general manager; Charles H. Brown, superintendent; and J. M. Phelps, secretary and treasurer. In former pages reference was made to the last factory of A. & Z. Crawford, which was established in 1829. A. & Z. Crawford were two brothers who commenced the manufacture of lasts in a small way in a little building on Main Street, opposite where the jail now stands. In 1842, the firm received an addition to its membership, in the person of C. H. Crawford, and the firm name became A. & Z. Crawford & Company. This firm lasted until 1846, when the name was changed to Crawford & Company. From 1855 to 1870, the firm name was Crawford & Stilwell by the addition of E. R. Stilwell to the membership. In 1870, Jacob Coffman became a member of the firm, the name of which was then Crawford & Coffman until 1874, when John McGregor purchased an interest and the name was then Coffman & Company, until 1886, when Edward Canby became a member of the firm, and the name was again changed to Crawford, McGregor & Canby. Thus it remained until November, 1887, when C. H. Crawford died, and his son, W. H. Crawford, took his place in the firm. The growth of this business has been somewhat remarkable. In 1874, the firm had three machines turning out forty pairs of lasts per day. At the present time there are in the factory nine machines, each turning out about fifty pairs per day. Since 1888, this firm has turned out about two thousand pairs of last blocks per day, and they also handle about fifteen thousand bushels of pegs per year. In addition to these articles there are manufactured at this factory, boot trees, crimps, boot signs, etc., giving employment to about eighty hands. (page 400) The machinery is run by a sixty horse-power engine, and the annual amount of business done at the present time is about one hundred thousand dollars, and it is constantly increasing.

            In 1837, there was published a summary of the manufacturing interests then in Dayton, from which the following facts were in part taken: The Washington Cotton Factory had been in operation about eight years. The building was a frame one, 52x41 feet in size and four stories high. The factory was engaged principally in spinning cotton yarn. It had five hundred spindles in operation, employed sixteen hands, and turned out from twelve hundred to fifteen hundred pounds of cotton yarn per week.

            The Miami Cotton Mill Company had been in operation five years. It was incorporated with an authorized capital of seventy-five thousand dollars and had a paid-up capital of thirty-five thousand dollars. It was engaged in spinning cotton yarn and had somewhat more than one thousand spindles in operation. The yarn spun was from No. 5 to No. 12, and the output was one hundred and seventy-five thousand pounds per annum. The company employed from fifty to sixty hands and the weekly pay-roll amounted to one hundred and twenty dollars. James Plunkett was the superintendent.

            The Cooper Cotton Factory was then in existence also. It had been organized in 1835, with an authorized capital of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, of which fifty thousand dollars had been paid in. The building was 100x50 feet in size. It was the design to operate with three thousand spindles, and with a capacity of three thousand yards of cotton goods per day. This factory continued to be operated until 1844, on May 13th of which year it was sold at public auction. In the advertisement of sale, it was described as standing on the Miami Canal, within a few rods of the center of the corporation. The machinery consisted of 1,408 spindles and 30 looms, and was operated by water power, there being a flow of twelve hundred cubic feet per minute, with a fall of twelve feet. There was a frontage of one hundred and twenty feet on the canal. At the time of sale Mr. Robert Buchanan, of Cincinnati, purchased the property, and afterward sold it to T. A. Phillips, who continued it as a cotton factory, taking into partnership his sons, George L. and Charles A., the firm name being T. A. Phillips & Sons. The company was incorporated in 1874, with a capital of eighty thousand dollars. T. A. Phillips died in 1877. George L. Phillips retired from business in 1880, since which time Charles A. Phillips has carried on the business alone. The cotton factory was converted into a tobacco factory in 1887, and has since been operated by the Merchants' Tobacco Company.

            (page 401) Returning now to the status of manufacturing in 1837, it may be mentioned that there was still another cotton factory, but located three miles from the city, called the Smithville Cotton Factory, owned by George W. Smith, who also operated an extensive distillery at the same place.

            The Dayton Carpet Factory had a frame building, four stories high and 100x50 feet in size, and was one of the finest frame buildings ever erected in Ohio. It began operations that year with eight ingrain looms and four Venetian looms, with which it turned out from one hundred and fifty to two hundred yards of carpet per day. In the second story of their building the company operated a carding and spinning establishment, and, altogether, employed forty hands. J. C. Geisendorff was the superintendent. On the 13th of May, 1844, this factory was offered for sale without reserve. It was described as having a front of 227 feet on the Miami Canal, the main building being 100x40 feet on the ground and four stories high. There was a dry-house, a (lye-house, and a bleaching-house besides. The water power was sufficient to drive two pairs of four and a half foot mill-stones, and there was a fow of six hundred cubic feet of water per minute. There were in the factory four carding machines, two forty-inch breakers, and two thirty-six-inch finishers, one rolling jack spinner, with ninety-six spindles, and one jenny with fifty spindles. There were eight ingrain looms and a number of common looms besides. The committee on sale was D. Z. Peirce and E. E. Barney.

            The property, after several changes, at length came into the possession of Joseph Kratochwill, who commenced the manufacture of flour in Dayton in 1854. He was at first located in a building which occupied the present site of burst's flour mills. In 1860, he removed to Trotwood, where he remained, however, only a few months, and from Trotwood he moved to Columbus, Ohio, where he remained until 1864, when he returned to Dayton. He then came into possession of the old Dayton Carpet Company's building, located on the northeast corner of Sixth Street and the canal, and in it started the Oregon Mills, which he continued to run till his death in September, 1887. This building is of brick and wood, four stories above the basement, and 40 by 130 feet in size. The machinery is propelled by an overshot and Turbine wheel, and by a steam engine of two hundred horse-power. The average number of men employed is about twenty, and the daily product of the mill is five hundred barrels of flour.

            After the death of Joseph Kratochwill, the mill was run for the estate by his son, James Kratochwill, for about three months, when the (page 402) Kratochwill Milling Company was incorporated with a capital of seventyf ive thousand dollars, all paid in. The first officers of this company, who still retain their offices, are as follows: President, George P. Huffman; vice-president and manager, James Kratochwill; secretary and treasurer, James Turpin. The principal brands of flour made at the Oregon Mills are the "New Process," and the "Snow Flake."

            The Osceola Mills were erected in 1858, by L. Wollaston. The building is located on Fifth Street, on the canal. It is a four story and basement building, 60x80 feet in size, having a height of fifty-two feet in front. When occupied as a flour mill it was fitted up with three run of buhrs, two of which were kept in operation night and day. Mr. Wollaston disposed of his interest to T. A. Phillips, but repurchased it, and afterward sold it to Joseph Kratochwill, to whose estate it belongs at the present time. It is now used by different parties as a store-house, and also by the Democrat and other newspaper offices.

            Returning again to the summary of 1837, there was then but one cast iron foundry in the city. This was the property of Thomas Clegg, and was then turning out about two hundred tons of castings per year, principally machine castings and mold boards for plows. Castings were worth one hundred dollars per ton. Ten hands were employed at this foundry. In 1830 or 1831, Henry Strickler and Jacob Wilt formed a partnership for the purpose of manufacturing gun barrels. The firm was increased in numbers in 1835, by the addition of George Rhodes, and the name became Strickler, Wilt & Company. They were located originally on the north side of the river, near " Steele's mill," or near where the Stilwell & Bierce Manufacturing Company is now located. The business was carried on in a small way for several years, but as it increased more room and better facilities were required, and the firm moved to the corner of Fifth Street and the canal, where they erected a building, which was three stories high and 100x40 feet in size. The capital stock of the frm was ten thousand dollars, and they employed from ten to twelve hands. When their business was most prosperous they turned out about eight gun barrels per day. These barrels were turned out smooth bores and rifled by the gunsmiths, to whom they were sold. A market was found for them all over the Western States. One of the peculiar features of the establishment was Mr. Wilt's method of straightening the barrels, which was of his own invention, as was also his method of grinding the barrels to the octagonal form.

            The firm of Strickler, Wilt & Company was dissolved, and the business was continued by Jacob Wilt and his brother, Jeremiah, under the firm name of Jacob Wilt & Company. This firm moved to the upper (page 403) in 1854, and after continuing for some years was succeeded by Wilt & Harrington. About this time the demand for gun barrels began to diminish, and it finally ceased altogether. The firm, therefore, turned their attention to the manufacture of cotton batting. Still later another change occurred, the firm becoming Wilt & Rasner. This firm gained a wide reputation for the manufacture of mill picks. It was dissolved in 1874, and Mr. Wilt died in 1881.

            There was also another gun barrel factory, which was owned by E. L. Helfenstein, and which was turning out about fifteen hundred gun barrels per year and employing five hands.

            There were then four machine shops in Dayton. The first was connected with the Miami Cotton Mill, and made steam engines, cotton and wool-carding machinery, etc., some of which they exported as far away as Mexico. The number of hands employed varied from thirty to thirty-five, and the pay roll amounted to from two hundred and fifty to three hundred dollars per week. The annual value of the product amounted to from forty thousand to fifty thousand dollars. Another machine shop was that of Solomon Price & Company, which commenced operations October 1, 1835. This firm employed about a dozen hands. There was, as has been stated above, a machine shop connected with the Washington Cotton Factory, which was established in 1839, and which, among other things, made horse-powers and threshing machines. Ten hands were thus employed. There was also a bobbin factory in the same building, employing four hands. The fourth machine shop was connected with Strickler, Wilt & Company's gun barrel factory. The clock factory of Marsh, Williams, Hayden & Company began operations in 1833, and in 1837 was making twenty-five hundred clocks per annum. The number of hands employed was twelve, and it was said that this was the largest clock factory in the West.

            A. & A. C. Alexander & Company established their paper-mill in 1831. It was a three-story frame building, 35x70 feet in size. At this mill about seventy-five tons of rags were manufactured into paper each year, from which about fifty or sixty tons of paper were made. The number of hands employed was seventeen.

            In 1837, the firm of Casad & Curtis, mentioned earlier in these pages, had been dissolved. D. M. Curtis had engaged in business as proprietor of the carding and fulling-mill, and was carding from ten thousand to twelve thousand pounds of wool per year. Ten hands were employed, three or four of whom were children.

            Connected with the factory of A. & Z. Crawford was a chair factory, turning out about two thousand chairs per annum. S. T. Harker's  (page 404) soap and candle factory was making about one hundred thousand pounds of soap per annum, most of which was exported. He was also turning out about thirty thousand candles. It gave employment to five hands.

            There was at the same time another candle factory operated by Amos Smith.

            In the city, and within three miles of it, there were then seven gristmills, seven saw-mills, five distilleries, and several mills for cutting laths, shingles, etc. All of the large number of manufactories were at that time propelled by water power, except the last factory, which was run by steam. The hope was expressed that Dayton would always maintain the rank she then sustained, that of the second in wealth in the State. There were then twenty-nine mechanics' shops, worth seventy-seven thousand dollars; nine manufacturing establishments, worth one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and other kinds of business aggregating in value, including the two classes above particularized, $888,600. The manufacture of portable threshing machines was begun in Dayton as early as 1838, by Kepler, Markle & Karr, their machine work being done at the Washington Machine Shop. The machine made by them was described in their advertisement as of J. D. Burrell's patent, and as being beautiful, simple, and complete, and easily moved from place to place. It might be used with equal convenience in the barn or in the field. "No machine runs lighter, threshes faster, or does better work."

            They were so constructed that an extra cylinder might be attached for threshing clover seed. The entire machine occupied a space equal to a two foot cube, and was propelled by a one-horse endless chain power, as was also " Allen's threshing machine," which was advertised for sale in this vicinity, but which was not manufactured in Dayton. At the same time S. Price & Company were manufacturing in Dayton, "Newton's friction obviator," or double chain horse-power, which could be used in threshing grain or in any work where a light horse-power was needed.

            James Cook and C. W. Ennis established a rifle factory in 1838 on Jefferson Street, near the market, in which they promised to make as good a gun as could be found in the United States. In 1839, William Bourne informed the public that he would continue the manufacture of pianofortes in Dayton on the corner of Second and Jefferson streets, and felt that it would not be boasting to say that he was able to make as good an instrument as was manufactured in Cincinnati, or imported from the East. He had engaged M. Bothart to build the instruments. Mr. Bourne afterward moved to Boston, Massachusetts, and won considerable celebrity. At the same time Henry Kimes and Samuel Warner were engaged in (page 405) manufacture of plows and wagons, but in April, 1840, they dissolved partnership, and Henry Kimes continued the business alone until 1857.

            According to the United States census of 1840, there were engaged in the different manufacturing industries and trades in the corporation of Dayton, at that time, 810 persons, and in Dayton Township, outside of the corporation, 260 persons, making an aggregate of persons thus engaged then, within the corporation and township, 1,070. The entire number in the county of Montgomery, at the same time, was 2,280, and in the whole State of Ohio, 66,265. The numbers engaged in each separate occupation were not reported by the marshals who took the census reports.

            One of the early industries of this city was the marble works of LaDow & Hamilton. The exact date of the establishment of their works was not ascertainable, but it was probably as early as 1842. At any rate they were here in 1845, and had on hand tombstones, etc., of the best variety of eastern marble. They were on Third Street for several years, and conducted quite an extensive business. In 1856, Dr. John Wise purchased Mr. Hamilton's interest in the business, and remained with Mr. LaDow eighteen months, when lie sold his interest, and Mr. LaDow continued the business alone until the latter part of the war, and in 1864, J. H. Winder became a member of the firm. The firm remained LaDow & Winder until the death of the former in 1874, after which Mr. Winder conducted the business alone until 1878, when he closed it out. This was a very prosperous firm, and during a portion of the time while it was LaDow & Winder its sales amounted to fifty thousand dollars per year.

            W. and F. C. Estabrook commenced business in Clayton, Montgomery County, in 1835 or 1836, as merchants and manufacturers of linseed oil. In 1840, they removed to Dayton, where they continued the manufacture of oil at the present location of the Sachs-Pruden brewery. In 1846, W. Estabrook decided to go into the manufacture of scythes and erected a factory for that purpose, 50x100 feet in size and three stories high, fitted up with machinery for six trip-hammers and other machinery in proportion, with an estimated capacity of three hundred scythes per day. Upon a more careful investigation of the prospects for the success of that line of manufactures, he decided to abandon the projected enterprise and sold the building to Simon Gebhart, who converted it into an oil mill. In the meantime the Estabrooks continued the manufacture of linseed oil at their old location until the death of Warren Estabrook, which occurred April 14, 1857, after which the property was sold to Pritz & Kuhns, who were the pioneers in the business of the (page 406) manufacture of agricultural implements in Dayton, they having commenced in that line of manufacture in 1842. The implement, with which they commenced, was an endless chain horse-power, but they soon added other kinds of implements.  Their manufactory was located at the northeast corner of Second and Sears streets. For some time they employed no machinery, but their work was celebrated for its excellence. As the demand increased, they were obliged to add to their facilities, which they did gradually until 1846, when they erected a large establishment on the corner of Second and Webster streets. From this time on for several years, they were unable to fill the orders they received. In June, 1846, they advertised that they had secured the right to manufacture Rice's patent railroad, or endless chain horse-power for one and two horses, and threshing machines in Ohio and Indiana. This threshing machine, they said, with its new improvements, took up but little room in the barn, and would thresh or hull clover seed, in either wet or dry weather, and worked with more ease to the horses and took fewer hands than any other machine, four being sufficient to thresh one hundred bushels per day.

            In 1851, they commenced building the “celebrated Moore grain drill," which proved so popular in the Miami Valley that the firm found it out of their power to keep pace with the demand. Up to this time they had depended on the various foundries in the city for their castings, but being frequently unable to secure them fast enough for their necessities, they determined to erect a foundry of their own. This they completed February 22, 1855, but even after thus increasing their facilities they were still unable to keep up with their orders. In 1857, therefore, they purchased the buildings on the lower hydraulic, known as the Estabrook Oil Mills, which new location proved to be admirably adapted to the increase of their business. The main building was 130x40 feet, with a wing 100x50, all brick and three stories high. Adjoining this was the foundry, 70x50 feet. In the latter part of 1863 they were compelled to still further enlarge their facilities by the erection of another building.

            In 1859, they had commenced the manufacture of the "Dorsey self-raking reaper and mower," of which they built one hundred and sixty the first season. This machine gave such satisfaction to the farming community that the demand for it ran far ahead of the ability of the firm to fill it. In 1863, they manufactured and sold over six hundred of them, and then did not fill more than half their orders. At this time they employed sixty mechanics, besides a few laborers, and the annual extent of their business was over one hundred thousand dollars.

            (page 407) The business was continued under the name above given until 1876, when Augustus Kuhns purchased the interest of Jacob A. Pritz, and the firm name then became Pritz, Kuhns & Company and so continued until 1878, when Adam and William H. Pritz sold out to J. W. Pritz and Augustus Kuhns, and the firm became Pritz & Kuhns, running on in this way until the latter part of 1883, when Colonel E. A. Parrott bought the interest of Augustus Kuhns, and the firm became Pritz & Company and continued thus until early in 1885, when J. W. Pritz took the business and is still continuing it, locating at the old place of Neff & Bennett on the canal, where all kinds of castings and repairs can be found. Since 1878 Mr. Adam Pritz has lived a retired life, selling the property, where he formerly carried on his manufacturing operations, to the Sachs-Pruden Ale Company on the 1st of March, 1888, as appears in the sketch of the latter company.

            The property of Pritz & Kuhns was purchased March 1, 1888, by the Sachs-Pruden Ale Company. This company was incorporated January 9, 1888, the incorporators consisting of Edward Sachs, Henry B. Pruden, David Pruden, H. H. Weakley, and Frank T. Huffman, the capital stock of the company being five hundred thousand dollars. This company has two buildings, one of them being entirely new and erected under the supervision of Conrad G. Oland, of Hampshire, England, especially for the purpose to which it is devoted. This is the ale brewery building, 70x138 feet, and having four floors constructed almost entirely of steel. This structure was completed in September, 1888, and brewing was at once commenced. The capacity of the brewery is two hundred barrels every twelve hours, with facilities for an increase to double that amount. The bottling establishment is in the old building, and here they make ginger age, agaric, and other proprietary medicines. This building is 150x45 feet, and the bottling capacity is sixteen thousand per day. The convenience of modern machinery enters largely into the work of this corporation, and as a result, the number of employees is small when the extensive business transacted by the frm is taken into account. In 1838, Henry Dimes established himself in the manufacture of plows in Dayton, in partnership with A. Warren. The partnership, however, was of short duration, and Mr. Kimes continued on alone for several years. In 1858 the stock in trade was purchased by George Coldracer. and Louis J. Pfeiffenberger, who carried on the business under the name of Coldracer & Pfeiflenberger until 1873, when Mr. Coldracer sold his interest to Mr. Pfeifenberger, who soon afterward sold one-half interest in the business to Michael M. Smith, and the firm name then became Pfeifleuberger & Smith. In 1883, Valentine Meixuer purchased an interest in the business, (page 408) and since that time the name of the firm has been Pfeifenberger, Smith & Company. The premises occupied by this firm are located at Numbers 203, 205, 207, and 209 East Monument Avenue, and here they manufacture all kinds of wagons, carts, drays, wheelbarrows, etc. At the busiest season of the year they employ four men in the blacksmith shop, three in the wagon shop, and two in the paint shop.

            A paper mill was established at Kneisly, near Dayton, in 1840, by William Clarke, who operated it there until 1846. At this time the firm of Ells, Claflin & Company was formed and located a paper-mill on the present site of the Mead Paper Company. Mr. Clarke having an interest in the firm, moved part of the machinery from the old Kneisly mill. This firm was succeeded in 1858 by Weston & Mead, the several members of the firm being W. A. Weston, J. L. Weston, and D. E. Mead. One year later D. E. Mead purchased W. A. Weston's interest, and the firm became Mead & Weston, which continued until 1866, when J. L. Weston sold his interest to Thomas Nixon, the firm becoming Mead & Nixon. In 1872, the firm became an incorporated company with a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and the name was Mead & Nixon Paper Company-. D. E. Mead was the president of the company, Charles D. Mead, secretary, and Thomas Nixon, vice-president. This company was succeeded in 1881 by the Mead Paper Company, D. E. Mead president; Charles D. Mead, vice-president, and B. F. Reist, secretary. Since that time no changes in officers have been made, and the capital stock remains the same as at first. The mills are located at the corner of Front and Second streets, and furnish employment to one hundred and twenty-five operatives, to whom about forty thousand dollars is paid annually. The plant now in use is most complete and extensive in its character. The main building is four stories high, and 200x100 feet in size. Besides this there are several other buildings. The motive power is both steam and water, the three steam engines having an aggregate of four hundred and fifty horse-power, and the water being about two hundred horse-power. The capacity of the mills is twelve tons of paper per day. The kinds of paper manufactured are super calendered and machine finished book and newspaper, and colored papers. The patronage of the company is mainly in the Western States, and the growth of the trade is steadily increasing.

            The works, owned at the present time by W. P. Callahan & Company, were established in 1841 by C. Thompson, on Shawnee Street, between Wayne and Wyandotte streets. Mr. Thompson's sons were connected with him in the business a portion of the time, but in 1852 they retired from the firm and went to Terre Haute, Indiana, and Mr. Thompson went into partnership with Thomas McGregor and John (page 409) Clary, the firm becoming Thompson, McGregor & Company. In 1857, W. P. Callahan bought the interest of Mr. Clary, the firm name remaining the same until 1862, when Mr. Thompson died, and the business was carried on by the two remaining partners until 1868, when Mr. Callahan bought out the interest of Mr. McGregor and became sole proprietor. Mr. Callahan was alone until 1876 when he took into partnership Thomas DeArmon, and the firm name then became W. P. Callahan & Company, as it remains until the present time. In 1885, W. K. Callahan, a son of W. P. Callahan, was admitted to partnership. The business was commenced in a small way and has gradually grown to its present large proportions. It was removed to its present location in 1856, and it now occupies several large brick buildings and furnishes -employment to from seventy-five to one hundred men. The goods manufactured consist mainly of linseed oil and cotton-seed oil machinery, but steam engines, mill gearing, shafting, paper-mill machinery, pulleys, etc., are also made. The annual output of the works has been in some years over one hundred thousand dollars.

            In February, 1865, what are now known as the Miami Valley Boiler and Sheet Iron Works were established by W. P. Callahan, Thomas McGregor, Henry Fisher, and James T. Dougherty, under the frm name of McGregor, Callahan & Company. In a few years Mr. McGregor sold his interest to Mr. Callahan. Soon afterward Frederick Sartor was admitted to the firm, and then Mr. Callahan and Mr. Fisher sold out to the other three, and the firm became Fisher, Sartor & Dougherty which lasted several years. Then Henry Weber bought an interest in the business and not long afterward sold it to Phillip Leonhard. Mr. Leonhard retired in a short time, and Mr. Sartor sold his interest to James Brownell when the firm became Henry Fisher & Company. Soon after this, Lyman Leland took Mr. Fisher's interest, and the firm became Leland, Dougherty & Company. At length Messrs. Leland and Dougherty bought Mr. Brownell's interest, and the business ran along for six or seven years without any further change. Then Mr. Leland retired and John W. Graham became a member of the firm, which partnership lasted until May 17,1886, when it was dissolved, since which time Mr. Dougherty has carried it on alone.

 

            The products of these works consist of flue, tubular, and portable boilers, tank breechings and sheet iron chimneys, penstocks, draft tubes, tanks for oil, turpentine, water, or any other fluid, lard coolers, lard press screens, brewers' tubs, paper-mill tanks, bleach tubs, varnish steam kettles, fire-proof doors, core ovens, furnace cupolas and stacks, and many other articles in the same general line.

            (page 410) One of the noted manufacturing industries of Dayton in the days before the war was the ax factory of F. Benjamin. Mr. Benjamin moved from New York City to Lexington, in Preble County, in 1840, with the intention of procuring a small farm on which to spend the remainder of his days in peace and comfort. While arrangements were being made for his occupancy of the little farm, he repaired several axes at the village forge. So skillful was his work that his fame soon spread abroad in the community, and the demand for Benjamin's axes became general. For this reason the project of settling down upon the farm was abandoned and he began to look around for a suitable location, where he could supply the demand which his skill and honest work had created. In the spring of 1846 he came to Dayton and began the manufacture of axes on a small scale, on the east side of St. Clair Street, between Third and Fourth streets. In 1849 his son, J. S. Benjamin, entered his employ, and under his excellent training learned the trade of making first-class edged tools. Mr. Benjamin purchased the lot on the northeast corner of St. Clair and Fourth streets, and here he increased his facilities and enlarged his business, which continued to increase until his death in 1861. His son then carried on the business until 1869. For several years the edged tools of this establishment were manufactured by hand, and the reputation of the Benjamin axes and cutlery in general was second to none. From 1864, J. S. Benjamin made great improvements in his work. Determined to make his enterprise a credit to the city, as well as profitable to himself, he gradually changed from hand work to machinery, perfecting his machinery as he went along. He ceased making small cutlery and devoted himself to the manufacture of larger cutlery and tools used in the manufactures. The change to machinery changed the current of his business. His wares were called for in all directions, and their merit was such that it was impossible for him to supply the demand. This was the condition of his business in 1869, when he became interested in a stock company then recently established in Louisville, Kentucky, and he removed to that city, thinking that as the war was over everything would be prosperous there. He remained there in charge of the edged tool factory until 1875, but the enterprise was not a success, and after several years he returned to Dayton and again commenced the struggle of life on a small scale at No. 32 South Wayne Avenue, where he is at the present time. He has in his shop one of the celebrated Beaudry & Cunningham trip-hammers, the stroke of which is completely under the control of the operator. Mr. Benjamin is doubtless one of the most skillful edged tool makers in the city of Dayton, and is again gradually building up his business.

            (page 411) Another of the early firms engaged in manufacturing in Dayton, was that of Beaver & Butt. They were located on Kenton Street just below Third. Mr. B. N. Beaver was the first one in Dayton to apply machinery to the manufacture of sash, doors, and blinds. The beginning with him was small, yet the means to increase the facilities of his business came by the active exercise of steady application and industry, aided by ability. Mr. Beaver commenced business in the building occupied by Adam Pritz, on Webster Street, in the winter of 1847. His business proving a success he soon removed to the Pease building on Third Street, just east of the canal, taking Mr. J. W. Butt into partnership. At this location they greatly increased their facilities and business, and in a few years sold it to T. V. Doup, who removed to Kenton Street, and successfully conducted the establishment for some time. In 1853, Beaver & Butt again purchased the entire establishment and enlarged the business. Their factory was four stories high and a capacious building in every way. Among other articles made by them was a patent step ladder, the celebrity of which was so great that orders for it were received from all over the country. They soon afterward purchased the building owned by the Hook and Ladder Company which they used as a warehouse. At the beginning Mr. Beaver employed three men, and in 1866 the frm employed thirty-five men, and besides did a great deal of work by machinery. The most prosperous times, however, did not come to this firm until after 1866. During this year they made a contract with the State to build the asylum for the insane at Columbus, Ohio, at the high prices which were then prevailing, but they did not commence the work until 1870, when prices of materials and labor had largely fallen, the result being that they made a great deal of money on this single contract. In 1869, having, as before stated, purchased the building' owned by the Hook and Ladder Company, they bought all the Benjamin property, and the S. N. Brown & Company warehouse property, and erected what is known as the Beaver & Butt building, occupying all the space between Kenton, Fourth and St. Clair streets and the alley. After the erection of this building they did a very large business in the building line, all over the country. This prosperity continued until the death of John W. Butt, in 1885, since when the business has been closed. The building which they erected is now owned by John Dodds and the C. L. Hawes estate.

            The manufacture of lard oil was commenced by J. H. Peirce in 1844, at the present location of the factory of J. P. Davies, on the lower hydraulic,' between Wayne and Fifth streets. He was engaged in the business until 1870, his brother, J. C. Peirce, being interested in the factory a portion of the time. After some time D. E. Mead became a (page 412) partner in the company, and the firm name was changed to Peirce & Mead, as it remained until 1865, and in 1866 J. P. Davies became a partner. In 1870 Mr. Davies purchased the interest of Mr. Peirce and

            has since been engaged in the business alone. The goods manufactured `are lard oil, and various brands of laundry soaps; acidless tallow oil is also made. The number of hands employed averages about twenty. John Rouzer worked at the carpenter's trade in various places from 1844 to 1854, and in the latter year established himself in the business of contractor and builder in this city, commencing in a small way. In 1861, he began the manufacture of building material. He was then located in the old Bomberger flouring mill, where he put in operation the first iron frame molding machine in the United States. In 1862, he commenced the erection of the Turner Opera House, which was opened January 1, 1864. In 1863, he removed to his present location on the Cooper hydraulic, opposite the head of Fourth Street. The building he then occupied was a small two-story brick, which a year or two afterward he enlarged by adding twenty feet to the front and raising it all one story higher. In 1871, he erected a new building to the north of the old one, three stories in front and four stories high on the canal. Since then he has occupied the two buildings, which are fitted up with the finest machinery to be found anywhere in the State. In 1884, be accepted as partners John H. Pardonner and William T. Mooney, since which time the firm name has been John Rouzer & Company. The number of men employed by this firm varies with the general condition of business, sometimes being as high as two hundred. The amount of work done averages about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars per year, and covers the large field of the southwestern part of the State, and as far north as Columbus. In Columbus the most noted buildings erected by Mr. Rouzer are the courthouse, the board of trade building, and a residence for the widow of Ex-Governor Dennison. In Dayton he furnished the inside finishing and the furniture for the new courthouse, and the office furniture for the offices of the Teutonia Insurance Company, office furniture being one of the specialties of this company.

            The business now conducted by the Buckeye Iron Works was established in 1844, in a small way by H. L. Shepherd and W. H. Pease, their works being located at the corner of Third and Wyandotte streets, and extending from Wyandotte to Wayne. The growth of the business was so rapid that it became necessary to increase the resources of the firm, and June, 1876, the present company was incorporated with a capital stock of seventy-five thousand dollars. The works are now where they were first located. The main building is of brick, four stories high, (page 412) and 56x90 feet in size. The two-story machine shop and iron foundry is 66x140 feet in dimensions, the brass foundry is 100x100 feet, and there is an additional machine shop on Wayne Street, which is 40x90 feet in size. The machinery is propelled by a one hundred horse-power engine, and a force of 225 men is employed. The business of this firm consists of the manufacture of brass goods for steam-engine builders and steam fitters' use. A special department of the concern is devoted to the manufacture of tobacco cutting machinery. Linseed oil and cottonseed oil machinery are also largely made. The specialties of this firm find their way into nearly all parts of the civilized world. The annual output of the works at this time is about three hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and is constantly increasing. The officers of the company at the present time are: Charles E. Pease, president; W. Krutzsch, vice-president, and W. B. Anderson, secretary.

            The flouring mills now known as the Banner Mills, were commenced in 1847, a small stone building being at that time erected. In 1865, Mr. Jost Durst purchased the property and in 1879 erected the present structure, which is a four-story and basement brick building. The mills are located on East Fifth Street and the railroad. The machinery is propelled by a steam engine of one hundred and seventy-five horse-power, the capacity of the mills being about three hundred and fifty barrels of four per day. The following brands of four are made: "burst's Best," "Ladies' Friend," "Roller Process," and " Telephone." These brands are quite popular throughout Ohio, Maryland, New York, and elsewhere. The officers of the company, since its incorporation in 1887 as the Durst Milling Company, have been John W. Durst, president; Jost Durst, vice-president; C. S. Durst, secretary and treasurer, and E. G. Durst, manager. It is one of the most prominent milling companies in Southwestern Ohio. The manufacture of plows was commenced in 1847 by Jefferson Aughe in a little shop on Third Street. Aughe invented the celebrated "Aughe Plow," which is so well known throughout the United States. Shortly after starting the business he removed to the corner of Front and Crane streets where he erected a two story frame building forty feet square, where he carried on the manufacture of plows until 1865. At this time John Achey bought an interest in the business which he held until his death in the fall of 1866, after which Charles Parrott purchased Mr. Achey's interest and the frm Aughe & Parrott operated the works until 1871, when Mr. Parrott purchased Mr. Aughe's interest. Mr. Parrott added to the old building until 1881, when the entire structure was taken down and a new four-story brick building 80x70 feet erected in its place, with necessary sheds, etc., in addition, for storing manufactured (page 414) goods. These new works were taken possession of in October of that year. The firm became an incorporated company in 1882, under the name of the Parrott Manufacturing Company, of which Charles Parrott is president; George Parrott, secretary, and Frederick W. Nolt, superintendent. Among the points in which this plow is claimed to excel, are lightness of draft, scouring in any soil, holding to the ground under all conditions, facility of adjustment, and superiority of workmanship. With ample capital and every necessary facility at command, this company is well prepared to sustain the reputation it has always enjoyed.

            The Aughe Plow Company, manufacturers of the "S. S. Aughe Plows," was organized in 1885. The works are located on the corner of Front and Crane streets, where are manufactured shifting beam plows, center draft plows, plain clevis plows, patent combination malleable iron plows, and subsoil plows. All parts of these plows are interchangeable and can be promptly supplied direct from the factory. The trade of this company is large throughout the United States, but is especially large in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Washington Territory. The officers of the company at this time are: S. J. Allen, president; J. W. Kennedy, secretary and treasurer, and S. S. Aughe, superintendent.

            In 1848, D. H. Morrison commenced building wooden bridges for both railroad and county work. For several years the work was done where the bridge was being built, Mr. Morrison having no shop or factory. In 1868, however, he erected a small shop in the rear of the last and peg factory of Crawford & Company, and there began the manufacture of iron bridges from a patent of his own. The business kept on increasing until 1882, when it became necessary to have more room, and the present location on Louie Street, between Washington Street and the railroad, was selected, and a brick factory building erected 66x318 feet in dimensions. Here the work has since been carried on, a large number of different styles of bridges being made, among them the Pratt truss, the whipple truss, the triangular truss, arch bridges, deck bridges, plate girders, etc. This company has manufactured two rigid suspension bridges, one of them being now in existence and crossing the canal on Main Street, and it has also built two suspension truss bridges, one of which, and the only one now in existence, is the bridge across the Miami River, on Main Street.

            D. H. Morrison died in 1882, and the company was incorporated December 18, 1882, as the Columbia Bridge Company. The incorporators were C. C. Morrison, J. Curtis Morrison, Ellis Jennings, Atlas L. Stout, and Warren Munger. The officers of the company were, at first, C. C. Morrison, president; Samuel Craighead, vice-president; and J. Curtis (page 415) secretary. The present officers of the company are C. C. Morrison, president; Michael Neil, vice-president, and J. Curtis Morrison, secretary and treasurer. A new frame building was erected in the winter of 1888-1889 for a blacksmith shop, which is 40x75 feet in size. The machinery in these works is exceedingly simple and strong. The boring machine is the largest in use anywhere, being capable of boring a hole eight inches in diameter, through thirty-six inches of metal, and of boring two holes at the same time, fifty-five feet apart in the center. One of the largest punches in existence is in these works, it being capable of punching an eight-inch hole in one-inch iron, and cutting off five-inch rods of cold iron. About seventy men are usually employed in the factory, and about the same number at the bridges which are being built. The annual amount of the work done is from one hundred and fifty thousand to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. One of the monuments to the skill and honesty of the work of D. H. Morrison was the oblique ribbed arched stone bridge across the canal on Jefferson Street, which was erected in 1854 and torn down in 1888.

            Following is a summary of the manufacturing establishments in operation in Dayton in 1849: There were five oil mills which purchased from the farmers of the surrounding country one hundred and sixty thousand bushels of fax seed annually, at a cost of one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, from which were produced three hundred and forty thousand barrels of oil and four hundred thousand pounds of oil cake. , These oil mills employed from forty to sixty hands, besides furnishing employment to about twenty coopers in the manufacture of barrels for the oil.

            There were five iron foundries which gave permanent employment to one hundred men, and which cast annually nine hundred tons of pig iron. There were four flouring mills which ground annually from one hundred and fifty thousand to one hundred and seventy thousand bushels of wheat; a last and peg factory, turning out yearly about twenty thousand dollars' worth of stock and employing about twenty-five hands. Woolen machinery of all kinds was made, and carpets and coverlets of it great variety of patterns. A linen factory was established about that time, and there were three paper-mills, employing from forty to fifty hands and manufacturing about five hundred tons of paper which netted the establishments about eighty thousand dollars.

            There were two excellent hydraulic powers in Dayton, termed the " upper" and "lower" hydraulics, and for a distance of some seventy-five rods along the canal the ground was covered with buildings ,from three to (page 416) four stories high, filled with machinery and giving employment to from three hundred to four hundred mechanics and laborers. At that time the upper hydraulic was not in full operation, but it bade fair to soon become the center of great activity.

            The Dutton Agricultural Works were erected in 1854 by Rufus Dutton, on Keowee Street and the canal. Here Mr. Dutton continued the manufacture of agricultural implements until 1856, when the property was sold at sheriff’s sale to C. Wight, who took into partnership William Bomberger and John Dodds, the firm name becoming Bomberger, Wight & Company. In 1863, these works changed hands, J. B. Pitts & Company becoming the purchasers. Immediately upon the purchase of the works, J. B. Pitts & Company began the manufacture of the celebrated Pitts threshing machines, the improved double pinion horse-power, and their patent planet power, the latter made entirely of iron. This establishment was immediately arranged in departments and thoroughly systematized. For some little time the threshing machines were shipped "knocked down" from Buffalo, where was located- the principal manufactory, to Dayton, and sold from this city as a distributing point,- but soon afterward the manufacture was commenced here and continued until within a few years of the present time. The Pitts thresher and separator was the joint invention of John A. and Hiram A. Pitts, was patented in 1837, and for several years afterward was the most successful machine for threshing and separating grain at one operation.tbat had been invented. The manufacture of these machines was continued by Pitts & Company until 1866, when Woodsum & Tenney purchased the property and the business, and carried it on until the beginning of 1875, when they sold the business to the Woodsum Machine Company, which was incorporated in April of that year. The incorporators were S. F. Woodsum, George W. Shaw, J. F. Perrine, Garrett Perrine, B. F. Hargrave, and S. W. Massey. This company continued the manufacture of the machines at the old place until 1886, when they sold the property to the Barney & Smith Manufacturing Company and discontinued the business.

            After Bomberger, Wight & Company sold out to J. B. Pitts & Company, they moved to the shops of the Western Railroad, near the present union depot, and there continued the manufacture of agricultural implements for two or three years, when they sold out. C. Wight had been engaged in the manufacture of lumber in Dayton ever since 1850, and is so engaged at the present time. In 1851 or 1852, he located at the corner of Monument Avenue and Sears Street, and has continued there ever since. In 1878, he commenced the manufacture of sash, doors, and, (page 417) blinds, and since then has added the manufacture of a patent fence machine, called the Gem City Fence Loom, gang and lath and picket mills, wire and picket fences, window and door screens, door springs, and detachable or open links. The number of hands employed in this establishment is about sixty, and the annual amount of the business is from one hundred and twenty thousand dollars to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

            The Barney & Smith Manufacturing Company was established is 1849 by E. Thresher and E. E. Barney, under the firm name of E. Thresher & Company. In that year they began the erection of shops in Dayton, for the purpose of building railroad cars, with what would now be considered a very small capital, twelve thousand dollars. From the nature of the business, the establishment became known throughout the country as the Dayton Car Works, and they are so known to the present day. From the first the cars manufactured at these works were noted for the excellence of their material and workmanship. In 1854, Mr. Thresher on account of failing health sold his interest to C. Parker, and during the next ten years the name of the firm was Barney, Parker & Company. During this period the business steadily increased throughout the Northwest, West, and South. In 1864, Mr. Parker's health having become impaired from too close attention to business, he disposed of his interest in the firm to Preserved Smith, and during the next three years the firm name was Barney, Smith & Company. In 1867, the firm was incorporated under the laws of Ohio, with the name of the Barney & Smith Manufacturing Company, and with a capital of five hundred thousand dollars. The capital was increased in 1872, to seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars, and in 1882, to one million dollars, at which it remains at the present time, the surplus now being five hundred thousand dollars. The names of the incorporators of this company were: E. E. Barney, Preserved Smith, James D. Platt, E. J. Barney and A. E. Stevens. The first officers of the company were: E. E. Barney, president; Preserved Smith, vice-president and treasurer; James D. Platt, secretary, and E. J. Barney, superintendent. Since their incorporation they have greatly enlarged their business, having erected new and more commodious buildings, and added improved machinery of any and all kinds, until now they have one or the best equipped car manufactories to be found anywhere in the United States, if Snot actually the best. They consume from eighteen to twenty million feet of lumber per year, and from thirty-five thousand to forty thousand tons of iron. They give employment to eighteen hundred men, and turn out from three to four million dollars' worth of manufactured goods each year. They make all kinds of freight, baggage and passenger cars, the latter including (page 418) sleeping and private cars, and being equal in design and finish to any in the world. The buildings and works generally of this company occupy about twenty-eight acres of ground. The average amount of wages paid to employees during the past few years has been sixty thousand dollars per month, the amount of wages paid out in this one establishment, added to that paid out in other establishments directly and indirectly connected with it in Dayton, would be almost, if not quite one million dollars a year. Ample and complete facilities and extraordinary care to even the minutest details of their work, are the secrets of the excellent and wide-spread reputation this company has acquired, and are the reasons for their cars being found in every State and Territory in the Union, as well as in Canada.

            The officers of this company at the present time are as follows: E. J. Barney, president; J. D. Platt, vice-president and treasurer; A. M. Kittredge, superintendent; A. C. Barney and E. E. Barney, directors, and F. E. Smith, secretary.

            The Dayton Manufacturing Company was incorporated February 3, 1883, with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars. The-incorporators were as follows: E. J. Barney, president; J. D.' Platt, F. E. Smith, J. Kirby, Jr., Thomas A. Bissell, A. C. Barney, and Charles U. Raymond. The officers first elected, and who still retain the positions to which they were elected, were E. J. Barney, president; J. D. Platt, vice-president; F. E. Smith, treasurer; J. Kirby, Jr., general manager; Charles U. Raymond, secretary. Immediately after their incorporation the company purchased a lot on the corner of East Third and Garfield streets, upon which they erected a fne, two-story brick factory building, 80x200 feet in size, and since then they have added a foundry, 75x100 feet, in the rear of the main building. In these buildings the company employ about one hundred and fifty men, and manufacture about one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars' worth of products per annum. Their line of manufactures includes all kinds of car-furnishings, switch and car-locks, railroad lamps, locomotive headlights, and fine brass and bronze goods. They have recently added the manufacture of household ornaments and bronze statuary in the form of statuettes, something entirely new in this part of the country. One of the last orders filled in this lime was for several statuettes of Morton McMichael, formerly a distinguished journalist of Philadelphia and also one of the early mayors of that city.

            None but the finest castings are made at these works, and their work in the line of car-findings is found in the finest passenger cars in this country, notably in those manufactured by the Barney & Smith Manufacturing Company.

            (page 419) J. R. Johnston commenced business in Dayton in 1851, in connection with the Buckeye Foundry. In 1852, he became a partner in the same company, and in 1862, he and Mr. Fraim purchased the foundry department and ran it under the firm name of J. R. Johnston & Company until 1869 when Mr. Fraim died. From that time until 1872 Mr. Johnston carried on the business alone at the same location, when he moved to his present location, No. 32 South Wayne Avenue. In 1877, he took into partnership his son, L. M. Johnston, and since that time the firm has been J. R. Johnston & Son. The business is that of a foundry and machine shop, and from twenty-five to thirty men are given employment. Broadrup & Company commenced business as McMillin & Company in the fall of 1854, the firm being then composed of G. M. L. McMillin, William Broadrup, and John Broadrup. They were engaged in the manufacture of woolen machinery, and continued as McMillin & Company about two years. Their manufactory was then located where the factory of D. L. Bates & Brother, on the southeast corner of Third Street and the canal, in the rear of Joseph R. Gebhart & Son's flouring mill, now stands. In 1856, Mr. McMillin sold his interest in the business to George Raymond, and the firm thereupon became Broadrup, Raymond & Company, this firm lasting until 1862, when it was dissolved, Mr. Raymond retiring and the brothers Broadrup continuing the business under the firm name of Broadrup & Company, which name has been retained until the present time. In 1864, the company purchased some property on South Perry Street, just south of Bayard Street, upon which they erected a large brick. building, consisting of a main building and a wing. In this building the firm carried on the manufacture of woolen machinery until 1870, when they found it advisable to change their line of manufactures. This they did by changing their machinery, and engaging in the manufacture of school furniture, in which occupation they have continued up to the present time. There has been no change in the personnel of the firm since it has been Broadrup & Company. The machinery used in this factory is. propelled by steam. About twenty men are employed on an average, and the annual product of the factory is about forty thousand, dollars. This company manufacture the " Celebrated Champion School Furniture and Opera Seats." The school furniture consists of seats for pupils, recitation seats, teachers' desks, etc., and besides these various articles they manufacture most kinds of office furniture, and a modified form of the opera seat, which is very convenient and popular for church pews. They also manufacture seats suitable for parks, lawns, cemeteries and croquet grounds, and in fact all kinds of furniture for which they can find ready sale.

            (page 420) In 1855, Ernest Zwick established himself in the manufacture of carriage wheels, and continued the business until 1865, when A. W. Pinneo purchased an interest in the concern. In March, 1866, E. A. Daniels purchased an interest, and the firm name became Zwick, Pinneo & Daniels, as it remained until 1875, when Messrs. Pinneo and Daniels purchased the interest of Mr. Zwick and changed the firm name to Pinneo & Daniels. The business of the company was carried on for twenty years at Number 216 East Third Street, but in 1881 the firm moved to their present location at the southwest corner of First and Madison streets. Here their buildings cover a space 208x248 feet in size, and are three stories high. They employ from seventy-five to one hundred skilled workmen. The main energies of the company are directed to the production of the "Dayton Patent Compressed Band Hub and Tenon Wheel," which is one of the best wheels in the market. The bands are made from the best quality of Norway iron, welded and rolled, and having a continuous weld, cannot slip. The hub is not weakened by cutting grooves for bands to rest in, but the entire surface is strengthened by applying the band over all and compressing it into the wood flush. The spokes have grooves cut in both sides of the tenon next to the shoulder, making the thickness of the tenon where the groove is cut just what is required when it is ready to drive, the lower end of the tenon being an eighth of an inch thicker. This is reduced by compression to the required thickness. Besides this celebrated wheel, the firm of Pinneo & Daniels, or the Dayton Wheel Company, as they are otherwise known, manufacture the celebrated "Sarven" wheel, as well as all other kinds of wheels. The firm is at present composed of A. W. Pinneo and E. A. Daniels.

            E. H. Brownell started in business in Dayton in 1855 in a small shop, located on Cooper Street, at the corner of Foundry Street. His business was that of building and repairing boilers. His shop was 15x35 feet in size, and he employed but two men, besides himself. He continued without a partner until 1865, when he associated with himself James H. Brownell and Thomas J. Driscoll, under the firm name of Brownell & Company. This firm lasted until 1877, when, upon the death of James H. Brownell, the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Driscoll went to Columbus. E. H. Brownell continued the business under the old firm name until 1880, when it became necessary to change it because of there being another Brownell & Company. in the city, and E. H. was placed before the old name, making it E. H. Brownell & Company. This arrangement continued until 1888, when Mr. Brownell sold to Graves & Marshall, a firm being composed of Henry C. Graves and George M. (page 421) Marshall. This firm has greatly enlarged and increased the facilities of the works, which are located at Numbers 403 to 407 East First Street. They now employ about seventy men, having doubled their force in the past two years. They now intend erecting a large two-story building, covering their entire grounds, which shall be equipped with every modern improvement and convenience. They manufacture marine, locomotive, stationary, and house-heating boilers, rotaries, tanks, smokestacks, and general sheet iron work, and have a very large trade in all parts of the country.

            John Dodds commenced his career as a manufacturer in 1856, as a member of the firm of Bomberger, Wight & Co. This firm began the manufacture of agricultural implements in the shops now owned by the Woodsum Machine Company, at No. 201 North Keowee Street.

            They continued in business here until the close of the war, when they sold the buildings and machinery to the Pitts Threshing Machine Company, and moved to what was then known as the Dayton & Western Railroad Shops. After several years, Mr. Dodds, having been out of business one year, bought out the firm of Bomberger, 'Wight & Company and began the manufacture of the Hollingsworth rake exclusively, having as partners in the business at the time A. G. Smith and A. W. Beall, the firm name being Smith, Dodds & Company. At the end of one year Mr. Dodds bought the interests of his partners and became sole proprietor. Some time afterward he surrendered the lease of the Dayton & Western Shops and erected new buildings on the corner of East Third and Bainbridge streets, the present location of the Stoddard Manufacturing Company's Works. At the expiration of three years from this time he disposed of a one-half interest to John W. Stoddard and remained in partnership with him five years, when he sold the rest of the business to Mr. Stoddard and purchased the latter's interest in the Miami City shops, where farm cultivators had been made about four years. At this time the only buildings at this point were a two-story frame structure and a brick engine-house. Other buildings were, however, erected and the plant had grown to be a very large one, when, in 1882, the old buildings were destroyed by fire. Since this time still other buildings have been added, until now the buildings themselves cover three acres of ground, and two acres are occupied with piles of lumber. Mr. Dodds manufactures six different kinds of rakes-the Hollingsworth, Reindeer, Surprise, Taylor Number 1 and Number 4, and the Redbird. lie turns out about eleven thousand rakes each year, aggregating in value about two hundred thousand dollars, and employs about one hundred and forty men. The rakes are shipped to all parts of the United States, Europe, Australia, (page 422) and New Zealand, and sustain the high reputation of Dayton manufactures wherever they are used.

            The project of establishing a tub and bucket factory in Dayton was put in practice by N. E. Leaman, in 1857, in a small frame building on Third Street, near Wayne. The manufacture of hollow wooden ware was carried on with varying success until 1860, when the business passed into the hands of Pritz & Dorsey, who, after putting it in good shape, disposed of it to Pritz & Simmons. Shortly after this change, the firm became Starkey & Pritz, and still later Pritz & Company. In the latter part of 1860, Thomas Brown & Son purchased the factory and removed it to the building, afterward occupied by the “City Mills," at the head of Fourth Street. When Mr. Brown took hold of this business it was estimated that fifteen thousand feet of white pine lumber would be sufficient for the season's work, while toward the latter part of 1863 the business had so expanded that from fifteen to twenty thousand feet per week were required. In the spring of 1862, Clegg & Wood succeeded Brown & Son. They immediately made preparations for a large business, erecting a manufactory on the lot adjoining the City Mills, three stories high and 40x74 feet in dimensions. In this building they put new and improved machinery, and their business soon so increased that they needed double the room they had. This necessity was supplied, and by the close of 1863 they were again cramped for room. The articles manufactured by this firm consisted of tubs, water pails, churns, keelers, butter firkins, salt buckets, and, in fact, all hollow wooden ware. The same firm also at the same time carried on the manufacture of four. The original inception of the Simon Gebhart & Sons' Flour Company took place in about 1857, the members of the present company acquiring the property in 1865. The mills are located on East Third Street, and consist of a four-story brick building 100x120 feet in dimensions. A full complement of the latest improved machinery and appliances is used in these mills, the full roller system being used in the manufacture of four. The capacity of the mills is about six hundred barrels of four per day. None but winter wheat is ground at these mills, the best grades of four being produced, and the product finding a market in New England and New York, where it is in great demand. The officers of the company at the present time are Simon Gebhart, president; George F. Gebhart, secretary, and W. F. Gebhart, manager.

            There was a flouring mill erected, in 1840, by Horace Pease on the site now occupied by the mammoth establishment of Joseph R. Gebhart & Son. Although there had been flouring mills in Dayton before that time, these mills, on account of their being the oldest of any now (page 423) existence, are sometimes known as the Pioneer Mills. They were purchased in 1875 by Gebhart, Polk & Company, and in 1879 by Joseph R. Gebhart, who soon afterward admitted his son, Harry C. Gebhart, to partnership, the firm name becoming Joseph R. Gebhart & Son. The business of manufacturing cornice was commenced in 1857 by W. F. Gebhart, at 263 East Third Street. This was the first attempt to make cornice west of the Allegheny Mountains. Mr. Gebhart continued in the business with great success until 1868, when he started a branch house in Chicago, the first establishment of the kind in that city. He continued his business in this city at the old location, 263 East Third Street, until 1869, when he erected a building at the corner of Third and St. Clair streets, and moved into it. On account of increasing business, he admitted to partnership, in 1872, Charles Wuichet, who had been his book-keeper for the preceding six years, the firm name becoming W. F. Gebhart & Company. In 1873, this firm opened a branch house in Washington, D. C., the first house of the kind ever established there. This branch house they sold in 1877, and continued the partnership in Dayton until March, 1880, at which time occurred the death of Mr. Gebhart. At this time Robert C. Schenck, Jr., became a partner with Mr. Wuichet, the firm name being changed to Charles Wuichet & Company, as it remains to the present time. In 1888, the old quarters becoming too small for the increasing business, a change of location was made to the Gebhart Power Building, where the firm remain at the present time. They employ from forty-five to fifty hands, and transact an annual business amounting to about one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. At the present time, they have under contract government buildings at Abingdon, Virginia; Springfield, Massachusetts; Charleston, West Virginia; Augusta, Georgia; Chattanooga, Tennessee; and the inside finish of the state house at Columbia, South Carolina.

            Lambert and Morris Woodhull came to Dayton in 1858 and established themselves in the agricultural implement and seed business, in which they were engaged until 1878, when they entered upon the manufacture of buggies and carriages in a four-story brick building on Kenton Street, 25x75 feet in size. At first they employed a force of twenty men, and on account of the increase of their business they were compelled to seek more commodious quarters. They, therefore, moved to the old Dayton & Western shops, which had been used for some time by B. C. Taylor for the manufacture of the Taylor hay rake. The plant occupied at the present time by this company is on Fifth Street, just west of the river. The buildings comprise two five-story brick structures, each one (page 424) having a wing, or L. The larger building fronts one hundred feet on Home Avenue, and the one in the rear has a fifty-foot front and extends back one hundred feet. The wing extension to this building is 45x50 feet. The floor area of all the buildings is equal to eighty thousand square feet. The works are equipped with the best machinery, which is propelled by a fifty horse-power automatic cut-of engine. There are employed on the average in these works about one hundred and sixty men, and the products of the house comprise everything in the way of surreys, carriages, and buggies, the demand for which extends to all parts of the United States, and they are also shipped to Mexico, South America, and Australia. The capacity of the works is fifteen finished carriages per day. The works are generally known as the Dayton Buggy Works.

            The enterprise now carried on by the Stilwell & Bierce Manufacturing Company was inaugurated in 1866, by Messrs. E. R. Stilwell and G. N. Bierce, in a single rented room on the corner of Pine and Short streets. They manufactured at first only the "Stilwell Heater," but have since then added various other articles to their lines. They remained at the location first selected until 1870, when. they purchased a piece of property on the Dayton View hydraulic, and erected a portion of their present plant at a cost of over thirty thousand dollars. Since then the plant has been enlarged, until it is now composed of several buildings, each devoted to some special purpose. The main building is two stories high, and 300x60 feet in size. The roller machine shop is also two stories high and 200x40 feet, and the wood-working shop is the same height and 140x40 feet. The foundry is 130x80 feet, and the smith shop 100x40 feet. The machinery is operated by water power and about three hundred and fifty skilled workmen. The principal products of the work are divided into three classes-heaters, roller mills, and Turbine water wheels. They have recently commenced the manufacture of improved mining machinery for crushing ores containing the precious metals. The trade of the company extends all over the United States, and is increasing in all parts of the civilized world. In 1870, the firm became an incorporated company, with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. The officers at the time of incorporation were E. R. Stilwell, president, and G. N. Bierce, vice-president and secretary. The officers at the present time are E. R. Stilwell, president; R. W. King, vice-president and treasurer, and G. N. Bierce, secretary.

            In 1852, William Clarke and C. L. Hawes erected paper-mills at Kneisly, and operated them there until 1864, under the firm name of Clarke & Hawes. In September, 1862, they began operating their mills at (page 425) Dayton, built on the present site of the C. L. Hawes Company's Aqueduct Mills, running both mills until the Kneisly mills were closed in January, 1864. The firm continued the same until C. L. Hawes purchased Mr. Clarke's interest in 1872, after which the business was conducted in his name till the C. L. Hawes Company was organized iii 1886, with a capital of three hundred thousand dollars. C. L. Hawes was president; Charles Wheeler, vice-president and general manager, and E. E. Hawes, secretary and treasurer. The death of C. L. Hawes occurred October 13, 1888, and at the next meeting of the board of directors, held January 1, 1889, A. W. Pinneo was elected to the vacancy. At that time there was a surplus of eighty thousand dollars. In July, 1886, branch houses were purchased in Cincinnati and Chicago, through which their line of manufactured goods and book-binders' and box-makers' materials are handled. They employ about one hundred and fifteen operatives at their mills in Dayton, and about twenty-five employees in their branch houses. The product of the mills amounts to about twenty-five tons per day. These mills were sold to the American Straw Board Company July 3, 1889. In 1859, G. Stomps and two other gentlemen began the manufacture of chairs of every variety, locating their works at the present site of G. Stomps ?C Company, 229 to 233 East First Street. Mr. Stomps soon purchased the interests of his partners, and in 1874 took into partnership R. P. Burckhardt. C. Vogel came in in 1880, J. M. Kramer in 1883, and G. Stomps, Jr., in 1887. At first the chairs were made by hand, fifty to seventy-five dozen per week being the capacity of the factory. But since the introduction of machinery the output has increased to from three hundred and fifty to four hundred dozen per week. The prices have decreased about one-half. All varieties of chairs are made by this firm, and the trade extends throughout a large portion of the United States. The City Brewery was erected by Henry Ferneding in 1859. It is located at the junction of Brown and Warren streets. After passing through several changes, it was purchased by Jacob Stickle at public sale in 1868. At that time the building was of brick, two stories high, and 54x150 feet in size. It remained in that shape until the summer of 1881, when it was burned down and afterward enlarged at an expense of eight thousand dollars. It is now a three-and-a-half-story brick, and well adapted ill every way to the uses to which it is devoted. The first year Mr. Stickle was in business here lie made four thousand barrels of beer, and the business has since been greatly increased. The trade of the f irm is now very large, and is in charge of William Stickle, son of the proprietor.

            The Wayne Street Brewery was erected in 1852, by John and (page 426) Michael Schiml at the corner of Wayne and Hickory streets. In 1858, John Schiml (lied, and Michael Schiml has conducted the business ever since. At this point was made the first lager beer in Montgomery County, the stock yeast used for making it having been brought from Boston, Massachusetts. The brewery was then two stories high and 28x50 feet in size, but in 1881, Mr. Schiml enlarged the plant so that at this time the building is three stories high and 38x140 feet in size. At first the brewery made twelve hundred barrels of beer per year, but in the season of 18791880 the amount made was four thousand and four hundred barrels. Since then the amount has remained at about the same figure. The business now carried on by the North Star Tobacco Works, was established in 1863 under the firm name of Cotterill & Wolf. This firm was succeeded in 1866 by Cotterill & Fenner, consisting of S. T. Cotterill and A. C..Fenner. During the early part of the history of the firm the business was very small. The demand for fine cut tobacco was limited, and was supplied by the pioneers in this branch of trade who were located in New York and Detroit. The new process of - manufacturing f ine cut tobacco was introduced by firms in the two cities named above in about 1855. The quality of the material was totally different from that now manufactured. The discovery of "White Burley" was destined to work a revolution in the process of manufacturing, and also in the relative consumption of plug and fine cut. This revolution has been effected by the bright color, sweet chew, and fine favor of the "White Burley." On January .1, 1866, A. C. Marshall became a member of the firm, and the name was changed to Cotterill, Fencer & Company. The first tobacco factory belonging to the firm of Cotterill, Fenner & Company was located in the old Horace Pease mill building, near Third Street and the canal, but in 1869 they removed to the Beaver & Butt building. With the increased capacity thus acquired, the business grew rapidly, and soon they were compelled to move to the property on Second Street, where they are now located. On the death of Mr. Cotterill in 1886, A. C. Marshall purchased the interest of the estate, and also that of the other partner, Mr. Fenner, and associated with himself as partners G. H. Gorman and II. Z. Marshall; the old firm name, Cotterill, Fenner & Company, being retained from business considerations. In the latter part of 1863 there were three or four manufactories in Dayton engaged in reducing the forests to habitations for men, making flooring, sash, doors, moldings, and all other integral parts of houses, and employing at least five hundred men. These firms were: M. Burrous & Company, Beaver & Butt, Baird & Company, John Rouzer, Waymire, and a few other smaller establishments. The entire number of (page 427) people supported by these various establishments was about fifteen hundred.

            In this connection it may not be useless or uninteresting to briefly review the history of the invention of the planing mill. The first machine that deserves the appellation planing mill, and this hardly does, was invented by General Bentham, of England, in 1791. This machine merely enabled the mechanic to apply the circular or crank motion to the operation of the plane, but did not enable him to perform more work than before, or to use less skill. In 1802, a Mr. Bramah, of Yorkshire, England, who was a kind of universal genius, and who was the inventor of the hydraulic press, invented a planing machine of improved construction which at the same time that it reduced the amount of labor required to perform a given amount of work, reduced the amount of skill required to do the work. This was a positive advance in the invention of labor saving machinery. In 1803, Mr. Bevans obtained a patent for a machine which would plane out all kinds of moldings, grooves, rebates, etc. This was as far as inventions had gone in England before the same line of improvements were taken up in New England, where the next decided improvement was made by a Mr. Bill, and his improvement was still further improved upon in 1850 by N. G. Norcross. The most useful machine was, however, invented by Woodworth, of New England, by means of which the plank to be planed remained on top of the carriage and ran under the planer. It was about the year 1850 that the first planing machine was brought to Dayton by Bomberger & Thresher, who successfully followed the business of planing lumber for about fourteen years. Commencing on a small. scale at first, they at length were enabled to erect a three-story manufactory at the intersection of Wayne Street and the canal. In 1862, they sold out to M. Burrous & Company, who, in 1863, were largely engaged in the manufacture of all kinds of house building material, and in addition to this were also largely engaged as building contractors. The engine in their factory was about one hundred horse-power, and they turned out a large amount of work each year.

            This business afterward passed into the hands of D. W. Stewart & Company, the "Company" being Jeremiah H. Peirce. This was about 1868, and this firm continued until 1875, when the firm of D. W. Stewart & Company was dissolved, Mr. Peirce purchasing the interest of Mr. Stewart. Mr. Peirce continued the business alone until 1880, when Henry Coleman purchased an interest, and since then the firm name has been Peirce & Coleman. Since its original establishment this business has been very largely increased. The plant covers an extensive area, and comprises the main factory, which is three stories high, is of brick, and (page 428) is 80x100 feet in dimensions. To this there is a wing 30x60 feet. There is also a one-story engine house, dry kilos, and two extensive lumber yards, one at the factory, and one at the corner of Dutoit and Bacon streets. The machinery and other appliances in operation in this factory are of the latest and most improved patterns, and are propelled by a one hundred horse-power steam engine. Employment is furnished to one hundred and fifty workmen in the various departments of the business. The products of this establishment consist of sash, doors, blinds, moldings, and interior finish for buildings, the latter consisting of hard wood work of all kinds, doors solid or veneered, store fronts, ornamented doors for residences, newel posts, balusters, stair railings, brackets, bank work, and all other parts of buildings made of wood.

            The business now carried on by D. E. McSherry & Company, that of the manufacture of grain drills, was established in 1864, by MeSherry, Kneisly & Company, the works being located on Wayne Street. In 1865, Mr. Kneisly retired from the firm, and the present firm name was adopted. In 1868, the business had so increased that it became necessary to have more room, and the present location was selected, and a factory erected thereon. The buildings occupy three sides of a square, are of brick, and are three stories high. The main building contains the machine and carpenter shops, the planning rooms and the offices. The west wing is used for an additional machine shop and for the painting department, and the rear building is used for pattern shops, gate building, grinding, polishing, and japanning rooms. The foundry is at the east end of the works and has a capacity of seven tons per day. In the various departmerits there are employed from one hundred to one hundred and twenty skilled men, besides other laborers. The articles manufactured by this company are the "McSherry" grain drill, the "McSherry Unrivalled" force feed, the "None Such" spring-tooth harrow, and the "New Model" pulverizing rotary disc harrow. Other agricultural machinery is also manufactured by this firm. Their goods are shipped to all parts of the United States, and exported to all parts of Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The members of the firm are Daniel E. McSlerry and Edward Breneman, both of whom have been connected with the house ever since its establishment.

            Boyer & McMaster commenced the manufacture of stoves in 1864 in a one-story brick building on Bayard Street, the present location of their works. At first they employed but eight men. When they commenced business there were in the city four other stove foundries, now there is but one other, and this one is not any of the four referred to. Boyer & McMaster are now the leading stove manufacturers in the city, (page 429) “Homestead" stoves being very popular, and having a very wide sale. Their force of men is large, and they have an extensive trade. A. A. Simonds came to Dayton from Massachusetts in 1874, and founded his present business that year, which consists of the manufacture of planing machine knives, engine bars and plates for paper mills. He erected a substantial brick building in which operations were commenced. At the present time his buildings are, one of brick, 40x100 feet in size, and the other a frame one, 30x105 feet. Mr. Simonds now manufactures in addition to the articles mentioned above, molding knives, stave-jointing knives, spoke knives, slasher knives, tenoning knives, siding knives, bookbinders' knives, and in fact, everything in the shape of machine knives. A specialty of the works is the Diamond Bed Plate for paper manufacturers. This plate is specially designed to aid in the production of good pulp in the shortest time, and with the least expenditure of power. The business is a great and growing one, and the trade extends to all parts of the United States.

            The Dayton Furniture Factory was started as an incorporated company in 1865, for the purpose of the manufacture of furniture. Since that time, however, the ownership has changed several times. Mr. H. R. Parrott is now the sole proprietor. The factory is a large and substantial building, four stories high, and is stocked with the latest improved machinery. A large number of skilled mechanics are employed in the production of a medium grade of bed-room suites of various styles and designs, many of them original and manufactured exclusively by this company. Chamber sets are a specialty with this establishment, although other kinds of furniture are made. The machinery is operated by a one hundred and fifty horse-power engine, and the goods manufactured here are shipped to all parts of the United States.

            C. F. Snyder commenced the manufacture of extension table slides in 1874, in a small way, on the lower hydraulic, between Third and Fourth streets. His factory was run by water power, and he employed one man and a boy, also working himself, thus having three hands engaged, and using a limited amount of machinery. In 1881, he moved to the Woodsum Machine Company's building, where he remained until 1884, when he moved into his present three-story brick building, located on Monument Avenue and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. Here he employs twenty-five mechanics and turns out annually slides enough for about one hundred thousand extension tables. The name of the device manufactured by Mr. Snyder is the "Reliable Extension Table Slide” and it is well known to table manufacturers all over the country. The fact that this establishment is exclusively devoted to the manufacture (page 430) of these slides, is au apt illustration, of the tendency toward specialization everywhere observable in manufacturing industries, as well as of the tendency toward automatism in the same industries. The result is that manufactured products are constantly being cheapened in production, and as a natural and necessary result are constantly being sold for less money and more extensively used.

            The business now conducted by the Reynolds & Reynolds Company was established in 1866 by Ira Reynolds and his son, L. D. Reynolds. It consists in the manufacture of blank books, stationery, and school supplies. The location at first was in the Osceola Mills, where about fifteen men were employed. In 1875, the business was moved to the three-story and basement brick building at the northeast corner of Second and Jefferson streets, where it has been ever since. In this building there are twenty-five thousand square feet of floor space. Ira Reynolds died in 1880, and L. D. Reynolds continued' the business alone until 1889, when the Reynolds & Reynolds Company was incorporated.

            The specialties of this company's manufacture are blank books, stationery, and school supplies, and the success and growth of the business has been owing to the devotion of the company's energies to- specialties. About one hundred hands are employed, and the annual product of the factory is about one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. The officers of the company at the present time are as follows: L. D. Reynolds, president; G. W. Shaw, vice-president; R. L. Hughes, secretary; G. G. Shaw, treasurer, and L. G. Reynolds, general manager. The house of Thomas Staniland & Sons was founded by Thomas Staniland in 1865. The present firm was formed in 1888, and is composed of Thomas Staniland and his two sons, Charles J. and Frank T. Staniland. The premises cover an area which averages seventy-five feet wide by two hundred feet in depth. Steam power is used, and about twenty skilled artisans are employed. The firm deals in all kinds of Scotch and American granites, and Italian and American marbles. They make a specialty of designing monuments to order, and many specimens of their work may be seen in the cemeteries of this and adjoining States. The firm is now composed of Staniland & Jenkins, J. J. Jenkins becoming a member on the 1st of May, 1889.

            In 1866, Peter Loeb and T. Stevenson established themselves in the business of casting malleable iron, their works being on a small scale, and located on East Third Street, opposite Gebhart's flouring mill. In 1869, the Dayton Malleable Iron Company was incorporated by Charles Newbold, E. A. Parrott, H. E. Parrott and others, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars. The first officers of the company were: E. A. (page 431) Parrott, president; H. E. Parrott, secretary and treasurer, and Peter Loeb, superintendent. In 1873, the company moved to its present location in Miami City, on Third Street, between Summit Street and Dale Avenue. The officers elected then were: E. A. Parrott, president; H. E. Parrott, secretary and treasurer, and Thomas P. Gaddis, superintendent. The organization continued until 1882, and in the meantime the business so increased that the sales reached an aggregate of one hundred thousand' dollars per annum. In 1882, the officers became as they are now: R. C. Schenck, Jr., president; Charles A. Phillips, vice-president; The Dayton National Bank, treasurer, and Thomas P. Gaddis, secretary and general manager. The capital stock at the present time is one hundred thousand dollars, and the annual sales average about two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The number of men employed is two hundred and fifty, and the foundry runs at its full capacity all the year round. Since moving to the present location the company has doubled its plant, which now consists of a machine shop, ware-room, office, furnace-room, coke-room, trimming-room, foundry, annealing-room, and other necessary buildings. Since 1883, the company has confined its manufactures exclusively to malleable castings from refined air furnace iron. In this connection it is worthy of note that this establishment was the second malleable iron foundry west of the Alleghany Mountains, the first having been established in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1865.

            The building of the Dayton View Brewery was begun, in 1868, by Coelestin Schwind. By 1869 he commenced brewing, employing the first year four hands and making fourteen hundred barrels of beer. The buildings, as they now stand, were erected as follows: The malt house and engine and boiler rooms in 1868, the former being two stories high and 38x82 feet in size, and the latter, 50x62; the cellar house in 1875, three stories high and 56x57 feet in size; the brewery and the stables in 1883, the former being three stories high and 52x62 feet in size, and the puddling house in 1888, one story high and 22x44 feet in size. The cost of the plant as it now stands was about seventy-five thousand dollars. The sales of the brewery have been increased from fourteen hundred barrels per annum to sixteen thousand and three hundred barrels in 1888. The number of hands has been increased from four at the beginning to seventeen at the' present time, and the aggregate of wages has been increased from three hundred and fifty to four hundred dollars per month at the beginning to eighteen hundred dollars per month at the present time. The Riverside Brewery was established in 1882 by George Schantz & Company, the company being Adam Schantz, the present proprietor. During the-first year of the firm's existence about one fourth of the (page 423) present plant was erected. The firm remained as at first constituted until January, 1887, when George Schantz retired and Adam Schantz has since been the sole proprietor. During the first year the brewery had a capacity of eight thousand barrels per year, but since then its capacity has become fifty thousand barrels per year. The plant consists of seven buildings, including the boiler and engine house and stables. The entire cost of the plant, as it now stands, was about one hundred thousand dollars. During the first year there were sold from this brewery seven thousand barrels of beer, but during the year ending May, 1888, the sales amounted to eighteen thousand barrels. The number of hands at first was ten, and at the present time the number is seventeen. The wages paid to the employees varies from fifty to one hundred and twenty-five dollars per month.

            The business carried on by McHose & Lyon, was originated by Mr. McHose in 1868, in a small room on the canal, between Third and Fourth streets. At first Mr. McHose had but one assistant. In 1872, he commenced the manufacture of iron railing. In 1877, Calvin H. Lyon became a partner in the firm, since which time it has been known by its present title. The new firm almost immediately moved their business to a room 70x80 feet in size at the present location. In 1879, they began the manufacture of iron fronts, and in August, 1880, they removed to the foot of Ludlow Street, where they started a foundry. From an investment of seventy-five dollars, and one assistant at first, the business has so increased that it is now one of the leading establishments in the city, which is noted the country over for its large manufacturing enterprises. The plant covers a large area, and comprises a number of buildings varying from one to three stories high, each designed for a specific branch of the business. Both steam and water power are used, and the equipment of machinery is both extensive and excellent. The products of the works are mainly for architectural purposes, and include building fronts, fire escapes, columns, beams, girders, iron stairs, iron pavements, balconies, and in short, everything made of wrought or cast iron that may be needed in the construction of buildings. The iron used in the construction of the cable railroads in Chicago and Kansas City was furnished by this house. The iron work used in the government buildings in Jefferson, Texas; Springfield, Ohio; Springfield, Massachusetts; Augusta, Maine; Williamsport, Pennsylvania; and Jersey City, New Jersey, was made at these works. Many other buildings have been furnished with iron work by Messrs. McHose & Lyon. The number of men at present employed in these works is two hundred and twenty-five. In 1868 the business of manufacturing agricultural implements was (page 433) commenced at 1140 East Third Street by Dodds & Beall in a two-story frame building 100x30 feet in size. This firm was succeeded soon afterward by John Dodds and he was succeeded in 1870 by John Dodds & Company, J. W. Stoddard being the “Company." This company was succeeded in 1875 by J. W. Stoddard & Company, consisting of J. W. Stoddard, E. F. Stoddard, and W. A. Scott. The firm of J. W. Stoddard & Company lasted until 1884, when the Stoddard Manufacturing Company was incorporated with a capital of five hundred thousand dollars. The first officers of the company were J. W. Stoddard, president; W. A. Scott, secretary and treasurer; E. F. Stoddard, vice-president and superintendent. E. F. Stoddard died in May, 1887, since which time there has been no vice-president, and in 1886 Mr. W. A. Scott was succeeded as treasurer by W. J. Jones, and the officers at the present time are as follows: J. W. Stoddard, president; W. A. Scott, secretary, and W. J. Jones, treasurer. The frame building mentioned above was destroyed by fire, and a two-story brick structure erected in its place in the form of an L, which was 11Ox136x40 feet. The rapid increase of the business soon required an additional story to be erected. Since then other buildings have been added until the company occupies several four-story structures, covering an entire square of ground. The implements manufactured by this company consist of grain drills, broadcast seeders, hay rakes, harrows, etc., their specialties being the "Triumph" grain drill, the "Tiger" hay rakes, "Tiger" mowers, "Climax" and "Stoddard" disc harrows. They employ about four hundred men, and their business is correspondingly large. The business of manufacturing grain drills was commenced in 1868 by Weusthoff & Getz in a three-story building 50x100 feet in size, at the corner of State and Wayne streets. The work was continued by them until 1871, when the Farmers' Friend Manufacturing Company was incorporated, and succeeded to the business. The incorporators of this company were as follows: B. Kuhns, William Weusthof J. G. Getz, John M. Aikin, and C. F. Kneisly. The capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars and remains at that figure at the present time, the surplus having become ninety-five thousand dollars. The first officers of the company were as follows: B. Kuhns, president; William Weusthoff, secretary and treasurer, and J. G. Getz, general superintendent. Mr. Kuhns retained the office of president until 1886, when he sold his interest in the company and was succeeded in the presidency by J. W. Stoddard, who still retains the position. The office of vice-president was created in 1877, and Robert Craig elected to the place. He was succeeded by C. F. Kneisly, and he by J. A. Marley, the present incumbent. The (page 434) office of secretary and treasurer was divided in 1872, and C. F. Kneisly became treasurer, Mr. Weusthof retaining the office of secretary. This arrangement continued in force for only a few months, when the duties of the two separate offices were again merged, and A. W. B. Rhodes elected secretary and treasurer. A few months afterward he was succeeded by Victor P. Van Horne, who held the office from January 13, 1873, until 1886, when the business of the company had so increased that it became necessary again to separate the two offices, and John F. Campbell was elected treasurer, Mr. Van Horne retaining the office of secretary, which he holds at the present time. Mr. Getz retired from the company in 1876, at which time the office of superintendent became a salaried one, and has since been held by employees of the company.

            In 1875, it became necessary to erect larger buildings, and ground was purchased on the corner of the streets adjoining the old building. On this new ground a four-story brick building was erected, and another story was added to the old building the same year. In 1878-1879 a foundry was erected on the corner of Walnut and Wayne streets, which is connected by a shaft with the principal structure. The rattling and grinding shops are between the main buildings and the foundry. At the same time that the foundry was erected, a two-story structure was erected in the rear of the main building, which is used as a boiler and engine room and blacksmith shop. The ground covered by these several buildings is five hundred feet deep by one hundred and eighty-five feet in width at one end and one hundred feet in width at the other. The ground is intersected by one street and one alley. This property is all owned by the company, together with a railroad track for loading and unloading freight. Besides this, they have a large piece of ground rented for the purpose of piling lumber and for stabling purposes.

            As stated previously, the company was organized for the purpose of manufacturing grain drills, but in 1879 a line of corn planters was added. In 1886, another addition was made to the manufactures in the form of tooth harrows, and in other several lines, and in 1888 a lawn mower was added to their several other lines. The machines now manufactured by this company are the grain drills known as the "Farmer's Friend," and the "Monarch;" corn planters, check rowers, and the corn drill known as the "Farmer's Friend;" the spring-tooth harrow known as the "U. T. K.," and the lawn mower known as the "Dayton." The number of machines being manufactured at the present time by this company aggregates from ten thousand to fifteen thousand annually. The number of employees varies from one hundred and fifty to two hundred. In 1869, Charles W. Nickum, G. W. Heathman, and Elias Heathman (page 435) formed a company for the purpose of manufacturing crackers, biscuits, etc. In 1872, Mr. Nickum retired, and the present firm name, G. W. Heathman & Company was adopted. The business was at first located on Main Street, near the Journal office, but soon afterward the company erected a frame bakery on Second Street, between Jefferson and St. Clair streets. Five years later they purchased a lot on the corner of Second and St. Clair streets, and upon it erected a three-story and basement brick, 68x100 feet in dimensions, which is equipped with a thirty horse-power engine and all the necessary machinery, and in which thirty-one operatives find employment. In 1885, Elias Heathman died, and since then G. W. Heathman has been the sole proprietor. Everything in the form of crackers, biscuits, cakes, etc., is manufactured by this firm, of the best ingredients, and the products of the factory find a market throughout Ohio and Indiana, and also to points in adjoining States.

            A. L. Bauman's cracker manufactory was established September 1, 1877. It is located on West Third Street, and is a three-story brick building 66x100 feet in size. On the first of February, 1888, Oscar W. Bauman became a member of the firm, and the firm name was changed to A. L. Bauman & Brother, as it is at the present time. Louis E. Bauman is book-keeper for the firm. The power required in this establishment is supplied by two steam engines, one of them being twenty-five horsepower, and the other ten. Over fifty workmen are employed, and the products of the factory consist of every variety of crackers, cakes, biscuits, plain and fancy bread, etc. The trade of the house extends over Ohio, Indiana, and along the banks of the Ohio River into Kentucky and West Virginia, and it is yearly increasing both in scope and magnitude. The business of G. J. Roberts & Company was established in 1871, by G. J. Roberts on St. Clair Street between Third and Fourth streets. In 1875, the present firm was formed, consisting of G. J. Roberts, Joseph Light, and Jabez I. Roberts, under the firm name of G. J. Roberts & Company. In 1882, the present building was erected, which is three stories high, and 75x68 feet in area. The machinery in the business was much of it designed for the special purposes for which it is used. It is propelled by a twenty-five horse-power engine. The products of this establishment, which is called the Central Machine Shop, consist of steam pumping and hydraulic machinery, steam pumps, water motors, patent injectors and steam jets and other articles upon which the proprietors are owners of the patents.

            In 1880, Josiah Gebhart, D. Calvin Floyd, and Charles W. Gebhart established the white lead works, which stand at the corner of Second and Front streets. The main building which was formerly used as a (page 436) bagging factory, is a brick building 100x50 feet in size, and two stories high.

            The firm manufactures pure white lead, and employs about twenty men. The machinery of the works is propelled by a fifty horse-power engine. There are two kilos, one 8x80 feet, and the other 8x40 feet. The products of the works consist of about one thousand tons of white lead per year, besides others and Venetian reds. The trade of the firm is very extensive, and the members of it are the same as when it was first established. C. N. Smith came to Dayton in 1872 and established himself in the manufacture of purifiers, flour bolts, etc., at which work he continued until 1889, in the spring of which year he succeeded in organizing a stock company for the purpose of manufacturing a dust catcher, purifiers, and flour bolts, all of his own invention. The company thus organized is named the " Eureka Manufacturing Company," and has a capital stock of thirty thousand dollars. The officers elected February 7, 1889, were John F. Pfefer, president; J. F. Trader, secretary and treasurer. The manufactory is located at Numbers 403 to 407 East First Street; about seven men are employed on the average, and. a prosperous business is carried on.

            The firm of Brownell, Roberts & Lee was established in December, 1864, and was composed of John R. Brownell, James H. Brownell, E. H. Brownell, George J. Roberts, and Josiah Lee. The business of the firm consisted in the manufacture of machinery and a general foundry business, and it was located at Number 437 East First Street.

            On May 8, 1865, F. J. Brownell was admitted to the firm, and on November 1, 1867, it was re-organized under the name of Brownell, Roberts & Company, with the following members: George J. Roberts, F. J. Brownell, Josiah Lee, Samuel C. French, Andrew Roher, C. H. Kielmeier, and James H. Brownell. Several changes occurred in the firm during 1869 and the early part of 1870, and on June 1st, of this year, John R. Brownell bought James H. Brownell's interest. On February 21, 1871, George J. Roberts retired from the company, which was then incorporated as the Brownell & Kielmeier Manufacturing Company with a capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars, each share being worth five hundred dollars. The officers of this company were C. Ii. Kielmeier, president; John R. Brownell, vice-president and general superintendent; and James Anderton, secretary and treasurer. The incorporation continued until 1878, when, on account of the panic of that year, it made an assignment. At the sale John R. Brownell bought two thirds and Martin Schneble one third of the property, and continued the business until February, 1884. In this year Mr. Brownell bought out the interest of Mr. Schneble and ran the business alone under the name of (page 437) Brownell & Company, until January, 1888, when the present company, known as " The Brownell & Company," was incorporated with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, all paid in. The officers of this company are John R. Brownell, president and superintendent; D. H. Dryden, vice-president; E. A. Vance, secretary and treasurer.

            The business remained at its original location until September 12, 1888, when a fire occurred, destroying buildings and machinery. The business was then moved to Findlay Street, just north of First, where a portion of the boiler plant had been since 1883. The entire plant at this new location, as it stands to-day, consists of a two-story machine shop, 200x60 feet, with a three-story office, 30 feet square; a foundry building, 200x60 feet, with an “L" 50x30 feet; a boiler shop, 200x50 feet, with two “L's," 50 feet square; and a recent addition to the boiler shop, 70x227 feet. Four steam engines are in use-one of sixty horse-power, two of twenty horse-power each, and one of fifty horse-power. The works have a capacity of upward of one million dollars' worth of work annually and of five hundred men, while three hundred men are employed, and during the last year six hundred thousand dollars' worth of work was turned out.

            W. P. Levis commenced the manufacture of paper in Dayton in 1872, erecting in that year a factory building on the northeast corner of Foundry Street and Monument Avenue. The main building is 100x50 feet in size, and there are other necessary buildings in the immediate vicinity. Twenty-two men and eleven girls are employed in the mills, and about two tons of paper are made each day. Only the finest lithograph and plate paper are made, and it is sold mostly in Dayton, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and New Orleans.

            The business of Thresher & Company was originally established in 1869, by E. Thresher & Company. The present company succeeded to the business in 1874. It is composed of J. B. Thresher, E. M. Thresher, and Albert Thresher. They are manufacturers of varnishes and boiled linseed oil, the factory being located out of the city, and the office being located at Number 863 East Monument Avenue. This is one of the pioneer varnish manufacturing companies in Montgomery County, and their goods find sale in all parts of the United States.

            The Smith & Valle Company's business was started in 1874 by a partnership, under the name of Smith, Valle & Company, the members of the firm being Preserved Smith, J. H. Valle, and W. W. Smith. They at first rented the Woodsum Machine Company's building, in which they remained until 1881, when they removed to their present works, located on Keowee Street, just north of Mad River. Here they occupy (page 438) eight acres of ground, the buildings alone covering three acres. Each of these buildings is used for specific operations, and the entire equipment is as complete as it is possible to. make it. An engine of one hundred horse-power is used, and the number of hands employed varies from two hundred and forty to four hundred and fifty. The Smith & Vaile Company was incorporated in 1886, with a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The incorporators of the company were Preserved Smith, J. H. Vaile, W. W. Smith, U. P. McCabe, and S. H. Carr. Upon the organization of the company, W. W. Smith became president and treasurer; J. H. Vaile, vice-president and superintendent; 0. P. McCabe, secretary. The company manufactures steam pumps, cotton-seed oil and linseed oil machinery, and other similar machinery, heavy hydraulic machinery being a specialty. The total annual value of the product of this establishment is from four hundred and fifty thousand dollars to five hundred thousand dollars, and its manufactures find a market all over the United States, and also in all other civilized countries, wherever mechanical industries are carried on. The company has branch establishments in London, Moscow, the City of Mexico, and- New York, besides agencies in other localities.

            The business of the Crume & Sefton Manufacturing Company was established in April, 1877, by Aulabaugh, Crume & Company with a factory in the Beaver & Butt building on the corner of Fourth and St. Clair streets. They remained there until 1879, when they removed to Number 16 West Zeigler Street, hear Main. In 1888, the company erected a new factory, the largest single factory building in the city. It is three stories high, and is 200x100 feet. It is located at the corner of Clinton and Bacon streets. The goods manufactured consist of wood and paper specialties, among which are the "Climax" wood dishes and wood pie plates, made from sweet gum wood which will not taint the contents;. the “Globe " hinge lid oyster pails, the "Perfection" oyster pails, and the "Wood Braced" oyster pails, and sacks for carrying liquids securely.

            Another novelty lately introduced is the baking powder can, which is suitable for either baking powder, spices, or other ingredients. These cans are rapidly superseding tin cans. The body of the can is made of specially prepared water-proof white-lined straw board, with a tin bottom and top, neatly fastened by a patent process which prevents their detachment. The company also makes tea and coffee cans, and grease boxes on the same principle. This is the pioneer company in the line of manufactures which it carries on, and it trade is as large as that of all its competitors combined. The officers of the company are: W. E. Crume, president, and W. M. Kinnard, secretary and treasurer. Associated (page 439) with them as directors are Messrs. E. J. Barney, George P. Hufman, O. M. Gottschall, A. W. Lowrey, and F. M. Swope.

            The Ohio Rake Company was incorporated as a stock company in 1884, with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, succeeding to the business formerly conducted by Marshall, Graves & Company. The works consist of a three-story brick factory, 100x150 feet in size, a brick foundry, and a two-story office building. The capital was increased to seventy-five thousand dollars in 1887, and to one hundred thousand dollars in September, 1888. The principal products of the works are hay rakes and tedders, binder trucks, spring-tooth and disc harrows, and hand corn-shellers. This company makes a larger variety of rakes than any other concern in the country, employs over one hundred men, and does a business of two hundred thousand dollars per year. The officers of the company are: Allen E. Thomas, president; John T. Bell, vice-president; W. S. Graves, secretary, and Sebastian Ritty, superintendent. The energy and skill of the company are sufficiently attested by its present works and extensive business.

            The business of the Paper Novelty Company was started in 1883 by Shoup & Hughes. In 1884,"H. H. Laubach became a member of the firm, and the name was changed to Shoup, Hughes & Company. In 1885, Mr. Laubach bought out his two partners, and continued the business alone until 1886, when A. H. Iddings purchased an interest, and the firm name became Laubach & Iddings. On January 1, 1889, the firm became an incorporated company under the name of the Paper Novelty Company, the incorporators being H. H. Laubach, A. H. Iddings, Charles W. Bell, Theodore Schmidt, and John M. Sprague. Upon the organization of the company, Mr. Laubach was elected president, Mr. Iddings vice-president, Mr. Bell secretary, Mr. Schmidt designer and superintendent, and Mr. Sprague attorney. The goods manufactured by this company consist of a great variety of paper boxes, in the form of folding boxes, pails, and analogous novelties, for ice cream satchels, candy packages, oyster satchels, berry pails, and milliners' hat boxes, etc. From a very small beginning the business has so grown, that at the present time one hundred Bands on the average are employed.

            The business of the Dayton Spice Mills Company was established in 1885 at Number 104 North Main Street, -where it remained until destroyed by fire about six months afterward. It was then removed to its present location at the northwest corner of First and Foundry streets. The business consists of roasting coffees, grinding spices, and manufacturing baking powders. The machinery, which is of the most modern construction, is driven by a seventy-five horse-power engine.  (page 440)  The specialties of the company are Jersey coffee, Jersey baking powder, and Jersey spices, and the business of the house is exclusively wholesale.

            One of the most remarkable machines of the present day is the cash register. The idea of building such a machine was conceived on board an ocean steamer in June, 1878, by James Ritty, a resident of this city.

            Before landing in England, Mr. Ritty matured his ideas and had them committed to paper, ready to put to the test on his arrival home, which was to be about six weeks later. Mr. Ritty returned to Dayton in August, 1878, and soon afterward he and others constructed five or six machines before they succeeded in making one that would work and register correctly cash transactions. The first patent was issued November 4, 1879, and the manufacture of the cash register was at once commenced. Mr. Ritty, being a man of means and not wishing to be troubled with the manufacture of the machines himself, gave an interest to Jacob Eckert, who continued the manufacture until 1880, when Gustavus Sander bought out Mr. Ritty's interest. Shortly afterward a company was formed and named the Dayton Manufacturing Company. In the fall of 1884, the present company took up the stock and named the corporation the National Cash Register Company. John H. Patterson was chosen president of the company, which started with a paid up capital of fifteen thousand dollars. The register has, since its invention, been improved by tedious and laborious, yet natural, transitions, until it has been developed into a perfect piece of mechanism, covered by thirty-one patents instead of the single patent of 1879. In 1886, the capital stock was increased to one hundred thousand dollars, and the officers that were elected at its organization still remain in office. The present large and convenient brick building was completed in sixty-four days in 1888, and the business transferred thereto from the Callahan Power Block in June of the same year. The present force of two hundred and twenty skilled mechanics manufactures a yearly output of over seven thousand registers. From June, 1888, the factory has not succeeded in filling its orders.

            The National Cash Register is an automatic machine which records every cash and credit transaction that occurs in a retail business house. One stroke of the key registers the purchase, indicates the fact. on a tablet, announces that a transaction has occurred by the ringing of a small bell, and displays the amount of the sale on white tablets in a glass aperture at the top. Within the register the amount is added on wheels and a perfect record kept of all transactions occurring during the day. In appearance the register is a neat fixture made of nickel, (page 441) imported wood to harmonize with the fittings of any store. The dimensions are 14x18 inches at the base and the height is sixteen inches.

            The firm of Mahrt, Stengel & Company was formed in 1883 for the purpose of manufacturing bedsteads. A three-story brick building was erected, which was 40x85 feet in size The firm as originally organized continued until January, 1885, when Mr. Mahrt retired, and since then it has been John Stengel & Company, composed of John Stengel and G. Stomps, the latter being a partner in the firm of G. Stomps & Company. As the business grew, the manufacture of chamber sets and tables was added, and now the manufacture of bedsteads, tables, and chamber sets is carried on. In 1886, a new building was erected, four stories high and 40x75 feet in size, so that now the factory consists of the two buildings above described. The number of hands employed is about sixty on the average, and the annual amount of business so far has been about one hundred thousand dollars.

            In 1856, Charles Nixon and Thomas Nixon established a paper-mill at Richmond, Indiana. In 1866, they added a paper-bag factory, and in         1873, in order to secure better shipping facilities, Thomas Nixon moved the paper-bag factory to Dayton. Mr. Nixon carried on the manufacture of paper bags alone until 1880, when he took into partnership his son, Frank M. Nixon, the firm name becoming Thomas Nixon & Company, as it remains to this time. The factory of this firm is located at the corner of First and Mill streets, and is a four-story brick building, 50x100 feet in size, and the machinery is operated by an eighty-five horse-power engine. The products of the factory are paper bags and flour sacks, and the capacity of the works is about eight hundred thousand bags and sacks per day. The firm manufactures its own paper, which gives it great advantages in the market. It also deals in paper in a wholesale way and executes its own printing in connection with its enterprise. F. M. Nixon is also interested in another enterprise which possesses a, great deal of merit, that of the manufacture of patent paper bottle wrappers, which are made of heavy soft paper to fit any size or shape of bottle. The other member of this firm is M. Costello, and the name of the firm is Nixon & Costello. The enterprise was established in February, 1887, and has already grown to large proportions.

            In 1842, Thomas B. Rose and Reuben McMillen began the manufacture of woolen machinery on the present location of the Oregon Flouring Mills. In 1844, Asa McMillen took the place of Reuben, and died in 1855. Shortly afterward Mr. Rose discontinued the business. In 1845, Henry Ferneding, his brother, J. C. Ferneding, and Frank Otten, purchased the site of their malt house on Kenton Street, and began the manufacture (page 442) of malt. Mr. Otten died in 1847, and the firm became J. C. & II. Ferneding. In 1850, they purchased the old Piddle Brewery, and in 1851 built in its stead the malt house on St. Clair Street. The firm at the present time manufactures about fifty thousand bushels of malt per year. Joseph Wroe commenced the manufacture of files in Dayton in 1845, at the head of the basin. In 1849, he removed to his present location, Number 331 East Fifth Street. Madison Munday and Jacob Worman began the manufacture of malt at 650 South Main Street, in 1853. In 1854, the firm became Munday, Worman & Company, Washington Silzell being admitted to the firm. Mr. Silzell afterward succeeded the firm, and in 1883, his son, Edward A. Silzell, became a partner, the firm becoming as at present Washington Silzell & Son. They still remain at the old location, and make about ffty thousand bushels of malt per year. John Klee & Son are the successors to John Klee, who began the manufacture of mineral water in 1860. His son, John Klee, Jr., was admitted to partnership in 1887, and the firm became as at present. They are located at the corner of First and Canal streets, and employ about ten men. The firm of Beaver & Company was established in 1878 by F. P. Beaver, on Commercial Street. The present members of the firm are F. P. Beaver and W. D. Chamberlin, and their business is located at Numbers 28 to 32 Sears Street. They manufacture toilet soap, and employ about eighteen men. Lewis & Company manufacture circular saws, the business having been established in 1864 or 1865 by W. B.  Barry. The firm is now located at Numbers 411 and 413 East First Street, and is conducted by George B. Lewis. The Dayton Leather and Collar Company was established in 1863 by Maas & Mitchell. The present company was incorporated in 1872. The company carry on the business of tanning harness leather and manufacturing horse collars at Number 29 East Second Street, and the business is in the hands of  C. N. Mitchell, the president of the company. F. A. Requarth & Company are stair builders and manufacturers of prismatic balustrades, newel posts, etc. The business was established in 1860 by Meyer & Requarth, but, after several changes, the firm finally became as at present. The members of the firm are F. A. Requarth, H. W. Requarth, and H. W. Hueffelmann. The premises occupied are located at Number 34 South St. Clair Street, and a very large business is carried on.   The enterprise of Lowe Brothers, the manufacture of paints and was founded in 1862 succeeded to the business in by Stoddard & Grimes. Lowe Brothers 1872. They are located at 134 and 136 East Third Street.

            R. Wolf manufactures paper boxes at Number 25 North Main Street. His house was established in 1864. E. B. Lyon (page 443) the manufacture of trunk supplies in 1865. The products of this establishment consist mainly of trunk slats and handles, which are made in large quantities. The house of Weaver Brothers, who carry on the manufacture of carriages at Number 31 West Fourth Street, was established in 1868 by Garrety & Weaver. Charles Weaver succeeded to the business in 1875, and at his death in 1881, his two sons, Phillip and William, succeeded him, and still conduct the business. Miller Brothers manufacture cigars and deal in leaf tobacco at 138 and 140 Canal Street, the business having been founded in 1871. The present large factory was erected in 1884. The firm is also largely interested in the Bowanee Medicine Company, which is engaged in the manufacture of "Bowanee," a specifc for dyspepsia and indigestion. J. L. Baker commenced the manufacture of carriages in 1872. His factory is at Numbers 22 to 26 West Fifth Street, and its products are light and heavy carriages, sleighs, etc. The house of Hanna Brothers was founded in 1875, and is located at Number 119 Hanna Lane. They employ about one hundred skilled cigar-makers and make many fine brands of cigars. J. W. McSherry founded the enterprise of manufacturing putty in 1875. The firm is now J. W. McSherry & Company, as it has been since 1887. The business is managed by E. C. Boyer. The house of Joyce, Cridland & Company was established in 1875. The goods manufactured consist of patent specialties, known to the trade as J. O. Joyce's lever jacks and compound lever and screw jacks. Vises are also made in large quantities.

            The Royal Remedy and Extract Company was established in 1876 by Irvin C. Souders, and it was incorporated in 1888 with its present title. About sixteen hands are employed, and the officers at the present are Irvin C. Souders, president, and Robert H. Ferguson, secretary and treasurer. C. W. Adams has been engaged in the manufacture of files since 1877 at Number 18 Spratt Street. He furnishes employment to about eight or ten men. The house of H. E. Mead & Company was established in 1877. They are manufacturers of and jobbers in paper and twine, and employ about thirty hands. L. M. Brown, located at the corner of Hawthorne Street and the railroad, manufactures toilet soap. The business was established in 1878. The Dayton Woolen Mills, owned by J. II. Wild & Company, manufacture blankets, flannels, knitting yarns, wool batting, etc. The house was established in 1880, and is located at Number 322 East First Street. Schaeffer & Company are engaged in the manufacture of wire rakes at Number 232 First Street. Their specialties are the " Gem City " wire rake and the "Davis " lawn rake. L. A. Schaefer has been sole proprietor since 1881, and manufactures about (page 444) forty thousand rakes per annum. C. W. Raymond & Company, located at Numbers 7 to 11 Wayne Avenue, are manufacturers of brickmakers' supplies. C. W. Raymond has conducted the business since 1880. Leland & Tiffany, practical machinists, are located at Number 102 South Canal Street. The house was founded in 1882. They manufacture patent cone belt shifters and Birch's patent self-tightening coupling for shafting. The members of the firm are J. J. Leland and A. R. Tiffany.

            Philip E. Gilbert is engaged in contracting and building and in the manufacture of sash, doors, and blinds, at Numbers 1010 and 1012 East Fifth Street, where he employs about sixty men. Bloom, Gerwels & Company manufacture cigars at Numbers 330 and 332 Warren Street. The present firm dates from 1884 and employs about one hundred and forty hands. The Silver Moon Tobacco Works were established in 1885, and in 1888 became the Terry & Porterfeld Tobacco Company. The company manufactures fine cut and smoking tobacco of all grades. The proprietors of the business are James Terry and J. C. Porterfeld. IIollencamp & Kramer are the proprietors of the Dayton Ale Brewery, located at the corner of Brown and Hickory streets. They have been engaged in the manufacture of fine ale and porter since 1885. They bottle their own goods. The Gem City Brewery was established in May, 1888. The members of the firm are George Schantz and Louis Schwind. The brewery has a capacity of about thirty thousand barrels per year. The Gem City Stove Company manufactures stoves, and the "Perfect" and " Success" gas ranges. The works are on North Taylor Street. The company was established in 1885 and makes all varieties of stoves.

            The Pasteur-Chamberland Filter Company was incorporated in December, 1887. It is engaged in the manufacture of the "Pasteur Germ Proof Water Filter," at Number 61 South Wyandotte Street. The filter is the invention of the celebrated French chemist, M. Louis Pasteur, and is made of porcelain tubes which resemble a candle, having no opening except at one end, through which the purified water is discharged. The officers of the company are A. A. Blount, president; T. S. Babbitt, vice-president, and J. S. Miles, secretary and general manager. Murray & Hannah manufacture carriages at Number 409 East Third Street, and have had many years' experience. The Key Baking Powder Company was organized in May, 1888, and is engaged in the manufacture of baking powder and flavoring extracts. The factory is at Number 19 South St. Clair Street. J. A. Walters is president of the company; H. Hanitch, vice-president, and J. B. Walters, secretary and treasurer. The Dayton Hydraulic Company was incorporated March 3, 1845, by (page 445) special act of the legislature, the incorporators being Horatio D. Phillips, Daniel Beckel, Samuel D. Edgar, and John G. Lowe, the last named being the only one of the original incorporators now surviving. The authorized capital was three hundred and fifty thousand dollars. By act of the general assembly passed February 24, 1846, the company was authorized to organize when thirty-five thousand dollars was subscribed, section three of the original act requiring seventy thousand dollars. On March 7, 1846, the amendment was accepted by the company, and the company was organized by the election of three directors, H. D. Phillips, Daniel Beckel, and Samuel D. Edgar. H. D. Phillips was elected president and Daniel Becket secretary. The original charter authorized the company to choose a board of directors to consist of not less than three nor more than five, and since the organization there have never been more than three directors in the board. On January 3, 1848, the capital stock increased twenty-one thousand dollars, making it fifty-six thousand dollars, which it has been ever since. The dam and canal of the company, computations for the head and fall, etc., were made by the late Samuel Forrer, in the summer of 1845. The construction of the dam was principally under. the supervision of Daniel Becket, with the late D. H. Morrison as the engineer of construction. Mr. Forrer had a wide reputation for competency and thoroughness in his profession, and Mr. Morrison was equally well known for his carefulness and accuracy in all his computations and estimates. But to Samuel D. Edgar and Daniel Beckel is due the credit of originating and developing the scheme of this hydraulic. The dam is two and a half miles above the mills, from which place the water is drawn from Mad River by means of gates, and after it is used by the mills, it is discharged into the Miami and Erie Canal as a tail-race. At the time of the location of the works and afterward, Mr. Forrer estimated that the flow of water would be ten thousand cubic feet per minute, at or near the hydraulic dam, at a medium state of water in the river. This amount of water is what flows through the hydraulic when the mills are in operation. The officers of the company at the present time are Charles D. Mead, president; John G. Lowe, secretary; and Henry C. Lowe is the other director.

            The Cooper Hydraulic was constructed in 1838 by Edward W. Davies and Alexander Grimes, agents for Mrs. L. C. Cooper, widow of David Zeigler Cooper. They continued to operate the hydraulic until the incorporation of the Cooper Hydraulic Company, May 14, 1869. The incorporators of this company were T. A. Phillips, E. E. Barney, Preserved Smith, W. P. Hufman, Joseph Kratochwill, and Henry Stoddard, Jr. E. E. Barney was elected president of the company, which was (page 446) incorporated with a capital of seventy-five thousand dollars. Soon afterward Henry Stoddard, Jr., sold his stock in the company to George L. Phillips, who thereupon was elected secretary of the company. The next change that occurred was when the death of T. A. Phillips took place in November, 1877, his son, Charles A. Phillips, taking his place.

            Upon the death of Preserved Smith, his son, W. W. Smith, took his place in the company. At the death of E. E. Barney, his son, E. J. Barney, succeeded to his place, and upon the death of W. P. Huffman, his son, W. Huffman, took his place in the company. After Mr. Barney's death, Preserved Smith became president of the company, and after his death, E. J. Barney was chosen president, and holds the place at the present time. W. P. Huffman was the first treasurer of the company, and was succeeded by the present treasurer, George P. Huffman. George L. Phillips was secretary until his death, January 29, 1889, since which time Charles A. Phillips has been secretary. Joseph Kratochwill was superintendent of the company until his death, since when William Huffman has filled his position. The Cooper Hydraulic Company's lease of water power begins at Third Street, and extends down below Stout, Mills & Temple's works. But they have other rights which extend above the head-gates on Mad River, one and a half miles to the State dam and down below the city, and they pay the State of Ohio a stipulated sum for the water the entire length of which is about three miles.

            In 1830, James Steele had completed a dam on the Miami River, just below the mouth of Stillwater, and digging a race across the bend in the river, erected a saw-mill, and shortly afterward a flouring-mill. This water power is now known as the Dayton View Hydraulic. The Dayton View Hydraulic Company was incorporated in 1867, the incorporators being Atlas L. Stout, J. O. Arnold, J. B. Oliver, George W. and Samuel Kneisly. The present board of directors of this company consists of T. S. Babbitt, president; William A. Barnett, secretary; Valentine Winters, treasurer; Adam Pritz, A. L. Stout,, Ezra Bimm, and T. J. Weakley.

            The following summary of the water of the three hydraulics was made and submitted to the Dayton Exchange in December, 1873, by W. B. Pease:

            The Dayton hydraulic had a fall of 14 feet, and there was permanent power equal to 10,900 cubic feet of water per minute, which was equal to 47 run of stone. The Cooper Hydraulic, upper basin, had a fall of 12 feet, and 12,500 cubic feet.of water per minute, equal to 41 run of stone, and the lower basin had a fall of 9 feet, 7,500 cubic feet per minute, (page 447) equal to 20 run of stone. The Dayton View Hydraulic had a fall of 14 feet, 14,250 cubic feet of water per minute, equal to 62 run of stone. Or summing up the figures, the three hydraulics furnished sufficient water power to propel 170 run of stone, and there was in all 45,650 cubic feet of water per minute passing through them.

            The Hydraulic Brewery, of which N. Thomas & Company are the proprietors, was founded by John Walker. After several changes the firm became composed of N. Thomas and George A. Weddle, in 1880.

            The Hydraulic Brewery is located at the southwest corner of First and Beckel streets, and turns out from eight to ten thousand barrels per annum.

            The Ecwright Company was chartered in 1882, with Frank Ecwright, president; Samuel S. Brush, general superintendent, and Mrs. Brush, secretary. The company manufactures rope and cordage, and deals in composition and felt roofing material. From ten to twelve men are employed, and the business is located at 1,413 East Second Street. The foundry of J. W. Pritz is located on the south side of East Shawnee Street, between Wayne and Wyandotte streets. It was established in 1888. At this foundry general job work and repairing are carried on and from six to eight men are employed.

            Bradley & Son, composed of George and Alfred Bradley, was established in 1886. They carry on the manufacture of cordage and twine. Their plant is located at Numbers 454 to 464 East Huffman Avenue, and consists of an "L" shaped brick building, two stories high, and 245x200 feet in size. The works are equipped with a Lane & Bodley Corliss Engine of two hundred and fifty horse-power. The number of men employed is about two hundred and fifty on the average. The products of the works are made from Sisal grass and Manila hemp, the first of which articles is imported from Yucatan, and the second from the Philippine Isles. From these two articles all kinds of rope, cordage, and twine are made.

            The Dayton Whip Company was incorporated in October, 1888, the original establishment; however, dating from 1887. The factory consists of a new four-story brick building, 40x80 feet in dimensions. The company manufactures whips and lashes of every style and kind known to the trade, and incorporates into the work all the modern improvements. The bulk of its trade is in the West, but it has somewhat extensive dealings in all parts of the United States. The officers of the company are as follows: T. S. Babbitt, president; H. H. Weakley, secretary; M. J. Houk, treasurer; J. W. Dye, superintendent, and W. H. Pervear, general agent.

            (page 448) The Davis Sewing Machine Company, formerly located at Watertown, New York, was moved to Dayton, Ohio, in the early spring of 1889. The movement which resulted in the removal, was initiated in December, 1888, by the receipt from the company of a proposition to remove its works here provided Dayton would contribute a bonus of fifty thousand dollars. The first step toward complying with this proposition was taken by the board of trade at a meeting on the 18th of December. The method determined upon at that meeting for raising the amount was by popular subscription. The city was thoroughly canvassed, but on the 2d of January there still remained twenty thousand dollars to be subscribed. On this day the committee having the matter in charge conferred with Mr. George P. Huffman, who immediately subscribed fifteen thousand dollars of the amount required, and by bard work on the 3d, the last day which had been given in the proposition of the company, the subscription was secured. The following is the proposition upon which the board of trade of Dayton acted:

 

" WATERTOWN, NEW YORK, December. 14, 1888.

"MESSRS. G. N. BIERCE AND H. R. GRONEWEG, COMMITTEE, DAYTON, OHIO:

            "Gentlemen-Yesterday I had a meeting of my board of directors, and they authorized me to say that if the city of Dayton would give us the sum of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) we will remove our manufactory and business to that city; answer to be returned by January 3d, next. They decline to hold the matter open beyond that date. Hoping you will have no difficulty in obtaining the amount, "Very truly yours,

" L. A. JOHNSON, Secretary."

 

            To the dispatch sent to Watertown, January 3d, announcing that the subscription of fifty thousand dollars was complete, Mr. Weakley received a reply from Mr. Johnson, saying that it was satisfactory. Five and a half acres of land were secured for the location of the plant of the company, on Huffman Avenue, east of Linden Avenue and north of the Pan-Handle Railroad. The erection of buildings has been commenced, which consist of a main building 510x60 feet, with two large wings, and a blacksmith shop and annealing ovens, and a foundry. The main building with its two wings is two stories high, while the other buildings are but one story. It is the intention to employ six hundred skilled mechanics.

            Thomas Clegg was the first to manufacture gas in Dayton. His first exhibition of gas light was on a small scale at the old National Hotel, and was intended merely to show that the manufacture of gas for lighting (page 449) purposes was a feasible project. This was in 1830 and from this time on the people of Dayton did nothing in this direction but to meditate, until 1848. On February 8th of this year, the Dayton Gas Light and Coke Company was incorporated by the legislature, with the following stockholders: David Stout, J. D. Loomis, David Winters, J. W. Griswold, Valentine Winters, John Mills, D. W. Wheelock, and R. W. Steele. On 28th the stockholders, as named they authorized J. D. Phillips, I. F. Howells, and D. W. Wheelock to open books for the subscription of stock.

            The principal question which agitated the minds of the members of this gas company during the first few months of its existence, was the kind of gas which should be used in lighting the city. A committee consisting of I. F. Howells, C. G. Swain, and David Winters, which had been appointed some time before, for the express purpose of investigating the gas question, and reporting their conclusions to the company, made a report about the same time that it was determined to open subscription books as above narrated. The committee had been required to report upon the relative merits of coal gas and solar gas, both kinds being used in Cincinnati. The committee's report to the company was substantially as follows: After careful investigation  and inquiry, and the receipt of information from the best sources in relation to the kind of gas which, while it should prove most profitable to the company should at the same time be most economical committee is as follows: In favor of Crutchett’s solar gas. In reaching this conclusion the committee have considered the location of Dayton, the cost of the material for generating gas, the price of oil, and of whatever else might enter into the calculation of determining of the two kinds of gas. They are satisfied that the flame of solar gas is more dense and brilliant than that of coal gas, and is not consumed so rapidly.  Without multiplying reasons for these conclusions they would recommend the adoption of Crutchett's solar gas.

            This report met the views of the incorporators and was agreed to at the meeting at which it was presented. A meeting was then held at the law office of Moses B. Walker, for the purpose of organizing the company, which was effected by the election of Daniel Beckel, David Stout, I. F. Howells, Charles G. Swain, and John Lockwood as directors. Daniel Beckel was elected president of the company, and I. F. Howells, secretary.

            On the 8th of September, the company concluded a contract with Mr. Lockwood, of Cincinnati, for the erection of gas works to supply the city with Crutchett's solar gas. The work of building these works and (page 450) laying the pipes through the streets of the city then proceeded as rapidly as possible, but with comparative slowness, there being so many unforeseen obstacles to overcome. At length, however, on February 6, 1849, Dayton was lighted with Crutchett's solar gas. This was considered a great event in the history of the city, and the details are entered into somewhat in this work, more for the sake of showing how great expectations were disappointed, than for any other reason. With reference to this event the Journal of the 7th of February said:

            "Last evening for the first time the splendid solar light made by Crutchett's gas was brought into use in Dayton. The appearance of this brilliant and beautiful light gratified everyone, and, although the night was severely cold, the town was fairly astir that the first sight of it might not be missed.

            "The City Hall was handsomely lighted by some thirteen burners which are there as permanent fixtures. A splendid chandelier with eight burners was suspended near the entrance of the hall for exhibition by Mr. Lockwood. It would be a magnificent and useful ornament for a room with a finish to correspond.

            It is exceedingly gratifying to find that the gas company has at length surmounted all obstacles which have so retarded and seriously impeded its progress, and that it is now about to enter the full tide of successful enterprise.'"

            The Journal then gave a short history of the efforts of the company from the 8th of September, 1848, and added that by the middle of December, the gas works were erected and one mile of pipe laid down. It was in contemplation to lay two miles more of pipe during 1849, and applications for more than six hundred burners had then been received. "The striking beauty of the light, its utility, cleanliness, convenience, all give it claims to consideration which cannot be disregarded, and many who now, perhaps, have no intention of using it will be by force of circumstances and a strong conviction of its utility, persuaded to 'send in their orders."'

            After giving credit to Mr. F. G. Macy for his persevering efforts in presenting the gas question to the citizens of Dayton, the Journal said that Mr. John Lockwood, the assignee of Mr. Crutchett, was an intelligent, energetic, and practical man, and had carried the project forward to the position it then occupied, indicating its entire and complete success. It also urged upon the city authorities the necessity of lighting the streets of the city at the earliest time possible, and thus secure the full benefit of this new light which dawned so brightly upon the city on the night of February 6, 1849.

            (page 451) It was not long, however, before trouble began to be experienced with the solar gas. On the 13th of the month an explanation of the trouble, which was a fluctuation or unsteadiness of the light, was published by Mr. Lockwood. He said it was owing to the use of a temporary mixer. The large mixer which was intended for permanent use had been ordered and shipped from Philadelphia forty days before. It was coming via New Orleans, and when it should arrive the gas would afford a regular and steady light. The large mixer arrived about March 25th. The apparatus for the manufacture of gas was then, therefore, complete, and it was confidently expected that the light would be perfectly satisfactory to all. It had recently been introduced into a number of houses and had become almost indispensable to those using it. The experience of the Journal had been so satisfactory with it that it said it would be regarded as a great infliction to return to candle light.

            Lighting of the streets came slowly. The council then had no authority to levy a special tax to meet the additional expense which would be thus incurred. They agreed, however, to erect posts wherever they could be placed in accordance with a regular plan for lighting the streets provided individuals would pay for the gas. J. D. Phillips accepted this proposition, and had the gas burning at the corner of Main and Second streets. James Perrine also kept a lamp burning at the corner of Jefferson and Second streets. The Dayton Bank, however, had been the pioneer in this street-lighting improvement, having had a lamp burning in front of their building for several months when this arrangement was proposed to the citizens by the council. Several months' experience with the manufacture and use of this solar gas proved that it was quite expensive to make. The company found themselves constantly losing money, and in August they issued a circular setting forth the reasons why it was necessary for them to raise the price of gas. They said that from the very low prices at which the gas had been furnished to the consumers, the income had not yet paid for the one article of grease, of which the gas was made, to say nothing about the cost of coal and labor. There were also other reasons, but this was the main one. The company, therefore, fixed a schedule of prices for gas, as follows, to take effect on the 1st of September: So long as the amount of gas consumed in the city was less than what would be consumed by four hundred constant burners, the price would be ten dollars per one thousand feet; when it equaled the consumption of four hundred constant burners, it would be reduced to nine dollars per one thousand feet, and when equal to five hundred constant burners, it would be still further reduced to eight dollars per one thousand feet.

            (page 452) The board said that although the price as fixed in the above schedule might seem high, yet when it was considered that the light from one foot of this solar gas was nearly equal to that from three feet of coal gas, it would be seen that the price was only about equal to what was then being paid in Cincinnati for the same amount of light. This statement was made to the public August 29th, G. W. Rogers being secretary of the company at that time.

            Three months' experience with this schedule proved that the manufacture of gas from grease or oil could not be made to pay, for, even with the high prices then being charged, the income scarcely covered expenses. On the 20th of the month the company published a statement that it had become satisfied that the manufacture of gas from oil or grease could not be continued for any length of time, and that it had become necessary to turn their attention to the manufacture of gas from coal. This, however, involved the erection of new works, the cost of which was estimated at eleven thousand dollars. It was decided to erect the coal gas works on the same lot upon. which the old buildings stood, but fronting on Water Street. On the 22d of December a resolution was made by the company to issue sufficient stock to raise funds with which to erect the new buildings for the manufacture of gas from coal. Stock to the amount of eleven thousand dollars was accordingly issued, which, together with several thousands more raised on the credit of the individual stock-holders, enabled the company to build the gas works. These works from the first were a great success, and the capital stock of the company was steadily increased until, in 1863, it was one hundred thousand dollars. The amount of gas sold at that time was eight million feet per annum, and they had about eight hundred meters in operation, and were supplying gas, in addition to that used by private consumers, to two hundred and ninety street lamps for the city.

            At an election, held August 7, 1848, I. F. Howells was elected director and president; David Stout and D. Wheelock were elected directors, and M. B. Walker was elected secretary, all officers pro tem. A stockholders' meeting was held August 25th, at which a permanent organization was effected. Daniel Beckel was elected president; I. F. Howells, secretary pro tem., and David Stout, C. G. Swain, and John Lockwood, directors. Daniel Beckel resigned as president May 8, 1849, and was succeeded by F. Gebhart. May 23, 1849, C. G. Swain was elected president. On June 7, 1849, John Lockwood was succeeded as director by Z. Crawford. C. G. Swain was succeeded as director August 7, 1849, by S. B. Brown, and at the same time S. B. Brown was elected president, (page 453) and David Stout was elected treasurer. On the 7th of August the entire board of directors resigned their offices, and on the 28th a new board was elected, consisting of C. G. Swain, S. B. Brown, David Stout, H. Pease, and W. F. Comly. S. B. Brown was chosen president, and G. W. Rogers, secretary. November 19th James M. Kerr became secretary and was succeeded March 14, 1851, by 11. Strickler. Robert Means became director September 10, 1850, and William Dickey, September 25, 1850. John Garner became secretary September 1, 1851, and T. A. Phillips, director, August 1, 1853.

            During all the first few years, after converting the works into the coal gas works, the company had a great deal of trouble with its debt, which, in 1853, amounted to from forty-eight thousand to ffty thousand dollars. Upon this large amount ten per cent interest was paid, and the debt was secured by mortgages upon the homesteads of two of the largest stockholders. This indebtedness ran along until the first years of the war, and was finally extinguished in 1862.

            A stockholders' meeting was held August 6, 1855, at which a new board of directors was elected. This board was organized on the 17th of the same month by the election of R. R. Dickey, president, and S. T. Evans, secretary. Mr. Evans remained secretary until 1877, when he was succeeded by George M. Smart, who has retained the office ever since. Mr. Dickey remained president of the company until 1858, though from March, 1856, until August 2, 1858, his brother, William Dickey, served as president pro tem. At this latter date, Mr. Dickey, on account of continued ill health, resigned the presidency, and William Dickey was elected to the vacancy, serving until May 10, 1876, when he resigned, and S. A. Dickey was elected to the position. He served until 1880, when R. R. Dickey was again elected president, and has served ever since. In 1880, the office of vice-president was created, and H. C. Graves was elected to the position. Joseph Light has been superintendent of the company ever since 1855.

            In the price of gas, as in the prices of almost everything manufactured, there have been several changes and a steady decline. In 1865, the price was $4.50 per thousand cubic feet, while at this time the price is $1.15 per thousand. The reasons for such' a large reduction in the price are that more gas is now obtained from a toil of coal, the company now utilizes a good deal of what was formerly wasted, and there is a largely increased consumption. The water used in washing the gas is now used in the manufacture of sulphate of ammonia. In 1885, the company erected ammonia works, near the gas works, which are run continuously under the process known as Dr. L. S. Fales' Process.  (page 454) The product of these works are aqua ammonia and fertilizers, from three to five car loads per year.

            The Dayton Electric Light Company was originally organized as the Brush Electric Light Company, but failing to make a contract with the Brush Electric Company, a re-oganization was effected, and the name changed to the Dayton Electric Light Company. The first meeting of the board of directors of this company was held in March, 1883. There were present the following directors: Valentine Winters, J. E. Lowes, Thomas S. Babbitt, R. D. Hughes, H. C. Kiefaber, Ezra Bimm, and William A. Barnett. On the 25th of. April, the following officers were elected: J. E. Lowes, president; Thomas S. Babbitt, vice-president; William A. Barnett, secretary, and Valentine Winters, treasurer. The company selected a location for their plant on the Dayton View Hydraulic, and secured a perpetual lease of water-power from the Dayton View Hydraulic Company. Here they erected an electric light plant of 224 are lights of the Fuller-Wood System. Power is furnished the plant by four seventy-five horse-power Victor Turbine water wheels, and one one hundred and fifty horse-power-Buckeye steam engine. The electricity is developed by. two fifty-five light dynamos, one forty-five light dynamo and three twenty three light dynamos. The city was lighted the first time by the electric light on the night of February 16, 1883.

            Fifty lights had been put up for trial which ran for thirty days, and gave such satisfaction that they were accepted, and orders were given by the city for one hundred and fifty lights, including the fifty that had been on trial. These one hundred and fifty lights were all in operation before the close of the year, 1883,. and this is about the average number in use by the city at the present time. Private citizens have added since then about fifty of these are lights, so that now there are about two hundred in use in the city.

            On May 26, 1887, the company finished an Edison electric light plant of two thousand sixteen candle-power lights, and in July, 1888, the capacity of this system was increased by the addition of an engine and dynamo capable of supplying one thousand more incandescent lights. The Edison station is located at Numbers 124 and 126 East Fourth Street, the front being used for offices and the rear for the plant. Here there are four one hundred horse-power boilers, two one hundred and fifty horse-power high speed Taylor engines, and one one hundred and fifty horse-power high speed Buckeye engine. There are six Number 20 Edison dynamos, capable of running five hundred sixteen candle-power lamps each. The average price of the Edison light is about one cent per hour for a sixteen candle-power light. For the are light a lamp burning from dusk to (page 455) 9:30 P. M., is twenty-five cents per night. If the lamp burns up to midnight the cost is $12.50 per month. If it burns all night, $15 per month. The cost to the city for its arc lights is one hundred and fifty dollars per year for each light. The officers of the Dayton Electric Light Company at the present time are: Joseph E. Lowes, president; Thomas S. Babbitt, vice-president; Valentine Winters, treasurer, and John R. Fletcher, secretary and manager.

            At a meeting of the board of directors, held March 12, 1889, the meter system was adopted as the basis for charges to the consumers of the electric light. The company intend to charge for the same amount of light, the same as is charged for gas light. The company has also introduced the electric motor system, which is being used by a few of the' citizens of Dayton. The power is furnished in any quantity from one-eighth horse-power to five horse-power at about seventy-five dollars per horse-power per annum.

            The latest form of heat with which the citizens of Dayton have been favored is that derived from natural gas. The story of the bringing of this form of gas to this city is briefly as follows: Judge Dennis Dwyer has a farm in Mercer County, which, upon careful study of the course of the gas and oil fields leading southwestward from Pennsylvania, he thought would fall within the limits of that field extending in this direction. The discovery of oil was, however, uppermost in the mind of Judge Dwyer during his study of the question. In order to determine what was best to do, he called together a few of his friends for consultation, these gentlemen being T. A. Legler, Michael Neal, George Ohmer, Francis J. McCormick, Michael J. Gibbons, Stephen J. Patterson, John McMaster, John A. Murphy, and James Ward. After consultation it was determined to put down a well on the judge's farm. This was in 1886, and was the first successful gas well west of Findlay. The prospectors were, however, disappointed, inasmuch as gas was discovered instead of oil, and what was still more remarkable, this gas was found in territory which had been marked "barren" by Professor Orton. Upon finding themselves successful in their search, the ten persons named above at once organized the Dayton & Southwestern Natural Gas and Oil Company, which name was subsequently shortened to the Dayton Natural Gas Company. The first officers of the company were T. A. Legler, president; Dennis Dwyer, vice-president; Francis J. McCormick, treasurer, and Michael Neal, secretary and general manager. The company proceeded on that basis until in the fall of 1888, when a re-organization was effected, and the following officers elected: Lion. Calvin S. Brice, president; T. A. Legler, vice-president; George H.  (page 456) Meiley, secretary; Orr, treasurer, and William P. Orr, of Piqua, manager, the other members of the company being General Samuel Thomas, of New York, Judge Dennis Dwyer, S. J. Patterson, and George R. Young. At the present time the company has a capital of two million dollars. It owns the lease of thirty thousand acres of land in Mercer County, and already has a number of valuable wells drilled, and intends to put down twenty-five wells this season, so as to be fully prepared to furnish gas as fuel by the early winter of 1889-1890 to all who may desire to substitute that kind of fuel for coal-the company proposing to furnish natural gas for fuel at seventy-five per cent of the cost of coal.

            At the present time (June 1, 1889) the company has a high-pressure, twelve-inch pipe leading from Dayton to Troy, and will soon have the pipe leading from Troy to the wells, which are about fifty miles from Dayton. With this pipe line, the company will be able to supply fifty million feet of gas to the city of Dayton per day, if so much should be needed.

            Early in the year 1889, the Dayton council revoked the charter of the Dayton Natural Gas Company, because that company did not complete its lines into the city in accordance with the terms upon which that charter was originally granted. For some time it looked to the citizens as if this action of the council would prevent the city from receiving the benefit of this cheaper fuel, and as a natural consequence several indignation meetings were held, at which the council was roundly denounced. At length, however, all difficulties in connection with this question were satisfactorily solved toward the latter part of March, by the adoption by the company of a certain schedule, providing that the gas should be supplied by measure, at ten cents per thousand cubic feet, and that a pressure of not less than four ounces should be maintained.

            The company thereupon commenced laying pipes in the streets of Dayton, and by the 19th of April turned on the gas, the first house in      which it was used being that of Thomas Brown on Monument Avenue, on the date just given. Work since that time has been pushed as rapidly as circumstances would permit, and it is confidently expected that, by the commencement of the coming winter, there will have been laid in the city at least seventy miles of pipes.

            It is in contemplation to have the Dayton Natural Gas Company purchase the interest of the Mercer Natural Gas Company, and thereby control the entire natural gas territory of Northwestern Ohio, making Dayton the central point for the business of the company.

            (page 457) The Publishing House of the United Brethren in Christ may be said to have had its origin in an effort of Rev. Aaron Farmer to establish a religious journal for the benefit of this Church, in 1829. Under the auspices of the Miami Annual Conference, within whose territory Dayton is situated, Mr. Farmer began the publication of a paper called Zion's Advocate, at Salem, Indiana, in the year mentioned. For want of patronage, it was soon discontinued. Its appearance, however, awakened the Church to the importance of such an enterprise.

            The General Conference, therefore, which was held in Pickaway County, Ohio, May 14, 1833, adopted a resolution that subscriptions be            circulated in each of the Annual Conference districts,-one to raise a fund, and another to secure subscribers, and adopted an order that a printing establishment be erected in Circleville, Ohio, for the purpose of circulating a religious paper, and doing other necessary printing. The name selected for the paper was the Religious Telescope, and it was to be published semi-monthly, on a large imperial sheet, with good type, at the price of one dollar and fifty cents per year if paid in advance, or two dollars within the year, exclusive of postage. The trustees appointed were Rev. John Russel, John Dresbach, and George Dresbach. These gentlemen soon began to solicit subscriptions for funds, and on April 12, 1834, they purchased, at public sale in Circleville, Ohio, a printing-press, type, and fixtures, for four hundred and fifty dollars. In May, they bought a lot and two houses for five hundred and fifty dollars. Early in the same year, William R. Rhinehart, of the Virginia Conference, had begun the publication, at Hagerstown, Maryland, of a paper called the Mountain Messenger. The trustees, anxious to gather into one body all the power of the Church, purchased the Messenger and all of its material for three hundred and twenty-fve dollars, and employed Mr. Rhinehart to edit the new paper.

            The first number of the Religious Telescope appeared December 31, 1834, at Circleville, Ohio. It had a subscription list of twelve hundred, and a debt of sixteen hundred dollars. But little of the subscription money was ever paid to the Telescope. The paper was continued as a semi-monthly until July 30, 1845, when it was changed to a weekly, and it has remained a weekly paper ever since. The full history of the Telescope may be found under the head of "The Press."

            The Publishing House remained at Circleville until 1853. A detailed account of its operations need scarcely be given in this connection, as it was engaged principally in the publication of the Telescope. Financially, it struggled under a heavy debt from its founding until 1845, by which time, under the management of Rev. William Hanby, this was (page 458) greatly reduced, and by 1849 entirely canceled, leaving net assets, above all liabilities, of $6,928.36. In 1853, at the end of the first twenty years, and just before the removal from Circleville, the actual value of the assets was $9,514.36; the liabilities were $3,759.90; net assets, $5,754.46. The growth of the establishment was steady, but slow, up to the time of removal to Dayton, and it was also slow for some years afterward, as the subsequent history will show.

            The General Conference of 1853 directed that the Publishing House be removed from Circleville to the city of Dayton. The trustees accordingly purchased a lot on the corner of Main and Fourth streets, at a cost of eleven thousand dollars. The lot measured 59' feet on Main Street, and 152 on Fourth, and was occupied by a large two-story brick residence, which for some time was used as the Publishing House building. Upon the corner of this lot, the trustees- erected, in 1854, a large and substantial brick building, admirably adapted to the publishing interests of the Church. The building, as first erected, was four stories high, and ninety feet deep by forty feet wide, with a basement under the whole. The entire cost of this building, including the steam-engine, gas, and water pipes, and the necessary apparatus for warming the rooms by steam, was about fifteen thousand dollars. It was found imperative, in order to carry on the publishing business on an advanced scale, to purchase new machinery for all parts of the business, which involved a large expense. Although it was necessary to borrow money to complete the erection and equipment of the building, yet the credit of the establishment was maintained, and during the succeeding four years some addition was made to its net capital.

            At the time of the removal of the establishment to Dayton, a stereotype foundry was erected, and the necessary apparatus for the foundry was purchased at a cost of $280. A book-store was opened in the corner room of the first floor of the building, which from the first was well stocked with a fne selection of miscellaneous books, besides a constant and full supply of the publications of the House. The average number of persons employed during the year 1856-57 was thirty-three, whose wages amounted to $816 per month. Rev. S. Vonneida was the publishing agent at the time of removal, continuing in office from 1853 to 1861. Rev. H. Kumler, Jr., served as assistant agent for a few months in 1854. At his resignation, T. N. Sowers, Esq., became assistant, continuing in that position until 1861. The trustees in 1853 were Rev. C. W. Witt, Rev. L. Davis, Rev. J. C. Bright, Rev. L. S. Chittenden, and Rev. H. Kumler, Jr. The total receipts from the business of the House for the four years ending April 30, 1857, were as follows: For 1853-54, $18,638.72; for (page 459) 1854-55, $20,336.06; for 1855-56, $26,076.52, and for the year ending April 30, 1857, $33,504.58; total for the four years, $98,555.88. For the same four years the expenditures were: For 1853-54, $17,769.88; for 1854-55, $35,965.90; for 1855-56, $31,143.91, and for the year ending April 30, 1857, $43,964.68; total for the four years, $128,844.37. Excess of expenditures over receipts, $30,288.49, resulting chiefly from the investment in. ground, building, and machinery at the time of removal, and from the credit system. Gross assets, April 30, 1857, $84,552.39; liabilities, $53,115.71; net assets, $31,436.68.

            The receipts from the business for the next succeeding four years were $114,314.69. The expenditures for the same period were $113,244.54. Gross assets, April 30, 1861, $86,479.42; liabilities, $48,836.98; net assets, $37,642.44. Of the above gross assets, $25,445.16 are reported doubtful or worthless, thus reducing the actual net assets to $12,197.28. During the quadrennium from 1857 to 1861, the trustees sold 30 feet front by 591 feet in depth from the east end of the property, on Fourth Street, for two thousand dollars, and 1912 feet front by 90 feet in depth from the north side of the Main Street front for three thousand dollars. As a measure of economy, also, the book-store was removed to the second floor. In May, 1861, the General Conference elected T. N. Sowers, Esq., senior agent, and J. D. King, Esq., became his assistant. In June, 1864, J. B. King having resigned, Rev. W. J. Shuey was appointed his successor by the trustees.

            The receipts from business for the four years ending April 30, 1865, were $136,486.73. The expenditures for the same period were $134,007.68. Gross assets, March 31, 1865, $63,822.29; liabilities, $52,215.46; net assets, $11,406.83.

            In June, 1861, the indebtedness of the establishment aggregated $48,836.98. This was at the commencement of the war. On account of the disturbed condition of the country, commerce and industrial pursuits were seriously affected. The trade in religious books and newspapers appeared to suffer first and most, and the prospects of this establishment were not very flattering. At this time, the salaries of agents and editors were fixed at five hundred dollars per annum, and the price of the Religious Telescope was reduced to one dollar per year.

 

            In June, 1864, a new Hoe large-sized cylinder printing-press was purchased at a cost of three thousand dollars, and on account of higher prices in the necessaries of life, the salaries of the agents and editors were advanced to fifteen dollars per week.

            The heavy debt resting upon the establishment was the chief obstacle to continued prosperity, and its liquidation had become an imperative (page 460) necessity.  In the twelve years from 1853 to 1865, more than thirty dollars had been paid in interest on borrowed capital, while over twenty-five thousand dollars had been lost in worthless arrearages, etc., under the credit system. While the House was sufficiently well equipped with real estate, machinery, and stock, if pressed by creditors and forced to public sale, but little, if anything, would have remained. At this crisis,-for such it may be called,-the newly appointed assistant agent, Rev. W. J. Shuey, having been elected by the trustees in June, 1864, made a careful, rigid, and thorough examination of the condition and resources of the business, including the causes and possible remedies of the enormous debt. As a result of this investigation, it became clear to the assistant agent that the most speedy and certain remedy was to ask the Church for donations to the capital of the House. This plan he proposed to the trustees, with the suggestion that the General Conference apportion the fund among the Annual Conferences. The plan was approved by the trustees, and by them recommended to the General Conference of 1865. It was adopted by the General Conference, and the apportionment was made by a committee of that body appointed for the purpose. The result was eminently satisfactory. Mr. Shuey was elected by the General Conference principal agent, and assumed the management. With the fund thus obtained, amounting to over eighteen thousand dollars, the debt was greatly reduced during the next four years, so that in 1869 the agent reports as follows: " The reduction of the debt by nearly twenty thousand dollars, and the permanent funding of a large portion of that which remains, have very much lessened the burden of the agent. These, and the prosperity of the past few years, render the concern really strong, and put it upon the highway of further prosperity and ever-increasing usefulness."

            By judicious management the prosperity of the House continued, the debt gradually ceased to be a cause of anxiety, and by 1880 the last dollar of it was paid.

            It should be remarked, that within the last ten years the House has returned to the Church, in donations to benevolent funds and other interests, considerably more than was thus received as partial relief of the debt.

            As stated above, in 1865 Rev. W. J. Shuey was elected by the General Conference to the position of senior agent. At the same time, T. N. Sowers, Esq., was elected assistant. Mr. Sowers resigned soon after his election, and was succeeded by Rev. W. McKee, who served until 1866, when by his resignation Mr. Shuey was left without an assistant. He has continued in the management, as the sole agent, ever since, and to (page 461) him, more than to any other, is due the renewed life and permanent prosperity of the House.

            A brief summary of the finances since 1865 will show the steady, and sometimes rapid advance in its progress.

            The available assets on April 1, 1869, were $94,584.61, while the total liabilities were but $32,801.75, placing the net assets, over and above all indebtedness, at $61,782.86, an increase of $50,176.03. In calculating the profits, however, there must be deducted from this sum $15,000 increase in the valuation of the real estate, and also $18,364.29 received from the publication fund, leaving as clear profit during the four years, $16,811.74. The receipts from the business for the four years were $234,386.38; from the publication fund, $18,364.29; total, $252,751.17. Expenditures, $230,761.62. Reduction in debt, $19,413.71.

            In 1867, the book-store, together with the general office, was removed from the second floor to the corner room on the first floor, and a special effort begun to attract local trade.

            In 1869, the increase of business required the erection of an additional building. The lot in the rear of the main building, measuring 32 feet front on Fourth Street, with a depth of 591 feet, was occupied by cheap frames belonging to the House. Upon this lot a three-story brick power building was erected for the accommodation of the press and job printing departments. Previous to this date, the presses had occupied the basement of the main building. The new building added largely to the facilities of the House.

            The first articles of incorporation were obtained in 1839, for a period of thirty years. The term of incorporation having expired in 1869, with out the knowledge of the trustees and agent, the business was decided to be legally vested in the agent. By a special act of the legislature, the House was re-incorporated in 1871, and Mr. Shuey transferred the property to the trustees for the sum of one dollar.

            When the agent made his report, April 1, 1873, the financial condition of the concern was as follows: Total value of assets, $124,308.98; total liabilities, $27,783.68, making the net assets $96,525.30, an increase in four years of $34,742.44. The cash receipts for the four years ending April 1, 1873, were $322,370.54. The expenditures for the same time were $318,628.89. The debt had been further reduced $5,018.07.

            The stereotype foundry which had been established in 1853 having been discontinued for some years, a new foundry was opened in 1873, on the third floor of the new building.

            April 1, 1877, the gross assets were $130,128.89; the liabilities had been reduced to $15,600.67, leaving the net assets, $114,528.22. Reduction (page 462) in debt, $12,183.01. Profts for the four years, $18,002.92. At the same time, on account of the general decline in values in all branches of business, the invoice of fixed assets had been reduced by the amount of $10,345.15. Without this reduction, the actual profits were $28,348.07.

            The cash receipts for the four years ending April 1, 1877, were $378,545.36; expenditures, $377,343.77. By 1880, the entire remaining indebtedness, amounting to $15,600.67, had been finally liquidated.

            In 1878, the book-store was enlarged by adding the rear portion of the store on the north side of the first floor.

            On April 1, 1881, the net assets of the establishment were $162,726.17, an increase in four years of $48,197.86. In 1880, on account of increasing business', two large printing-presses, two folding-machines, a       new engine, and other machinery were purchased at a cost of twelve thousand dollars. The cash receipts for the four years ending April 1, 1881, were $390,376.02; expenditures, $385,685.89.

            The cash receipts for the four years ending April 1, 1885, were $507,157.98; expenditures, $502,516.38. During this quadrennium, ten thousand dollars of the profits of the House were distributed proportionately to the Annual Conferences as benevolent funds. April 1, 1885, the net assets were $212,887.09, an increase of $50,160.92; adding to which $10,850.00 donated to the Conferences and other interests, the net profits for four years ending April 1, 1885, were found to be $61,010.92.

            In the summer of 1881, the capacity of the book-store was enlarged to the full size of the ground floor of the main building, the furniture was almost entirely renewed, and neither effort nor expense was spared to make it attractive to customers. The result of this step was a continued increase in the retail trade of the establishment. In 1883, a fourth story was added to the rear building on Fourth Street, at a cost of three thousand dollars. An electrotype foundry was added, and more room was provided for the bindery and nailing department. In the same year, in order to increase the capacity in job printing, a lease was obtained of the three-story brick building on the east. In May, 1884, this property was purchased at a cost of $14,500. In April, 1885, a piece of ground running east of the other property of the establishment was purchased, which is 36x592 feet in size, and there was also secured a perpetual leasehold of a piece of ground 40x68 feet in size, lying immediately north of the east end of the property of the House. The total cost of this purchase and leasehold was twelve thousand dollars and the assumption of the obligations of the lease.

            Upon the lot bought in fee simple, upon the leasehold in the rear, (page 463) and over a twelve-foot private alley on the east, there was erected, in 1886, a four-story brick building, suitable for a power-plant and heavy machinery. At the same time, changes and improvements were made in the older house, making an outlay, including the cost of the new building, of $24,212.21. Two new boilers and a new fifty horse-power engine were put in, and all the steam power-plant removed to the rear of the new building. Three large new printing-presses were purchased, the press-room removed to the second floor of the new building, and the buildings were provided throughout with the best steam-heating apparatus and other conveniences and necessities for safety and service. The cost of these improvements was $19,526.10. Including the payment of twelve thousand dollars for the last ground purchased, and four thousand, five hundred dollars still. due on the building bought in 1884,            the aggregate expenditure for ground, buildings, machinery, etc., for the quadrennium ending in 1889, was $60,238.31.

            In 1887, the book-store was again enlarged by the addition of a portion of the room in its rear, vacated by the press department, and by the removal of the general office of the House to new and commodious quarters in a part of the same room, fronting on Fourth Street. The ground now occupied by the buildings measures 40 feet front on Main Street, and 200 feet front on Fourth Street, with a varying depth from Fourth Street northward of 40, 592, 80, and 100 feet. The combined area of the four floors is more than one acre. The present number of employees is about one hundred.

            According to the agent's quadrennial report for the year 1889, the cash receipts of the establishment for the quadrennium just closing were: From business, $587,458.76; from loans, $34,781.41; total, $622,240.17; expenses, $618,113.62; and the actual net profits of the four years were $50,903.70. The cash sales of books reached $242.972.73, an increase of $63,278.72 over the four years ending in 1885. The cash income from the sales of periodicals amounted to $219,613.69, which was an increase of $20,381.44 over the previous quadrennium.

            The gross value of the assets of the establishment is now $282,884.70. The total indebtedness is $21,297.30, thus leaving the net value of the assets $261,587.40, an increase of $48,700.31 in four years. On the 1st of April, 1865, when the present agent assumed the management of the House, the net assets were $11,406.57. At the present time they are, as stated above, $261,587.40, a net increase of $250,180.57, an average annual increase of $10,424.18, exclusive of dividends made to the Conferences, and other unremunerative outlays ordered by the General Conference.

            (page 464) The history thus far has been concerned chiefly with the financial and material progress of the House. Something should be added to show more fully the development of a few of its departments, and the nature and character of its work.

            At the beginning of the enterprise, in 1834, only one periodical was issued,-the Religious Telescope,-with but one editor. In 1889, ten periodicals are published, under the supervision of seven editors, and devoted to general religious, Sunday-school, and missionary interests. Eight of these are English, and two German. Seven are prepared for the Sunday-school, an interest which has itself grown into prominence since the founding of the House. The periodicals now published, with the dates. of first issue, are: the Religious Telescope, weekly, 1834; Froehliche Botschafter, weekly, 1840; Children's Friend, semi-monthly, 1854; Missionary Visitor, semi-monthly, 1865; Jugend Pilger, semi-ninthly, 1870; Our Bible Teacher, monthly, 1873; Lessons for the Little Ones, weekly, 1876; Our Bible-Lesson Quarterly, 1878; Woman's Evangel, monthly, 1881; Our Intermediate Bible-Lesson Quarterly, 1882. Total average combined circulation for the year 1888-89, 288,744. Several other periodicals have been published for a time, and then discontinued, or merged into the above. Among them were the Unity Magazine, a monthly, published from 1854 to 1859, and , Lesson Leaves, issued from 1873 to 1878, when it was succeeded by the Quarterly. A new periodical, a Church quarterly, was authorized by the General Conference of 1889, and the first number will be issued in January, 1890. For other information concerning these periodicals, see “The Press."

            The book department, opened upon a small scale in Circleville a few years after the founding of the Telescope, at first confined its work to the sale of the few publications issued by the House, and a limited number of books of special value to ministers in preparation for their work. The enlargement of its work was not rapid, but steady. Though receiving more or less attention from the agent and his assistants, it was not given special prominence until its removal for the second time into the corner room of the first floor, in 1867, when Mr. Shuey selected Rev. W. IT. Lanthurn, who had been engaged in the book trade in Richmond, Indiana, to become the head of the department. To his literary talents and admirable judgment of books, is largely attributable the building up of the local, as well as a large part of the general, reputation and trade of this department. Since 1867, it has expanded into a store well stocked in all departments of literature, domestic and foreign, together with all supplies of a first-class book-store. Mr. Lanthurn died in 1884, and was succeeded in 1885 by E. L. Shuey, A. M., who has continued to improve (page 465) the department, until it is regarded as one of the foremost book-stores of the country. When the House was removed to Dayton, in 1853, the book-store was invoiced at $2,190.50; in 1889, it has reached $71,864.54. A subscription-book sub-department was opened in 1884. The printing department, opened in 1834, with a few stands of type and an old-fashioned hand press, valued at a few hundred dollars, has expanded into a first-class plant, valued at $35,245.49. In 1850, the first power press-an Adams-was purchased at a cost of $1,549.77. It was at first operated by hand. Now there are in operation, in a press-room admirably adapted to its purpose, eleven steam presses. At first, the work done was creditable, but in the course of years this department has kept abreast of the times, and is now noted for the excellence of its work. Job work has been done from the beginning, in addition to the regular work of the House.

            Of the other departments, it is sufficient to say that they have been expanded from time to time, as the demands of the business required.

            The establishment includes all the departments needed to perform the work of a large publishing house, publisher's department, wholesale and retail book-rooms, composing, job printing, power, press, and mailing rooms, bindery, electrotype and stereotype foundry, and editorial departments. 44 The establishment is controlled by a board of nine trustees, elected every four years by the General Conference. In immediate charge of the House is the publishing agent, chosen also by the General Conference. The board meets annually, and fixes the salaries of the general officers, controls the property, and plans for the extension of the work. In the interim, an executive committee of five advises the agent when necessary. The agent has direct management of all the business of the House, appoints and pays all subordinates, plans and executes all its commercial enterprises, and is responsible for all its work."* Besides these business officers, are the editor of the Religious Telescope and his associate, the editor of the Sunday-school literature, the editor of the Church quarterly (who is also assistant Sunday-school editor), the editor of the German papers, the editor of the Missionary Visitor (the secretary of the Missionary Society), and the editor of the Woman's Evangel and her assistant, who direct the various periodicals with which they are connected.

            “The Discipline provides that the profits of the establishment, beyond, what is necessary as a reserve, shall be distributed among the Conferences, according to the. number of itinerants, for the benefit of worn-out preachers and their families."*

            *Hand-Book of the United Brethren in Christ, by E. L. Shuey, A. M.

            (page 466) The House also furnishes rooms, free of rent, with light and heat, to the Missionary Societies and Historical Society of the Church, pays the expenses of all General Conferences, makes donations for various benevolent purposes, and aims to furnish its products at the lowest reasonable rates.

            Among the trustees of the House have been the following citizens of Dayton: Rev. L. Davis, D. D., Rev. Henry Kuniler, Jr., John Dodds, James Applegate, Rev. John Kemp, Rev. D. K. Flickinger, D. D., D. L. Rike, T. N. Sowers, Rev. D. R. Miller, Rev. G. Fritz, Rev. William McKee, and Judge J. A. Shauck.

            The present board of trustees, elected in May, 1889, are the following: D. W. Crider, Pennsylvania; Rev. C. I. B. Brane, Maryland; Rev. J. S. Mills, Iowa; B. IF. Witt, Indiana; Rev. S. Mills, Illinois; Rev. George Miller, Iowa; Rev. G. F. Deal, Nebraska; D. L. Rike and Judge J. A. Shauck, Ohio.

            The present executive committee are D. L. Rike, Judge J. A. Shauck, Rev. L. Bookwalter, A. M., and S. L. Herr, of Dayton, Ohio, and B. F. Witt, of Indianapolis, Indiana.

            For some time the financial interests of the Publishing House were in the hands of the editor-of the Religious Telescope in connection with the trustees. Afterward they were conducted by the Rev. William Hanby. The General Conference which met at Circleville, Ohio, May 12, 1845, elected Rev. J. Markwood as publishing agent, but he soon resigned and was succeeded by Rev. Nehemiah Altman. Mr. Altman was reelected in 1849, and in 1852 Rev. William Hanby was appointed by the Scioto Conference. In May, 1853, the Rev. Solomon Vonneida was elected, and served alone until March, 1854, when Rev. Henry Kumler, Jr., was associated with him. This association continued until December, 1854. In 1855, T. N. Sowers was elected assistant agent. In May, 1861, T. N. Sowers and J. B. King were elected publishing agents. In June, 1864, Rev. W. J. Shuey became associated with Mr. Sowers in place of Mr. King. In May, 1865, Rev. W. J. Shuey and T. N. Sowers were elected agents, and during the same year, upon the resignation of Mr. Sowers, Rev. William McKee was chosen to his place by the trustees. Since 1866, Mr. McKee having resigned, Rev. W. J. Shuey has been the agent, without assistants.

            Of the agents above named, T. N. Sowers and J. B. King were citizens of Dayton at the time of their election. Rev. S. Vonneida, though coming to Dayton for the first time at the time of his election in 1853, remained a citizen after his retirement from the management, continuing his connection with the House, first as editor and then as chief book-beeper, until (page 467) his death in 1880. Rev. W. J. Shuey is a native of Montgomery County, and a former presiding elder in the Miami Annual Conference. He had been a citizen of Dayton before his election to the management of the House, and has been actively identified with the interests of the city since 1864.

            The following persons have been editors of the Religious Telescope: Rev. William R. Rhinehart, 1834 to 1839; Rev. William Hanby, 1849 to 1852; assistant, Rev. John Lawrence, 1850 to 1864; Rev. M. Wright, 1869 to 1873; assistant Rev. D. Berger, 1869 to 1873; Rev. M. Wright and Rev. W. O. Tobey, A. M., 1873 to 1877; Rev. J. W. Hott, D.D., 1877 to 1889; assistant Rev. W. O. Tobey, A. M., 1877 to 1881; assistant, Rev. M. R. Drury, A. M., 1881 to 1889; associate, Rev. M. R. Drury, A. M., elected, 1889. 

            The editors of the Sabbath-school periodicals have been the following: Rev. D. Edwards, 1854 to 1857; Rev. Alexander Owen, 1857 to 1858; Rev. S. Vonneida, 1858 to 1869; Rev. D. Berger, D. D., 1869 to the present; assistant, Rev. J. W. Etter, D. D., elected, 1889. The editors of the Unity Magazine were: Rev. David Edwards, 1854 to 1857; Rev. Alexander Owen, 1857 to 1859.

            Editor of the Church quarterly: Rev. J. W. Etter, D. D., elected, 1889.

            The German papers have had the following editors: Rev. John Russel (unoficial), 1840 to 1841; Rev. Jacob Erb, 1841 to 1842; Rev. N. Altman, 1846 to 1847; Rev. D. Strickler, 1847 to 1851; Rev. Henry Staub, 1851 to 1855; Rev: Julius Degmeier, 1855 to 1858; Rev. S. Vonueida, 1858 to 1866; Rev. Ezekiel Light, 1866 to 1869; Rev. William Mittendorf, 1869 to 1885; Rev. Ezekiel Light, 1885 to 1889; Rev. William Mittendorf, elected, 1889.

            Editors of the Woman's Evangel : Mrs. L. R. Keister, M. A., 1881 to the present; assistant, Mrs. L. K. Miller, M. A., 1888 to the present.

            Music editors: Rev. W. II. Lanthurn, 1873 to 1874; Rev. Isaiah Baltzell, 1874 to the present; Rev. E. S. Lorenz, A. M., B. D., 1876 to the present.

            Book editors: Rev. D. Berger, D. D., 1873 to 1877; W. A. Shuey, A. M.,1881 to 1888; Rev. M. R. Drury, A. M., 1888 to 1889.

            As to the character of the publications of the House their general   reputation is such as to render a lengthy notice unnecessary. Almost without exception, the books published have discussed important themes in an able manner, and have secured the commendation of the pulpit and the press. Within the last few years the literary reputation of the House (page 468) has advanced to a high standard, and its products have commanded the favorable notice of the most critical journals of the country. Over two hundred books, of various sizes, have been issued since the foundation of the establishment. The principal departments of literature represented are church and Sunday-school music, Sunday-school library books, and historical, doctrinal, and practical theology. The Sunday-school periodicals are used by large numbers outside of the denomination. The management of the House has had the uniform good-will of the community in which it is located, and the liberal patronage of the citizens of Dayton and the surrounding territory has contributed largely to its success; indeed, the growth of this establishment has been, for many years, a matter of local pride.

            It is altogether probable that a more complete, well appointed, and carefully kept institution of its size does not exist in this country, and its reputation for superior workmanship and fair dealing was never higher than at the present time.

            The Christian Publishing Association was established in 1843, as the Ohio Christian Book Association. The first meeting of the members of this Association was held at Ebenezer Chapel, Clarke County, Ohio, April 24, 1843, at which there were present the following persons: Elders Jacob G. Reeder, Derastus F. Radby, Arthur W. Sanford, Robert McCoy, and Elijah Williamson. These individuals constituted the executive committee of the Association. The committee organized by the choice of the following officers: Elder J. G. Reeder, president, and Elder Elijah Williamson, secretary. The second session of the committee was held at New Carlisle, Ohio, October 23, 1843, at which time a constitution was adopted. The executive committee managed the business of the Association until the appointment of a publishing agent, which was done at this time in the person of Elder I. N. Walter. The executive committee in 1852 was as follows: Jacob G. Reeder, Elias Smith, John R. Miller, J. N. Walker, and A. W. Sanford. The name of the Association was changed at the convention of 1852, from the Ohio Christian Book Association to the Western Christian Book Association. In January, 1854, the executive committee met at Springfield, Ohio, and elected officers as follows: Jacob G. Reeder, president; A. W. Sanford, secretary, and John R. Miller, treasurer. The incorporation of the Association was authorized at the same time. On September 14, 1863, the executive committee met at Eaton, Preble County, Ohio, and on December 14, 1864, at Ogden, Indiana. William Worley was made chairman of the committee, and J. T. Lynn, secretary. The first meeting of the committee at Dayton, Ohio, was held at the house of Elder P. McCullough, January 17, 1865. The name was changed to the (page 469) publishing Association, and the Association was re-incorporated on November 28, 1866. For several years after removing to Dayton, the business of the Association was carried on in the United Brethren Publishing House, on the corner of Main and Fourth streets. On May 21, 1868, it was resolved that the trustees of the Christian Publishing Association accept the property bought of J. L. Falkuer, on the southeast corner of Main and Sixth streets, at $11,500; purchased previously for the Association by William Worley, P. McCullough, and W. A. Gross. William Worley was employed to collect the rent and manage the property. The question arising as to whether the Association should occupy its own property thus purchased, the executive committee, on December 9, 1868, resolved to stay another year in the Telescope building, on the corner of Fourth and Main streets. On the 15th of September, 1869, the executive committee on buildings and grounds was instructed to mature plans for building, or for renting a building, for future operations. Afterward, the south portion of the ground, together with a house upon it, was sold, and the money applied on the debts owing by the Association. On June 21, 1870, the trustees of the Association met at Marion, Indiana. The president was Elias Smith; secretary, J. T. Lynn, and treasurer, William Worley. The other members of the board were Elders N. Summerbell, A. C. Hanger, A. R. Heath, W. A. Gross, C. T. Emmons, Thomas Holmes, D. Lepley, and Brothers George W. Webster and William Pence. Two days afterward, an executive board was chosen, as follows: N. Summerbell, J. T. Lynn, William Worley, W. A. Gross, and A. R. Heath. This executive board was authorized to close a contract with such builders as they might select to erect a publishing house in Dayton, and it was resolved that the main floors of the first story be at least two feet above the sidewalk, and that the basement have a wide entrance and good and sufficient windows.

            On December 6, 1870, it was resolved that the constitution be so construed that the president, secretary, and treasurer of the Christian Publishing Association be considered the president, secretary, and treasurer of the board of trustees, and the trustees assumed all the responsibilities of the executive committee incurred since the Dist meeting of the trustees. The present building of the Christian Publishing Association was erected in 1871 and 1872, and on the' 4tli of December, 1872, authority was given to paint in large letters the words, "Christian Publishing House," on the building. The board of trustees met for the first tine in their new publishing house on January 2, 1873. A resolution was adopted June 21, 1872, to the effect that a large and fne engraving of the new publishing house be made and circulated, with (page 470) certifcates of donation or stock, and the following four sentiments of the Christians:

1. The Bible, our only creed.

2.Christian, our only name.

3.Christian character, our only test of fellowship.

4. Liberty of private interpretation in faith, and obedience to God.

            One of these engravings was offered to each church or person that, should pay one hundred dollars into the treasury of the Association, either as a donation or as a subscription to its stock, and each minister was requested to work to raise one hundred dollars in his church at as early a day as possible.

            Rev. Frank Browning was chosen publishing agent January 1, 1870; Rev. A. L. McKinney, December 7, 1870; Rev. W. A. Gross, December, 1871, and December, 1872; Rev. William Worley, December, 1873, 1874, and 1875; Rev. N. Summerbell, December, 1876 and 1877; Rev. T. M. McWhinney, 1878, 1879, and 1880; Rev. C. W. Garroutte, December, 1881, 1882, and 1883; Rev. A. W. Coan, December, 1884, and Rev. Mills Harrod each year since that time.

            The periodicals published by this house are as follows: Herald of Gospel Liberty, weekly; Sunday-School Herald, semi-monthly; Glad Tidings, semi-monthly; the Little Teacher, weekly, for children, With Sunday school lessons; Bible Class Quarterly; Intermediate Quarterly. The Reformed Publishing Company was organized early in 1882, by the election of the Rev. Edward Herbruck and the Rev. M. Loucks as editors of the Christian World and the other publications of the company, and having associated with them John Blum as foreman of the printing establishment. The object of the firm was to buy printing-presses and material with which to print the Christian World and the Sunday-school papers, and to do such job printing as they might secure. The very best type that could be obtained was purchased both for the papers and the job department. A room was secured in the Brooks & Kemper building, which was already fitted up with shafting and pulleys ready to attach machinery. At first but three compositors were employed, sufficient to set the type on the Christian World, and more were employed as they were needed.

            In the summer of 1884, it became necessary to seek larger quarters, and to add new machinery, in order to keep up with the demands on the printing office. The rooms now occupied are at Number 131 South Jefferson Street. Here five rooms are in use, the floor surface being 5,400 square feet.

            The following periodicals are published by this company: The (page 471) Christian World, Leaves of Light, Golden Words, Little Pearls, Hidelberg Teacher, Scholars' Quarterly, and Lesson Papers.

            In the foregoing pages, it has not been attempted to notice every manufacturer in the city, or to present a detailed history of even those who are mentioned, since to succeed in such an attempt would have been impracticable. The number of manufacturing establishments is far too great for that. According to the report of the president of the board of trade for 1888, there were then more than seven hundred manufacturing establishments of all kinds, doing an annual business of over twenty million dollars. Reference to the preceding pages will show that in almost every case, each establishment, no matter to what proportions it may have grown, commenced in a small way, with few hands, or perhaps none except those of the proprietor, and-with but very limited capital. Many of these establishments have now grown to mammoth proportions, and in almost all cases, if not in every one, the manufactured products of Dayton firms are held in very high estimation wherever they may be found, whether in the United States, Europe, South America, or Australia, or any other part of the civilized world. Besides the large number of manufacturing establishments, and the high grade of goods made, the next most notable feature of this class of the industrial interests of the city, is the great variety of articles manufactured, the result of all being the bringing to Dayton of a large number of the best grade of manufacturers and artisans of all kinds. And it is also worthy of note that in most instances these manufacturers and artisans own the homes in which they live, the proportion of those thus owning homes being much greater than is usually the case in cities of the size of Dayton. This fact is due in part also, it may be proper to state, to the existence of so many and so well managed building associations, a history of which may be found in other pages of this volume.

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